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Hotel Industry & Tourism Challenges


The hotel industry is a combination involving service providers, quality service and customer relations. It aims to serve and satisfy both physiological and psychological needs of the customers. The hotel industry truly encompasses the social, economical and environmental factors in a holistic way and thus faces pressures from all directions. The competitiveness in the hotel sector is drastically shaped by the dynamic internal and external factors. Tourism and its economic impact is one of the major drivers of the hotel industry. World heritage cities and sites are a constant source of tourism-based revenue generation that propels the hotel business in numerous countries. Recently, the investors and hotel management have been increasingly worried about the negative impacts from social and environmental factors affecting the hotel business. There is a huge pressure to integrate the better technology-oriented services to the customers ranging from online booking to better living ambiances. Cost reduction, need to streamline the practices based on sustainable development are other challenges hotel management are dealing with (Borralha, Jesus, Pinto, & Viseu, 2016). The dynamic nature of the hotel business and changing customer preferences is making the hotel business tough and challenging. It is imperative that this easy will be looking for the said challenges and dynamic external factors which are at present leading the change management strategies in hotel industry. The essay will bring forth the challenges at a global level and propose recommendations in light of management theories and frameworks.       

Main body: challenges

Global factors shape the national and local business environment. Tourism, aviation, employment, foreign capital is some of the interrelated factors which get easily impacted by global adversaries. Disasters, pandemics such as COVID 19, war and political instability at the global level are some of the factors which negatively impact the business relying on global customers. Hotel industry is one such sector which is based on the customer’s demand. Customers can be divided into domestic types (those traveling within the native country) and foreign customers (tourist and business purpose travelers going from one country to another) are the primary factor of revenue in the hotel industry.    

Hotel Industry & Tourism Challenges

The hotel industry has certainly come a long way from challenges ranging from human resource shortage to new emerging markets needing expansion of the hotel industry (Chiang, Birtch, & Cai, 2013). Technology and its allied applications such as social media marketing and promotion offer new competitive edges and a dire need for hotel businesses to evolve. Apart from the technical aspect, the basic challenges faced by the hotel industry in the global sector are mainly the demand from the tourist and customers. Low turnout of the tourist in any city or country would mean that hotel business will face concerns of business revenue generation and thus, need to reduce the operating cost and shed the extra employees. A full cycle of dependant sectors such as employment, revenue, and taxation relies on the booming hotel sector, which can result in economic hardships for any city. An economic recession such as of 2008 can also impact the hotel industry is a great deal impacting the financial budget involving the fixed cost, operational expenses, and profit margins. Seasonal fluctuations are also secondary level shocks impacting the hotel industry but a season-related shortage of demand is an internal factor and depends largely on the local tourist and business diversity.

Two of the main challenges impacting the hotel industry in current times as well as going to be the key concern to devise any solution oriented management framework is elaborated below: 

 Environment and climate change

 Environment sustainability has now pitched as a global hallmark of consorting the business. Supply chain stakeholders, service providers, and customers are increasingly aware of the need to conduct business, provide services and prefer the services of only those organizations having a good reputation and creditable ratings in keeping the environmental concerns at the forefront of business management. Currently, environmental sustainability and climate change concerns have become the biggest global factor impacting all and every business. The ripple effect phenomenon of climate change impacts is going to matter in terms of local, national and international levels. The climate change is directly impacting the tourism sector which in turn is closely connected with the profitability and sustained operations of the hotel business (Tsalis & Nikolaou, 2017).  In order to understand the gravity of impact from climate change in the hotel sector, it is equally important to understand the relation of climate change factors and how the hotel business operates.

There are no immediate concerns from climate change which the hotel industry can fight off. Climate change and environmental sustainability is a long term business strategy that is going to be very important in the coming years (Hong, 2018). The current functions of the hotel industry do not pollution which is not controllable and containable. The frontline environmental concerns such as using the non-renewable energy sources for operations creating kitchen waste and wastewater is going to be effectively managed by the current waste management and energy solutions. Also, the important part of the hotel industry is the logistical and supply chain support. In order to address the concerns of environmental sustainability, all the logistical and supply chain stakeholders need to comply with the green business practices. The support system providing the food, paper, water, and other support also runs on energy and produces waste which again can be tackled by effective management strategies. The only problem is the nature of climate change and the preparedness of the hotel industry depending upon the cost and scale of the business (Anansiriprapha & Wu, 2016). Climate change factors are largely causing a rise in temperature, leading to a global rise in sea level. The nature of the global scale is such that the majority of the cities located on the coastal lines will be inundated if the climate change impacts won’t be checked. This has to be with all the business along with the hotel industry. But, the precursor to the global rise in temperature is also contributed by the release of greenhouses gases. The other major pollution caused by the hotel is related to the noise, smoke, chemical pollutants. But, the release of the CFC’s is likely to be the main contributor to the overall climate change implications.

The example of “Flight shaming” which is about the public shame in using the airlines to commute from one place to another because of the increased carbon emission by the airlines has already started showing its impact on major airlines operating between European cities (Aboulafia, 2019). The concept of flight shaming was propelled by young Swedish activists, Greta Thunberg promoting the people to shun the air travel. Major cuts on the airline customer flow will go to impact the travel flows and thus the impact will go on to impact the hotel industry as well (DiScala, 2019).      

Technological challenges for marketing and promotions

There is a major disruption in the hotel industry due to technology implications. Dynamic change in technology is forcing hotelier management to think and redraw the management and marketing strategies more often than any other challenge (Mathews, 2019). The customer demands the advanced technology and the hotel preference in technology matters has forced the hotel management to look into the change in the infrastructure of hotel interiors. The need for change in the hotel industry has made the hotel management frame technology agile, nimble and flexible strategies (Perini, 2011). The rise in social media use of the technology has challenged the hotel industry to work out the human resources hiring and implant the technology gadgets as a primary service demand of customers.     

The hotel management is facing problems in terms of ease of installations and software integrations. The website is the primary information face of the hotels of international and local reputes. The website of hotels holds great capabilities in terms of exciting features in the integration of the software. The property management system for large hotel establishments is primary a communication and integration tool that needs to get enhanced. Any delay in integrating the customer’s preferences and online tools such as hotels CRM, CRS, POS, social media, etc. small hotel business are unable to integrate their PRM with that of technology because of low operational cost (Gonzalez, Gasco, & Llopis, 2019).

Another issue of technology linked issues in the hotel industry is the lack of centralized solution providers. Offering guest-centric services to the customers does require a customized approach of technology which is currently a centralized human-controlled approach. With the use of technology a robust portfolio is required that can offer efficiencies, visibility and control of organizations (Guzzo, Abbott, & Madera, 2019). Marketing and promotion platforms based n the social media is also offering competition for new innovative hotel businesses. The worldwide approach of social media is making the business tough field and marketing options in terms of flexibility offered by competitors such as Airbnb is posing a threat to the hotel business. 


Climate change strategy requires the hotel management to plan for the effective building management system based on green practices. The management plans need to work on the effective building controls which are creating the temperature rise and can offer green living. The economic benefit of offering the environmental friendly stay in the hotels will be charged from the clients as a green tax (Xie, Zhang, Zhang, Singh, & Lee, 2016). The minimization of the waste materials, enhancing the use of recycled utensils and equipment, using the paperless office working patterns and using the online monitoring systems with sensor-based equipment; the reduction in energy usage will certainly garner more customer likability.   

Technology is a great source of marketing and business integration. The hotel business is a customer-oriented business where technology can impact very positively. Technology and sensor-based monitoring equipment will also help the building management system to work more energy-friendly and as per the needs of the customers (Viglia, Minazzi, & Buhalis, 2016). Social media sites are a great source to revamp management strategies as per customer feedback and likability. It is an excellent customer relations application where frequent travelers and guests can be offered a high-value service enhancing business loyalty and retaining the clients. Managing the roosters, working shifts of the teams working in a hotel can also be effectively created and shared and managed by integrating the technology into operation management. 

Strategy in Various Stages

The first strategy is to control the contribution of carbon emission and GHG’s. The strategy includes following stages:

  • Assessment: Current practices of business in hotel industry as well as any individual hotel premises needs to be put on assessment regarding the use and type of resources involved.
  • Identify: Once the assessment of energy intensive products and process is done, correct identification is to be made on the various level of danger and priority of changing or alternatives.
  • Alterative: Once, the identified process or gadget is noted, the alternative process and gadget is to be put to use replacing the original energy consuming process.

The second strategy will also follow various stages of software integration involving:

  • Identifying the current needs and customer base as well as an assessment of the current service is to be done along with the trend in customer preferences.
  • Social media platforms need to be created by creating a separate team of one or two person under a manager tasking to work on a social media marketing strategy.
  • Integrate the CRM and test it before operating.


The hotel industry is going through a drastic change. Technology innovation and disruption is a constant agent that seeks to impact the hotel business. Changing customer preferences and technological changes have been a constant cost investment for the hotel business. The small hotel business is dealing with the pressure of technological-based customer demands but also using the cost-effective website and online booking solutions to reutilize the operation cost. Climate change and environmental concerns are not an immediate threat that would usher the change in daily operations of the hotel industry, but it is a clarion call for the entire business line and allied activities to reassess the current business trends to a minute level of detailing and refocus to contribute to the fight against climate change and environmental challenges.  Technology is a challenge only for that hotel having low budget investment and reducing profit margins whereas the hotel chains focusing on the larger customer service and operational strengths can still use technology to its own benefit.  


Aboulafia, R. (2019). Flight Shaming Threatens To Take Air Travel Industry Down Tobacco Road. Retrieved April 17, 2020, from Forbes website: https://www.forbes.com/sites/richardaboulafia/2019/07/11/are-air-travelers-fated-to-join-smokers-as-social-pariahs/#497207aa325c

Anansiriprapha, P., & Wu, X. (2016). Economic Factors on the Tourism Industry in Thailand. SSRN Electronic Journal. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2858937

Borralha, S., Jesus, S. N. de, Pinto, P., & Viseu, J. (2016). Hotel employees: A systematic literature review. Tourism & Management Studies12(1), 120–126. https://doi.org/10.18089/tms.2016.12112

Chiang, F. F. T., Birtch, T. A., & Cai, Z. (2013). Front-line Service Employees’ Job Satisfaction in the Hospitality Industry. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly55(4), 398–407. https://doi.org/10.1177/1938965513514628

DiScala, J. (2019, October 11). The Flight Shaming Phenomenon Is Here: Business Travelers Should First Consider These 4 Factors Before Flying. Retrieved from Inc.com website: https://www.inc.com/john-discala/the-flight-shaming-phenomenon-is-here-business-travelers-should-first-consider-these-4-factors-before-flying.html

Gonzalez, R., Gasco, J., & Llopis, J. (2019). ICTs in hotel management: a research review. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management31(9), 3583–3609. https://doi.org/10.1108/ijchm-07-2017-0470  

Hong, J. (2018). Rise of the Sharing Economy and the Future of Travel and Tourism Industry. Journal of Business and Hotel Management07(02). https://doi.org/10.4172/2169-0286.1000180

Mathews, B. (2019). The Unique Technology Challenges Faced by Large Hotel Chains (Part 1 of 2 Part Series) | By Binu Mathews. Retrieved April 17, 2020, from Hospitality Net website: https://www.hospitalitynet.org/opinion/4095059.html

Perini, V. (2011). What are the three big technology issues for the hotel industry? Retrieved from www.phocuswire.com website: https://www.phocuswire.com/What-are-the-three-big-technology-issues-for-the-hotel-industry  

Tsalis, T. A., & Nikolaou, I. E. (2017). Assessing the Effects of Climate Change Regulations on the Business Community: A System Dynamic Approach. Business Strategy and the Environment26(6), 826–843. https://doi.org/10.1002/bse.1953

Xie, K. L., Zhang, Z., Zhang, Z., Singh, A., & Lee, S. K. (2016). Effects of managerial response on consumer eWOM and hotel performance. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management28(9), 2013–2034. https://doi.org/10.1108/ijchm-06-2015-0290

Viglia, G., Minazzi, R., & Buhalis, D. (2016). The influence of e-word-of-mouth on hotel occupancy rate. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management28(9), 2035–2051. https://doi.org/10.1108/ijchm-05-2015-0238

Hotel Industry & Tourism Challenges Assignment By Subject Academy

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Healthcare Report


The current report has focused on evaluating the impact of diabetes mellitus on the health condition of indigenous and non-indigenous people living in Australia. Diabetes mellitus defines the metabolic disease that leads to an increase in sugar level. Poor understanding of health has made indigenous people more vulnerable to diabetes in Australia. However, the sedentary lifestyle and possession of unhealthy possessed food have also increased the chances of diabetes among non-indigenous people living in the country. The current study aims at addressing the impact of diabetes on individual and community members of indigenous and non-indigenous people living in the country. Effectiveness of the health campaign done by the team members has also been mentioned in this context.

Significance of chosen health issue:

Geographical isolation has created a problem for aboriginal people to get fresh and healthy products that effect on their health condition. Possession of unhealthy food products has resulted in increased health issues like diabetes among these people. It is estimated that 39% of aboriginal people belonging to the age group of 55 years has diabetes due to their sedentary lifestyle in an isolated location(AIWS, 2015). Limited availability of advanced health treatment has created a problem to arrange an early diagnosis that creates an adverse impact on their health condition. On the other hand, an adaptation of westernised lifestyle has led 15% of young Aboriginal Islander people aged from 25-35 years to suffer from diabetes due to dietary changes in 2015. The rate of non-indigenous people diagnosed with diabetes mellitus is relatively less in comparison to the indigenous people. However, lack of physical activity has raised the issue of obesity among non-young population which results in raising health issue like diabetes. The genetic disorder is another factor that develops health issues like diabetes among non-indigenous people in Australia.  It is observed that 13.5% of non-indigenous people have been diagnosed with diabetes in 2015(Paul, et al., 2017). Lack of intervention has created a problem in managing the health issue prevalent among the indigenous and non-indigenous people.

Healthcare Report

Impact of a health issue on individual, family and community of indigenous and non-indigenous people:

The health of indigenous and non-indigenous Australians have a stark difference, where it has been observed that generally, the non-indigenous people are whites, have a lesser tendency of suffering from diabetes, and have lesser mortality rates(Creamer & Attridge, 2016). The main difference in how diabetes mellitus affects two separate sections of the Australian population is given below:-

Indigenous Australians:


Individuals from the indigenous population are at higher rates of suffering from diabetes mellitus because they are mostly living in remote areas of Australia, about 79% live in remote areas, and consume junk food on a regular basis(Statista, 2020).


Most of the family members of indigenous Australians have a medical history of diabetes; about 62.7% of the family members from the indigenous population have someone suffering from diabetes mellitus(Statista, 2020).


The community as a whole are more prone to have a sedentary lifestyle with greater consumption of fast food, which has a high concentration of fat, which leads to obesity and diabetes(Jaacks & Siegel, 2016). The community mainly belongs from an economically backward section of Australia, resulting in a greater amount of probability to suffer from diabetes mellitus.

Non-indigenous Australians:


The individuals from the non-indigenous Australians like whites mainly belong to the middle-class Australians who spend most of the time in posh localities of the country(Kelly & Ismail, 2015). It has also been found that they mainly prefer having organic food, do regular exercise, which makes diabetes mellitus have a lesser impact on them.


The family history of the non-indigenous Australians is different, and they have less probability of being diabetic, which helps them be on the safe zone in terms of diabetes(Pérez-Escamilla & Damio, 2015). Also, it is found that only 27% of the families from the non-indigenous Australians are diabetic.


The community is mainly different because there is a presence of health consciousness in the non-indigenous community of Australia(Creamer & Attridge, 2016). Most of the people are regularly habituated to do physical exercise and walking every day as much as possible. Also, fast food and a sedentary lifestyle are avoided. The community avoids alcohol in parties and family gatherings unless absolutely essential, which decreases their chance to have diabetes mellitus to a huge extent.

Identifiable gaps between health issues of indigenous and non-indigenous people:

Health gaps, mainly concerning diabetes mellitus, is clearly visible among the indigenous and non-indigenous population of Australia. The indigenous population consist of the aborigines and the Torres Strait islander who inhabited Australia before the British took over the place. Since that time, they have faced neglect from the government, and the continuous struggle for their economic backwardness has made them have any food that they easily get(Creamer & Attridge, 2016). In modern Australia, the food that is easily found, and at a lower price are non-organic food with high calories and sugar. Most of the non-indigenous Australians don’t consume it due to their health consciousness. However, the indigenous Australians consume it, resulting in their chances of increasing diabetes mellitus associated with other problems like obesity.

The mortality rates of indigenous people are also higher than the non-indigenous people because the non-indigenous people are health conscious and do not follow a sedentary lifestyle(Jaacks & Siegel, 2016). Due to higher levels of employment, the non-indigenous Australians are regularly busy with their work. On the contrary, the indigenous Australians are facing the problems of sitting at home, and no exercise, which increases their chances of diabetes mellitus. The indigenous Australians have also been found to have lesser levels of awareness about diabetes mellitus and health consciousness. Unless there is an emergency, no indigenous members go for a regular check-up in the hospital units. Also, it has been found that the lack of diet control and exercise often results in increasing the probability of indigenous people towards diabetes mellitus.

Brief description of the campaign:

I along with my team members, will focus on arranging a poster campaign on healthy eating to promote the necessity of possessing fresh foods that are essential to protect the health condition of people.The guidance of team member helps to share an idea about the importance of appointing aboriginal instructor to draw the attention of individuals belonging from the aboriginal group(Jansen, 2017). The guidance of trainer regarding the adverse impact of unhealthy diet chart that leads to creating health problems like obesity, high-pressure benefits in making them aware of possessing healthy food items(Brzozowska, et al., 2019). I have also thought about promoting free check-up option during the time of healthy eating campaign for community members living in the aboriginal state. Sharing a proper diet plan after sharing informationabout the current health condition of these community memberswill be beneficial to make them aware of the necessity of participating in this campaign. In case of promoting the healthy eating campaign among the non-aboriginal people, I will focus on mentioning about the sedentary lifestyle that creates an adverse impact on the health condition of non-indigenous individuals. Through the campaign, a community awareness session will also be done to share importation about the healthy diet plan that needs to be possessed by the old age population. Sharing statistical information about the increasing issue of obesity caused due to unhealthy eating will benefit from attracting a large number of indigenous and non-indigenous people towards the healthy eating campaign.

Short description of the target audience and the reason behind selecting your target audience:

I have selected obese people belonging to the age group of 25-34 years living in a community near the Rossmoyne area of Perth, Australia, to progress with the healthy eating campaign. I have selected the young age population as they are leading a sedentary lifestyle which leads to creating health issues like obesity or high-pressure level. The valuable suggestion of health experts benefits in making them knowledgeable choices of food items that need to be considered by them to avoid health issue(Timpel, et al., 2019). The guidance of experienced healthcare professionals increases the chances of sharing proper information about the physical activities that need to be performedto reduce the issue of obesity.

Effectiveness of the campaign to deal with the issue:

Successful promotion of the healthy eating campaign will benefit in controlling the possession of unhealthy food products that results in developing health problems like cholesterol or diabetes mellitus. Sharing of valuable information about the benefit of availing fresh food items will assist in protecting the problem of diabetes among the aboriginal group of people. Promoting the healthy eating campaign in urban location has supported in addressing the importance of avoiding a sedentary lifestyle to prevent diabetes among non-aboriginal people. The campaign will also support in addressing the importance of regular check-up that is highly essential to diagnose the problem of diabetes in order to proceed with the treatment.


The present study has detailed aboutthe impact of diabetes mellitus on the health condition of an aboriginal and non-aboriginal group of people. Considering the adverse impact of this health issue has influenced the importance of promoting healthy eating campaign that is essential to make people aware of the possessing fresh foot items to avoid health issue likeobesitywhichhelps in controlling the chances of diabetes.


AIWS, 2015. Diabetes. [Online] Available at: https:// www. aihw.gov.au/reports/diabetes/diabetes-compendium/contents/deaths-from-diabetes [Accessed 20 April 2020].

Brzozowska, M., Havula, E., Allen, R. & Cox, M., 2019. Genetics, adaptation to environmental changes and archaic admixture in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus in Indigenous Australians. Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders, 20(3).

Creamer, J. & Attridge, M., 2016. Culturally appropriate health education for Type 2 diabetes in ethnic minority groups: an updated Cochrane Review of randomized controlled trials. Diabetic Medicine, 12(7), pp. 169-183, DOI: 10.1111/dme.12865.

Jaacks, L. & Siegel, K., 2016. Type 2 diabetes: A 21st century epidemic. Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 30(3), pp. 331-343, DOI: 10.1016/j.beem.2016.05.003.

Jansen, C., 2017. Developing persuasive health campaign messages. Information Design: Research and Practice, 24(2), pp. 669-684.

Kelly, S. & Ismail, M., 2015. Stress and type 2 diabetes: a review of how stress contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes. Annual review of public health, 15(6), pp. 441-462, DOI: 10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031914-122921.

Paul, C. et al., 2017. Testing for type 2 diabetes in Indigenous Australians: guideline recommendations and current practice. Medical Journal of Australia, 227(5), pp. 206-210.

Pérez-Escamilla, R. & Damio, G., 2015. Impact of a community health workers–led structured program on blood glucose control among Latinos with type 2 diabetes: the DIALBEST trial. Diabetes Care, 16(5), pp. 197-205, DOI: 10.2337/dc14-0327.

Statista, 2020. Diabetes in Australia – Statistics & Facts. [Online] Available at: https://www.statista.com/topics/3132/diabetes-in-Australia/[Accessed 4 April 2020].

Timpel, P. et al., 2019. What should governments be doing to prevent diabetes throughout the life course?. Diabetologia, 23(2), pp. 1-12.

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Essay on Processed Food

Processed food is mainly considered unprocessed foods. Processed food are foods that are either packaged or boxed and contain artificial colors, flavors or any other chemical substance that keeps it fresh in their containers and they may include shelf life, which means that they are kept on shelves for days or even months and still stay fresh. There are many reasons and side effects of processed food and why they exist.

What are the main methods of processed food and why does is exist?

Processed foods are anything that are bagged, boxed, jarred or canned and has a list label that has the ingredients. Processed food is more convenient, it’s so easy to bake, cook and very fast to use and eat. Thus, the main methods of processed food are also freezing, refrigerating, and aseptic processing (foods that are sterilized or packaged into containers). People eat processed food too, because it makes it easier to make food, more available, safer, and has more nutrients. Processed foods have the advantage of saving time and this makes them tempt to people who have a busy lifestyle and for those who don’t particularly like to cook. Most processed foods come with a very low-price tag that makes people buy more from it and eat more (The Many Risks of Processed Foods, 2019).However, we have to look at the bad hidden costs that it has and how it effects our health badly. Hence, 90% of the money spent on food is used to buy processed food, mostly everyone spends less on organic food rather than processed food, because processed food is cheaper and easier to cook and comes in a bigger quantity than organic foods. I do not blame people who buy processed food, because its tastier and fast to eat and all organic foods are expensive and are double the price of any processed food. The capacity of processed food isn’t a medical issue, but the reactions handled from processed food are deceptive.

Processed food

What is the difference between Ultra Processed food and Processed food?

However, there is a difference between Minimally Processed foods and Heavily processed food. (Eating Processed Foods Can Cause Many Digestive Problems, Brown, K. June 24, 2019).Minimally processed foods are food that does not change the product at all. Minimally processed food is defined as ‘unprocessed food’. However, heavily processed foods are the changes of regular food to Ultra-processed food which are called ‘Tertiary processing’ (food that are ready and fast, and easier to eat. I also learned about the health risks of heavily processed food and how it increases the risk of cancer, lacking nutritional value, depression, anxiety, and that it is full of artificial ingredients and bad for our health. What we actually eat has a humungous impact on our health and in a very bad way, and ultra- processed foods like sweets, candy, pizza, soft drinks, and chips don’t contain a sufficient amount of beneficial nutrients. The more ultra-processed foods we eat, the poorer the overall nutritional quality of our diet and health. However, not every food that comes in a box is ultra-processed. Grown-ups whose diet include progressively heavily processed foods like, burgers, ice cream, junk food mainly leads to risks like cardiovascular disease and more often their lives are shorter, because it kills and breaks down your body very fast.

Processed food

What does Shelf life (prolong) food mean and why it exists?

 Thus, Processed food exists, as a result of many reasons that embrace shelf life(prolong) which they place it in an appealing means that grabs your attention that causes you to get additional in a humongous way and doesn’t coast plenty. Processed foods area unit sometimes is less vulnerable to early spoilage than recent foods and area unit higher fitted to long distance transportation from the supply to the buyer, after they were 1st introduced, some processed foods helped to alleviate food shortages and improved the general nutrition of populations because it created several new foods offered to the plenty. As we know, every type of food merchandise remains for a special length of your time and there are a unit variety of things which will have an effect on the time period of an exact food. (Hidden Dangers of Processed and Package Foods What to Eat Instead, 2007).Not purely will the time period of your food rely upon the means during which it’s been hold on reception and also the means it’s been handled, treated and held on before incoming at supermarkets and this additionally plays a task in how long your food can remain.

How to stop eating Processed food and have a healthy lifestyle?

 However, reducing processed food could be a bit hard if your used to it, therefore by time you need to continuously scan the labels, begin slowly to make yourself get used to the routine and food in order to protect yourself and your body and have a healthy lifestyle. (Hidden Dangers of Processed and Package Foods What to Eat Instead, 2007). However, in my opinion it’s much better if you cook your meals at home, to know what you are eating and if it is harmful or healthy for you.

In conclusion, processed foods are very bad and have a humungous negative influence on your health and may lead to many diseases and sickness. However, people do not realize what they are eating is bad for them, but because it tastes delicious and fast to cook and eat, so people should start stopping processed food and go to organic and healthy food in order to have a better health without any diseases and sickness.

Reference list:

  • The Many Risks of Processed Foods. (n.d). Retrieved from


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Business Proposal of ISUZU

1. Introduction

Every business model is established by the firms to create value for the customers and to generate maximum value from that return.  Thus the main components of business models are value proposition of firms for customers, stakeholders and partners of the business and requirement of processes and resources to deliver this value to the customers. A good business proposal reflects how the business plan will solve the problem of the customers. This business proposal details about the new business proposal for ISUZU which is a Japanese company, manufacturing commercial vehicles and diesel engines. This report contains detailed analyses of business proposal by throwing light on the business model description, value proposition development, business operation development, supply chain development, competitive advantage, financial value capture, strategic fit and solution to the uncertainties related to customer desirability, technical feasibility and financial viability.

2. Business model description

From the detailed study of reports of the company, it has been observed that the customers of the company are facing issues related to long term protection of vehicles. Especially, they are facing issues related to road side assistance (Candace & Ronald, 2018). Thus the main idea of this business proposal is that the company can provide this road side assistance facility for life time. The customers will have to pay a small amount of charges at the time of purchase of vehicle. The company can use that money to contact with the third party dealers for this road side assistance in every city (Osterwalder, Pigneur, Bernarda, & Smith, 2014). It will create value for the customers. The following components describes about the business model in detail.

  • Key Partners: The main partners of this business model will be the consumers, all internal and external stakeholders and third party dealers who will provide the services. Partnership with third party dealers will help the company to provide easy road side assistance to the customers in every city (Pastor, Santana, & Sierra, 2010).
Business Proposal of ISUZU
  • Key activities: The main activities as per this business proposal will be to provide long term protection of vehicles to the customers. The company would contact with third party dealers to provide life time road side assistance to the customers in case of any emergency.
  • Key resources: The key resources for this new idea will be the customers who will pay a onetime small amount at the time of purchase and the third party dealers who will provide services to the customers in case of emergency (Schnellbächer, Heidenreich, & Wald, 2019).
  • Value proposition: The main value proposition of this idea is to provide protection of vehicles in case of emergency, especially to focus on providing long term road side assistance to the customers.
  • Customer relationship: This idea will help the company to maintain a long term relationship with the customers because most of the customers complain about the problem of road side assistance (Sreenivasan & Tripathy, 2014).
  • Channels: The customers will have to register their request with the company. The company will immediately contact the third party dealer and they will provide the quick services to the customers as and when required.
  • Customer segment: The targeted customer segment for this business proposal will be all the customers using the vehicles of the company.
  • Cost Structure: All the cost of this life time road side assistance will be covered through a small amount of extra charges at the time of purchase of product. The company will charge this amount from every customer but all the customers will not demand for road side assistance at the same time (Tang, Tang, & Su, 2019). Thus the company will be able to use that money for hiring third party dealers to solve the problem of the customers.
  • Revenue stream: This idea will increase the sales of the vehicles of company and the revenue of the company will also increase with every sale of vehicle.

3. Value proposition development

Through value proposition, the company can maintain long term relations with the customers and can attract new customers. The development of value proposition consists of requirement of new resources and capabilities for the innovation of new services. Customers, stakeholders and third party dealers will be the main resources of ISUZU for creating this new value proposition. The main idea is to provide life time road side assistance to the customers without charging any cost (Tellis, MacInnis, Tirunillai, & Zhang, 2019). The company can charge a small amount at the time of purchase of product and can make a budget to contact with third party dealers in every city. It is obvious that all the customers will not ask for road side assistance. But this service provided by the company will help in creating value for all the customers.

4. Business operations development

For this new business operation, the company needs to measure the scalability of the business. The company can follow the step by step procedure to measure the scale of the business and to know about the requirement of resources and capabilities to complete the business operations. The first step to measure the scale of the business is to evaluate and plan. The company should evaluate the existing sales and revenue of the company so that total expenditure and total revenue with the introduction of this new business operation can be estimated. The second step is to explore the resources to finance this business operation. The company will not have to bear any extra cost (Wadstrom, 2019).

Business Operations Development

The company can easily provide these services to the customer by collecting an extra small amount at the time of purchase of product. The third step is to market for this new value proposition. The company will have to plan for proper marketing process to attract the customers. The company can use technology to make people aware about this new business operation (Osterwalder & Pigneur, Business model generation, 2010). Online advertisements can help a lot in the development of this business operation. The last step of measuring the scalability of the business is to strategically outsourcing the business operations. The employees of the company can help a lot in outsourcing of the business operations.

5. Supply chain development

The company can create an efficient supply chain development model with the help of its existing business partners. For this new business operation, the company needs support from customers, stakeholders and employees of the company. Thus the company will have to make an overview of the company before taking decision regarding this new operational development (Aulet, 2017). The company can have estimate about annual total revenue and total expenditure by analyzing the data of the previous years. The research background of the company will be helpful to identify the determinants of varying revenue and expenditure. The company also needs to analyse the social, economic, cultural and political aspects of this business venture before creating this new supply chain model.

Supply Chain Development

6. Financial value capture

The main resource of making money as per this supply chain model will be the customers. The company will charge some extra amount from the customers at the time of the purchase of the product. The company will provide them assistance whenever required with that amount through third party dealers (Erkutlu & Chafra, 2018). But it is obvious that all the customers will not demand for such services at the same time. It may be possible that the customers do not need this service at all. Thus it will increase the benefits of the company. Thus the extra cost bear by the company will be covered from the amount paid by the customers (Goldman, Schlumpf, & Scott, 2017).

7. Competitive advantage

The major competitors of the company are Volvo, Ford, Daimler and Volkswagen. All these companies are providing emergency protection as well as road side assistance to the customers but their services are for limited period. Later on the customers need to pay for it again (Kryger, 2019). Thus the customers remain dissatisfied in case of requirement of emergency protection. That is why this business proposal is based on the core capability of providing life-time road side assistance through third party dealers in every city. It will help the company to be favorite choice of customers among all competitors by providing this unique benefit of life-time road side assistance.

8. Strategic fit

ISUZU has won the award of “Best of the Best” in 2018 for high customer satisfaction in case of product quality.  Customer satisfaction is the key factor which is continuously promoting the sales of the company. It reflects that in case of product quality and durability, the company has already won the hearts of the customers (Lamb, Butler, & Roundy, 2017). By adding this new business venture, the company can become a top name among the list of its competitors. Thus we can say that this idea is compatible with the parent organization.

9. Uncertainty related to customer desirability, technical feasibility and financial viability

In every innovation process, desirability, feasibility and viability play an important role. These three factors assure for the successful completion of this business venture and satisfaction of customers. Feasibility refers to reduction in cost and maximum revenue. Technical feasibility refers to provision of on the time road time assistance to the customers in effective and efficient manner and desirability refers to provision of services as per desire of customers. Financial viability refers to increased profit of the company by introducing this new business venture (Palumbo & Manna, 2018).

Argumentation to support the use of tools and techniques

The main target of the company behind every new innovation is the satisfaction of the customers. Thus it becomes essential for the company to use appropriate tools and techniques to measure customer satisfaction (Mendes & Machado, 2015).

Various companies use SAAS platform to appoint third party to get their work done (Rumbles & Rees, 2013). Social media platform can help the companies to get the accurate data regarding satisfaction of the customers (Sinha, 2019). Through business agile tools companies can measure the intelligence level of customers (Wang, Noble, Dahl, & Park, 2019). Mobile apps can also help to assess the customer intelligence for estimating the success of the project of the company (Durica & Svabova, 2015).

Application of tools and techniques

  • ISUZU can use CRM tool to maintain effective relationship with the customers.
  • The company can assess the traffic on the website of the company through click cracking tools.
  •  Through text analyses, the company can provide facility of filing complaints and suggestions to the customers.
  • Mobile applications can make the process of customer feedback easy.
  • SAAS can help to get the work done through third party.
  • Through business agile tools, the company can have access to real time customer intelligence.
  • The company can convert the voice messages of the customers into text through speech analytic tool.
  • Social media platform can also play an important role in getting the feedback of the customers.


This business proposal has helped me to assess the knowledge about practical application of marketing tools and techniques. Previously I studied everything theoretically. I was very weak in practical implementation of these tools and techniques. But this task has increased my knowledge regarding business models and its components. Now I am strong enough to create business proposal for any company. The problem identification part has increased my knowledge about various companies, their business models and their working process. In short, this business proposal has improved my practical knowledge about marketing concepts.

10. Conclusion

To conclude, this innovative idea can help the company in attaining the top position in the market. The company has already won the award of “Best of the Best” in 2018 in terms of customer satisfaction for product quality. The only need is to focus on the service quality aspect. This business venture will help the company to be at top among all competitors.

11. References

Aulet, B. (2017). Disciplined entrepreneurship workbook. New Jersey: Hoboken, Wiley.

Candace, F., & Ronald, L. (2018). The relationship between participation in differenttypes of ms and gainful employment for formerly incarcerated individuals. Human resource development quarterly , 29 (3), 263-286. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrdq.21325

Durica, M., & Svabova, L. (2015). Improvement of Company Marketing Strategy Based on Google Search

Results Analysis. Procedia Economics and finance, 26, 454-460. https://doi.org/10.1109/EBR-09-2015-0088

Erkutlu, H., & Chafra, J. (2018). Despotic leadership and organizational deviance. Journal of Strategic Management, 11 (2), 150-165. https://doi.org/10.1108/JSMA-04-2017-0029

Goldman, E. F., Schlumpf, K. S., & Scott, A. R. (2017). Combining practise and theory to assess strategic thinking. Journal of Strategic Management, 10 (4), 488-504. https://doi.org/10.1108/JSMA-02-2017-0012

Kryger, A. (2019). Iterative prototyping of strategy implementation workshop design. Journal of Strategy and Management, 11 (2), 166-183. https://doi.org/10.1108/JSMA-07-2017-0051

Lamb, N. H., Butler, F., & Roundy, P. (2017). Family firms and corporate social responsibility: exploring “concerns”. Journal of Strategy and Management, 10 (4), 469-487. https://doi.org/10.1108/JSMA-02-2016-0010

Mendes, & Machado. (2015). Employees’ skills, manufacturing flexibility and performance: a structural equation modelling applied to the automotive industry. International Journal of Production Research, 53 (13), 4087-4101. https://doi.org 10.3233/WOR-2012-0735-4389

Osterwalder, A., & Pigneur, Y. (2010). Business model generation. Hoboken: New Jersey: Wiley.

Osterwalder, A., Pigneur, Y., Bernarda, G., & Smith, A. (2014). Value proposition design. Hoboken: New Jersey: Wiley. https://www.wiley.com/enus/Value+Proposition+Design%3A+How+to+Create+Products+and+Services+Customers+Want-p-9781118968055

Palumbo, R., & Manna, R. (2018). The need for requisite variety to support growth: an organizational life cycle perspective. Journal of Strategy and Management, 11 (2), 241-256. https://doi.org/10.1108/JSMA-10-2016-0072

Pastor, Santana, & Sierra. (2010). Managing knowledge through human resource practices: an empirical examination of the Spanish automotive industry. The International Journal of Human Resource (Schnellbächer, Heidenreich, & Wald, 2019)Management, 21 (13), 2452-2467. https://doi.org/10.1108/EBR-11-2015-0142

Rumbles, S., & Rees, G. (2013). Continuous changes, organizational burnout and the implications for HRD. Industrial and Commercial Training, 45 (4), 236-242. https://cquprimo.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/permalink/f/1rb43gr/TN_emerald_s10.1108/00197851311323538

Schnellbächer, B., Heidenreich, S., & Wald, A. (2019). Antecedents and effects of individual

ambidexterity – A cross-level investigation of exploration and exploitation activities at the employee level. European Management Journal, 37 (4), 442-454. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2019.02.002

Sinha, S. (2019). The emergent-strategy process of initiating organizational ambidexterity. Journal of Strategy and Management, 12 (3), 382-36. https://doi.org/10.1108/JSMA-12-2018-0140

Sreenivasan, & Tripathy. (2014). Employment Relations in the Automotive Industry. The Indian journal of industrial relations, 49 (3), 499-512. https://doi.org/10.3233/WOR-2014-0735-4389

Tang, C., Tang, Y., & Su, S. (2019). R&D internationalization, product diversification and international performance for emerging market enterprises: An empirical study on Chinese enterprises. European Journal Management, 37 (4), 529-539. https://doi.org 10.3233/WOR-2012-0735-4389

Tellis, G. J., MacInnis, D. J., Tirunillai, S., & Zhang, Y. (2019). What Drives Virality (Sharing) of Online Digital Content? The Critical Role of Information, Emotion, and Brand Prominence. Journal of Marketing, 83 (4), 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2019.02.002

Wadstrom, P. (2019). Aligning corporate and business strategy: managing the balance. Journal of Business Strategy, 40 (4), 44-52. https://doi.org/10.1108/JBS-06-2018-0099

Wang, H. S., Noble, C. H., Dahl, D. W., & Park, S. (2019). Successfully Communicating Cocreated Innovation. Journal of Marketing, 83 (4), 38-57. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0022242919841039

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Event Marketing Plan

1. “Do you agree with the definition of marketing used in this chapter? How can it be improved?”

This chapter is based on the micro definition of marketing given by Miller and Layton. According to the definition, marketing is a combination of business activities which are based on planning, price of product, promotion and distribution of products and services in the targeted market to achieve the goals of the organization (Burrow & Fowler, 2015). This definition includes a limited aspect of marketing and it can be further improved if it is based on the process of attracting potential customers for the products and services offered by the company. The process word in this definition includes planning, price, promotion and distribution of products and services but the main aim of this process is to attract the customers. This definition of marketing can be useful for event management a well (Maiske, Neware, Jamgade, Jamgade, & Dubey, 2017).

2. “Why should an event manager segment a market? What are the advantages?”

Market segmentation helps to categorize potential customers into small groups. This customer-oriented term carries modern philosophies of marketing. In other words, it is a process of categorizing a homogenous group of customers based on their common expectations.  Even the manager can easily understand the interests, needs and expectations of the customers through this process of market segmentation (Thomas & Bowdin, 2012). An event manager cannot make its marketing strategy successful without proper segmentation of the market. Market segmentation helps in increasing the focus of the firm. It further increases the competitiveness of the firm in the market. The event manager will also be able to increase brand loyalty through this process.

Event Marketing Plan

3. “Outline five key motives of attending a community festival. Why should an event manager focus on these motives, rather than motives of a festival organizer?”

Event managers used to attend community festivals to make environmental analyses.  The main motives behind these environmental analyses are to judge socio-cultural criteria, political, economic, technical and entertainment factors which decide the success of an event. Political factors describe the role of government in sponsoring these events. Economic factors show how this event management is a strength for economic aspects (Crowther, 2010). A Sociocultural aspect decides about the organization of the event as per the socio-cultural requirements of the customers. Use of online and offline technology for the marketing of the event decides the strength of the technological aspects. Entertainment factor decides the satisfaction of leisure consumption of the consumers. The event manager can assess the major aspects to satisfy the customer for leisure consumption by attending such events. Thus every event manager should focus on these motives, rather than motives of a festival organizer (Reid, 2011).

4. “Identify the key steps in the consumer decision process. Offer examples of how each step affects the event consumer?”

Before purchasing a product, a consumer goes through various stages. These stages are considered as the consumer decision process. The consumer decision process of event consumers is based on the PIECE acronym:

  • Problem Identification: The first step of the consumer decision-making process of event consumers is to identify their need related to their leisure consumption. This will help in understanding the requirements of the customers.
  • Information Search: To search internal and external solutions based on the choice of leisure consumption of consumers so that the event manager can satisfy the needs of the customers (Clarke & Jepson, 2012).
  • Proper evaluation and selection of leisure activities: To choose leisure activities as per the choice of the consumers. The customers will be able to enjoy extra leisure activities in addition to the targeted one.
  • Choice of attending an event: To analyse the choice of consumers based on their choice for extra purchases at the event.
  • To evaluate the post-event experience of consumers for future decision making. The customers will be able to provide feedback for their experience at the event so that the event manager can improve it further if required.
Consumer Decision Process

5. “Given that Manly Musical Society does not wish to make enormous profits and their cast and musicians are not paid, what do you think would be a fair price to pay for a ticket to one of their productions that covers their costs and produces a surplus to fund their next production? Five shows including a matinee would be scheduled.”

According to the case study, Manly Musical Society is a nonprofit organization. They are not paying to their musicians and casts. But they are bearing advertisement cost. They are providing extended facilities to the customers through SABO (Reverté & Izard, 2011). Previously, they were not charging any fee from customers, but now as they have shifted to the larger theatre – Glen Street and are using their in-house box office facilities. The company will be able to bear this cost if it is charging a small amount of $5-$7 for a ticket. This amount will help to cover the expenditure of ticketing agency and managerial costs. As society is going to schedule five shows including a matinee, the cost of marketing can also be easily covered through this small amount of ticket.


Burrow, J. L., & Fowler, A. R. (2015). Marketing. Cengage Learning.

Clarke, A., & Jepson, A. (2012). Power and hegemony within a community festival. International Journal of Event and Festival Management, 2 (1), 7-19. https://doi.org/10.1108/17582951111116604.

Crowther, P. (2010). Marketing event outcomes: from tactical to strategic. International Journal of Event and Festival Management, 2 (9), 68-82. https://doi.org/10.1108/17582951111116623

Make, K., Netware, p., Jamgade, N., Jamgade, A., & Dubey, P. (2017). Review Paper on Event Management System. International Journal for Research in Applied Science & Engineering Technology, 5 (8), 45-98. https://www.ijraset.com/fileserve.php?FID=12457Reid, S. (2011).

Event stakeholder management: developing sustainable rural event practices. International Journal of Event and Festival Management, 2 (9), 20-36. https://doi.org/10.1108/17582951111116597.

Reverté, F. G., & Izard, O. M. (2011). The role of social and intangible factors in cultural event planning in Catalonia. International Journal of Event and Festival Management, 2 (1), 37-53. https://doi.org/10.1108/17582951111116605

Thomas, R., & Bowdin, G. (2012). Events Management Research: State of the Art. Event Management, 16 (3), 103-106. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/262895335_Events_Management_Research_State_of_the_Art

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Corporate Strategies of KPMG

1. Introduction

In this era of globalization, almost all the organizations in the world are facing dynamic challenges. The organizations are required to think strategically with the use of effective corporate strategies to be competitive in the world’s market (Lamb, Butler, & Roundy, 2017). Corporate strategy refers to decisions and commitments of the organizations towards the achievement of strategic competitiveness. This report is a detailed analyses of corporate level strategies adopted by KPMG which is a multinational professional services network, and one of the big four  accounting organizations, along with Deloitte, Ernst & Young(EY), and PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) (Goldman, Schlumpf, & Scott, 2017). The report has explained in detail about the corporate level strategies of KPMG, suitability of the current strategies of the organization and recommended strategic alternative initiatives that the organization should pursue to improve its effectiveness.

2. Corporate level strategies of KPMG

The strategy followed by KPMG works with various organizations of private, public and non-profit sector. Every organization decides its corporate strategy on the basis of direction and scope of the organization in long term. The corporate strategy of KPMG is based on where the business of the organization is trying to get in the long term (Palumbo & Manna, 2018). The organization is mainly focusing on the agile strategies which are too essential to focus on in this dynamic global environment. In other words, the corporate strategy of KPMG is based on scope of the organization to meet with the expectations of stakeholders. Investors play an important role in affecting the corporate strategy of the business. Thus the organization makes strategic decision making on the basis of the views of the investors (Erkutlu & Chafra, 2018). 

Corporate Strategies of KPMG

The main components of corporate strategy of KPMG are resource allocation, design of organization, portfolio management and strategic tradeoffs. People and capital are the two main factors related to resource allocation. The company decides the allocation of resources by considering these two key factors to maximize the value of the firm. This process includes well distribution of people in all over the firm, movement of leaders from one department to another and appropriate supply of workers. The company also focuses on analyses of external opportunities to make proper allocation of capital for external and internal opportunities (Kryger, 2019). Through organizational design, the company focuses on determining the level of autonomy to the business units, analyses of different type of strategies on the business units. Organizational structure of the company determines how commitments and initiatives of the company can be divided into small projects. It helps the organization to merge the business units and functions. The organization separates the responsibilities of all business units to maintain a balance between risks and return (Pehrsson, 2016). Corporate strategy of KPMG related to portfolio management is related to the actual requirements of the business units. The company focuses on managing risk through the process of diversification. The strategic options created by the company leads to new opportunities in the market (Rumbles & Rees, 2013). The corporate strategy of the company balances the tradeoffs between risk and return which is the most challenging aspect of every firm.

3. Suitability of current strategies of KPMG

The corporate level strategies of KPMG are based on the identification and implementation of growth platform to make the clients able to achieve their desired targets. KPMG has followed this distinctive approach to provide benefits to the clients by focusing on future opportunities, collaboration and efficiencies (KPMG, 2019). The organization create one opportunity after the other for its clients because it has identified that there is need to increase the level of value to provide more benefits to the clients. The clients of the company always value for its industrial insight, experience of growth, entering new markets, for creation of new business plans and models and financial challenges (Schoenberg, Collier, & Bowman, 2013). The current strategies of KPMG are suitable for its competitiveness in the market and for its growth in future. These strategies help the organization focuses on the attractive ways to improve its revenue and margin, to create new business models to generate quick values and to analyses the alignment of operating model and cost structure with its strategy.

4. Recommendation for strategic initiatives

Every organization works according to the basic agenda for growth. Most of the company’s focus on aggressive growth strategies to meet with the problems caused by structural shifts including change in technology, varying regulations, changing needs of the customers. But it is a challenging task to estimate the growth and to project the growth in the future. The corporate level strategy of KPMG is also based on the growth strategies (Wadstrom, 2019). The literature depicts that most of the organizations remain unsuccessful in obtaining their growth objectives. Thus on the basis of the analyses of the current corporate level strategy of KPMG, we have recommended the following strategy initiatives.

  • KPMG should focus on realistic objectives for growth.

 The company can set realistic objectives through proper analyses of new and unmet revenue pools. The distinctive approach followed by the company to provide maximum benefits to the clients can be helpful in the fulfillment of this strategic initiative (Wang, Noble, Dahl, & Park, 2019).

  • It should increase its ability to innovate to response to changing requirements of the market as well as the customers.

The company should set short time frame to enter into new markets after understanding the requirements of the market. New and innovative products can help the company to attract more and more customers. New opportunities, internal collaboration and efficiencies of the company should be inter-related with each other (Sinha, 2019). This type of realistic strategic initiatives can make the corporate level strategy of the company more effective.

5. Conclusion

To conclude, the corporate level strategy of KPMG is based on the identification and implementation of growth platform to make the clients able to achieve their desired targets. For this corporate level strategy, the company mainly focuses on organizational structure, resource allocation, portfolio management and strategic trade-offs. Although the current strategies followed by KPMG are suitable with the corporate environment, yet the organization needs to work on refinement of these strategies. As per the analyses of current strategies of the organization, we have recommended that KPMG should focus on the realistic objectives of growth and should increase its ability to innovate to response to changing requirements. These strategic initiatives will help in making the corporate level strategy of the organization more effective.

6. References

Erkutlu, H., & Chafra, J. (2018). Despotic leadership and organizational deviance. Journal of Strategic Management , 11 (2), 150-165. https://doi.org/10.1108/JSMA-04-2017-0029

Goldman, E. F., Schlumpf, K. S., & Scott, A. R. (2017). Combining practice and theory to assess strategic thinking. Journal of Strategic Management , 10 (4), 488-504. https://doi.org/10.1108/JSMA-02-2017-0012

KPMG. (2019). Corporate strategy and mergers & acquisitions. Retrieved from advisory.kpmg.us: https://advisory.kpmg.us/services/corporate-strategy-mergers-acquisitions.html

Kryger, A. (2019). Iterative prototyping of strategy implementation workshop design. Journal of Strategy and Management , 11 (2), 166-183. https://doi.org/10.1108/JSMA-07-2017-0051

Lamb, N. H., Butler, F., & Roundy, P. (2017). Family firms and corporate social responsibility: exploring “concerns”. Journal of Strategy and Management , 10 (4), 469-487. https://doi.org/10.1108/JSMA-02-2016-0010

Palumbo, R., & Manna, R. (2018). The need for requisite variety to support growth: an organizational life cycle perspective. Journal of Strategy and Management , 11 (2), 241-256. https://doi.org/10.1108/JSMA-10-2016-0072

Pehrsson, A. (2016). Firm’s strategic orientation, market context, and performance. European Business Review , 28 (4), 378-404. https://doi.org/10.1108/EBR-11-2015-0142

Rumbles, S., & Rees, G. (2013). Continuous changes, organizational burnout and the implications for HRD. Industrial and Commercial Training , 45 (4), 236-242. https://cquprimo.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/permalink/f/1rb43gr/TN_emerald_s10.1108/00197851311323538

Schoenberg, R., Collier, N., & Bowman, C. (2013). Strategies for business turnaround and recovery: a review and synthesis. European Business Review , 25 (3), 243-262. https://doi- org.ezproxy.cqu.edu.au/10.1108/09555341311314799

Sinha, S. (2019). The emergent-strategy process of initiating organizational ambidexterity. Journal of Strategy and Management , 12 (3), 382-36. https://doi.org/10.1108/JSMA-12-2018-0140

Wadstrom, P. (2019). Aligning corporate and business strategy: managing the balance. Journal of Business Strtaegy , 40 (4), 44-52. https://doi.org/10.1108/JBS-06-2018-0099

Wang, H. S., Noble, C. H., Dahl, D. W., & Park, S. (2019). Successfully Communicating Cocreated Innovation. Journal of marketing , 83 (4), 38-57. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0022242919841039

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Why Should Emirati Female Students Study Abroad?


Every individual is unique and comes with a set of talents which are their very own. While the concept of traveling overseas for studies is not new, it has become a trend recently, with parents expecting their wards to travel far to gain an education. The question here is, should this trend be allowed or should the female students in Emirates go overseas to gain enough knowledge in their area or should they stick with the local universities?  There are many who argue that going overseas might bring more exposure and opportunities. However, there are some other sections which are against this trend and suggest that the preferences should be based upon individual interests and also upon the caliber of the student. The debate here is not about giving equal opportunities, but about what are the challenges she will be facing when traveling abroad and is it necessary to face them when she can study in Emirates itself.

Thesis Statement:

Although many Emirati women want to study abroad, they have to overcome many challenges before they can go ahead with their plans

Argumentative Essay

Support Section – 1 Parental and Guardian Approvals

While the world has advanced considerably and moved forward, there are some very big challenges faced by Emirati female students when it comes to studying abroad. One of the most challenging aspects is getting the parental or guardian permission for traveling abroad to study (Coker, M. 2018). Here, one needs to understand that it is not only the overseas studies which require permission from the guardians but even local travels away from home is controlled depending upon whether a parent or a guardian offers acceptance for it. So, despite winning a scholarship or a seat in a prestigious college abroad, parental controls act as a mandatory factor before they can travel.

Also, many female students are controlled by societal constraints when it comes to higher studies. Many times, even when they get the opportunities, the lack of male guardianship to accompany them abroad or their permission has made them leave opportunities (Steph, 2015). Parents, with close-mindedness about women traveling, stop them from grabbing opportunities which have come their way. Researchers are of the opinion that this trend be because, the parents are still scared of their daughters being made victims of hateful rumors and other societal pressures (Saeed, A., 2016). This challenge is something that many individual female students have to face before they can fulfill their dreams.

Support Section – 2 Religious and Cultural Divide

Another very serious challenge that the students face in a foreign soil is the religious and cultural divide. Although the globalization has brought many changes in the values and traditions held by people around the world, some of the most stringent norms still stick together. That is why; several Emirati women who travel for studying find it hard to get accustomed to the cultural divide faced by them outside their country. In order to cope up with this, people opt for countries which are more traditional in their norms and do not outrightly neglect traditions. Ireland, for examples, is a country where many Emirati feel at home, due to their calm and quiet surroundings and traditional values. One of the female students who is studying in Ireland has been quoted by the reporter as saying: “People are more conservative than other western countries or other European nations’’ (Gokulan, D., 2013). This attitude is seen in many female students who feel that their parents would be more forthcoming if they choose such universities.

Argumentative Essay

Even though, it is not always possible to choose such countries or institutes based upon the traditional values or equivalent family orientation alone. Students living abroad say in the US and the UK feel the one thing they miss the most is their celebrations. ‘Eid and other festive occasions mark a matter of highest importance in the life of Emirates and this is what they lack when they live abroad. There is also the fact about living independently when they are so much used to having a house help of some sort of person accompanying them everywhere (Mehari, A.D). Again here, the opinions vary. Many girl students are happy living overseas, even though there are challenges to be faced, such as discriminations or stereotyping of being from Arab countries.

Support Section – 3 Language and a Higher level of Education

It is true that the Universities in the UAE are catching up with the world in their educational reforms and modifications to match up with their contemporaries. However, there are still certain difficulties faced by the students when they travel abroad. Language barriers are one of them seen amongst not only the female Emirati students but also the male ones too. English, the primary language in all institutions across the world, save for a few countries, has posted a great challenge for the Emirati female students. Although Universities in Emirates have their medium of instruction as English, the society as a whole and the household itself has found to become bigger issues for the students traveling abroad. Many feel that this language issue has restricted their communication with fellow students and have hampered their writing skills too (Abu Rabia, H.M., 2017). Not only the writing skills or communication is affected, but the overall grades also very much decreased, making it challenging for the female students to cope up with the pressure.

The same is also true for the higher level of education in the universities abroad. While there has been constant change in the Emirati Universities to match up with the concepts and quality of education, female students traveling overseas have found the levels of education and expectations much higher in case of those universities than they were used to at home. Many take it up as a challenge to rise to the occasion and come up with several ways to tackle it, while several find it extremely difficult to cope up. The female students are more so, with their lack of communication levels and cultural shocks they face in such societies (McClusky, B., 2017). With male and female students placed in the same classrooms, it becomes difficult for many to even adjust to the norms and adapt to cultural shocks. There is also the issue of male professors in the overseas universities, which makes it difficult for the students to even get up to ask queries regarding their subjects (McLean, M & Higgins, S. B). All this and much more makes it difficult for them to cope up with a higher level of education, thereby reducing their grades.

Counterargument: 1

There is a debate in many sections and even in the media that both male and female students have similar issues when it comes to cultural and language issues. The male students are also stereotyped as the female.

Rebuttal: 1

The point of contention here is that although the issues may be the same, there are certain facts such as Arab women not used to mixing with the male at home that poses a challenge for them. Also, the clothing makes a huge difference when it comes to men and women. While most women are used to Hijab at home, the same is not true for the male students. The same is true for sitting in the same class as the male students too. One of the female students felt it a sin to sit with a male counterpart in her class overseas, or even taught by a male teacher because she is not used to it back home (Abu Rabia, H.M., 2017).

Language is also a problem more so with the female student because with male going out and communicating with more people, the language barrier seems to decrease. This is not the case with the female student, because they are confined at home, with only their siblings and family members to talk to and communicate, which is mostly in their local tongue.

Counterargument: 2

There is also a debate in different sections of the society that several Emirati female students travel abroad today and have moved to different counties for education. If there is a challenge, where is it? Parents are not restrictive anymore.

Rebuttal: 2

While it is all true on paper, there are still many challenges faced by Arab women, when they want to travel abroad for higher studies. One of the issues is that many parents believe in getting them married young, and not wanting their daughters to travel to places and bring a bad name to their households (Raghavan, S., 2017). Similarly, the researchers have found that the social and parental pressures are still very much there are and the female students cannot move to another country without someone accompanying them. There is also this conservative attitude about the ‘biological role’ played by the female students in a society, and why they should not pursue higher education, such as in Medicinal field (McLean, M & Higgins, S. B.). These girls, when they aspire to become something or want to go abroad are married off earlier to avoid such conflict of opinion. Hence, even though there are changes, and many female students are going abroad, there are still many challenges that the female students face, more than the male counterparts.


The female Emirati students face a whole lot of challenges when they plan to go abroad to study further. Apart from the societal pressures, such as parental pressures, and cultural issues, they also find it difficult to cope up with the sudden changes they face in the other country. Being brought up in a confined environment and with limited interaction with the male of the society; it becomes difficult for them to face changes in the new place. The same is true with cultural shocks and other barriers such as speaking in a different language too. With most of them not very conversant in English, their communication becomes limited and they try to struggle to cope up with the problems. However, one positive aspect is that things are changing, and there are many more female Emirati students going abroad to study further. With Universities in the UAE making it easier for female students to study further than their high school, it has become easier for them to interact even with the male students in such universities. Even the parents are relenting, when they see what is happening in society. It is only up to the female students now to come out of the societal norms to make a mark in the world, in their own field.


McClusky, B. (2017). Investigating the relationships between education and culture for female students in tertiary settings in the UAE. Edith Cowan University. Retrieved November 30, 2018, from https://ro.ecu.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2976&context=theses.

Ahmad, A. S., Dr, & AlDarmaki, F., Dr. (2017). Uncovering Educational Barriers to Female Leadership in the United Arab Emirates. Zayed University. Retrieved November 30, 2018, from https://www.zu.ac.ae/main/en/research/publications/_documents/Educational Barriers to Female Leadership in UAE.pdf.

Coker, M. (2018, June 22). How Guardianship Laws Still Control Saudi Women. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2018/06/22/world/middleeast/saudi-women-guardianship.html

Gokulan, D. (2013) Studying abroad: Emirati students adjust to Ireland life. Retrieved from <https://www.khaleejtimes.com/nation/education/studying-abroad-emirati-students-adjust-to-ireland-life

Mehairi, D. A. (2013). Emirati students abroad face a variety of challenges. Retrieved from http://zajelzu.ae/2013/01/24/emirati-students-abroad-face-a-variety-of-challenges/

Steph (2015) Help! I want to study abroad but my parents won’t let me! Retrieved from <https://whywaittoseetheworld.com/i-want-to-study-abroad-parents-wont-let-me/>

Raghavan, S (2017) Saudi women need permission from male guardians for life choices. Will new reforms help end this? Retrieved from <https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2017/05/12/saudi-women-need-permission-from-male-guardians-for-life-choices-will-new-reforms-help-end-this/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.a3ada632079a>

Abu Rabia, H. M. (2017). Undergraduate Arab International Students’ Adjustment to U.S. Universities. International Journal of Higher Education,6(1). Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1123643.pdf.

McLean, M., & Higgins, S. B. (2017). Male and female Emirati medical clerks ’ perceptions of the impact of gender and mobility on their professional careers. Bond University Faculty of Health Sciences & Medicine Publications. Retrieved December 1, 2018, from https://epublications.bond.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2528&context=hsm_pubs.

Essay on Why Should Emirati Female Students Study Abroad?

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Organization Behaviour Essay


Mr Simon is a line manager in a retail organization. He has been serving the organization at the same post for the past 12 years. During this period, he has twice been considered for promotion, and rejected in favour of other candidates due to better formal qualifications, despite having considerably more experience. Recently, he was rejected for promotion for the third time. This has completely wrecked his morale and lost all desire to work for the organization any more. He was overheard discussing with his colleague by his team leader that his career has become completely stagnant in this organization and its time to move on for the sake of his career(Erdem & Ozen, 2014). The team leader, as well as the whole team[l1] , are worried about the potential loss of Mr Simon as he is an integral part of the team. He is highly regarded by the members of the staff as well.

In this essay, we will understand and address the case of Mr Simon in the most effective way possible. The major issues arising here, such as negative perception and hurting the spirit of teamwork, will be addressed(Chong & Wolf, 2010).


Perception is defined as the process of experiencing the world surrounding us and all the elements in it via our sensory organs. The unlimited sources of information around us emit unlimited amounts of information that we can interact with, with the help of our sensory organs. These sensory organs supply us with ‘sense’(Homberg, McCarthy, & Tabvuma, 2015).

Featuresof Perception:

Perception is a complex psychological as well as physiological process that mainly possesses the following features:

  • It is a process of intellectual form that via which a person chooses and selects the information from its sources, organizes and extracts sense out of it.
  • It is a cognitive process that indicates that the actions, thoughts, and emotions of people are directly influenced by their perception of subjects.
  • It is a subjective process. It may slightly or greatly vary from person to person(Badubi, 2017).
Organization Behaviour Essay

The process of Perception:

  1. Inputs of Perception – The first stage where a person comes across various types of data and information around him. The process of perception starts as soon as the person starts interacting with this information. These informational objects can be objects, ideas or people.
    1. Implementation of Perception – It is the second stage where the selection, organization, and interpretation of stimuli take place. The selection of stimuli is selecting the one particular stimulus to respond to, out of an infinite number of it. The organization of stimuli is the categorization and prioritization of information on the base of perceptual grouping(Hsieh, 2016).
    1. The output of Perception – After the observation, organization, and processing of stimuli, the final output comes out, it can be in the form of an action such as the formation of an attitude, belief, opinion, etc. about the stimuli(Morteza, Abbas, & Salahshour, 2013).

Perception in the case of Mr. Simon:

The situation of Mr. Simon clearly highlights a change of perception from productive, motivating and positive to the exact opposite. He started out and carried on his job diligently for over a decade. This clearly highlights his positive perception of his job. He clearly felt he deserves a promotion which a rightful expectation for an employee of his quality. But then his promotion was rejected for the first time, on the basis of comparatively lesser formal qualifications. This must-have affected his perception, although not by much but to a limited extent. Then he carries on his job diligently and in the next few years, applies for promotion again(Seejeen, 2020). This time his promotion is rejected as well, based on the same reasoning. Now, this was bound to have hurt his positive perception and demotivated him as well. A hint of negativity also spread among his team members. He still kept himself together and carried on doing his job carefully. Now, for the third time, his promotion has been rejected for the same cause, despite him serving for over 12 years with a clean and commendable record. This has clearly created a perception of negativity, depreciation, and stagnation of his career(Im & J. W., 2013). He is completely demotivated and even discussing his departure from the organization. He won’t be able to carry on his job with the same determination and industry, naturally. His team members, who acknowledge his skills and specialization, are also worried about the same treatment in their careers. This has hurt the morale of all the members of the team. This could lead to a lack of teamwork and ultimately, a loss for the organization. But what is teamwork? How it affects the performance of an organization? Let us find out(Andersen J. A., 2010). [l2] 

Motivation and Atitude

Motivation and attitude are two key points that go hand in hand. Motivation comes when there is apprication of work which in return changes the attitude of the person. If the work of an employee is not appreciated his attitude gets affected. In the case an employee who was rejected thrice his attitude changed from positive to negative and after surving the company for 10 years he considered leaving the job which agin reflects negative attitude, demotivation and  dissatisfaction(Andersen & Kjeldsen, 2013). [l3] 

Types of attitudes:

1) Explicit attitude – These are the attitudes that you are fully aware of and influence your behaviour towards the subjects. You are consciously aware of these factors that directly affect our beliefs. For example, you meet a new person through your friends, and they are wearing a jersey of your favourite football team, you automatically form a likeable opinion about the person since you both support the same team. This attitude is explicit in nature i.e. this formation of a likeable opinion was deliberate (Beier, C., &amp; Kanfer, 2018) . Now relating the same to the case as Mr Simon dedicated his 10 in the company he had fored a likeness towards the company this was reflected from the behavior that we applied three time for the promotion.

2) Implicit attitude – These are the attitudes that you are not consciously aware of but still greatly influence your behaviour towards the subjects. You have no conscious awareness of your actions and behaviour but they still influence your beliefs(Kang, 2014). For example, you are walking down the street on a Saturday night. You see a person wearing a mask advancing towards you. You automatically form a feeling of danger from that person. The person could be wearing the mask to keep the cold out, but you will still unconsciously develop an opinion about that person. This attitude is implicit in nature as this was not a deliberate action, but an unconscious opinion you formed (Coile&amp; Levine, 2011). In the case  Mr Simon discussed the issue with other employee and this might have affected perception of that another employee the attitude changed and it might have made him feel that this could happen to him as well.

The theory states about the what employee expect from the organization and what he receives can bring dissatisfaction in the employee. Mr. Simon epected a promotion based on experience which as his expectation but was denied on the base of qualification and here the theory was violated and affected the employess satisfaction(Caillier, Satisfaction With Work-Life Benefits and Organizational Commitment/Job Involvement: Is There a Connection?, 2012).

The theory states that the employee inputs his effort and expects a positive response in the form of rewars that brings satisfaction in them. In the case of Mr. Simon’s he was not rewared for his work.



Teamwork can be defined as the collective effort put forth by a group of coordinated members. In the world of business, almost nothing can be achieved without collective efforts of a team, or simply, teamwork. Organizations employ hundreds, thousands, and even millions of employees that work in groups to achieve the goals of the organization. The members of such teams are required to possess some specific skills and qualities to able to work efficiently in a group(Caillier, Does public service motivation mediate the relationship between goal clarity and both organizational commitment and extra-role behaviours? , 2014). Let us understand the importance of teamwork in a more elaborated manner:


Importance of Teamwork:

Targets are achieved faster – This is the primary benefit of teamwork. It is naturally apparent that a group of skilled members will complete a task at a much higher pace than an individual. The responsibilities get delegated and workload gets distributed accordingly to relieve the pressure and improve working accuracy. When the workload gets shared and individual targets highlighted, the overall work gets done in a much quicker manner. This is the reason behind such a serious implementation of teamwork throughout the world of business(Cantarelli, Belardinelli, & Belle, 2015).

Efficiency and effectiveness – No business organization can run successfully without sufficient profits. And pending work is not going to generate profits. It is instrumental to deploy teams specializing in different fields to get as much work done as possible on time. The approaches to the accomplishment of goals can be discussed before and through the process to minimize doubts and delays.

Work is always the priority – For example, John is an accounting assistant in his organization, but he fell prey to serious illness and will be unable to attend office for four weeks. Now the work John was supposed to be doing will be delayed for as long as he is out. This is where teamwork rescues the day. Another member of his team will step up and share his workload to continue the work. This is a crucial aspect for any business organization, letting such incidents hurt the performance of the organization is not an option. Teamwork is the way to go(Chordiya, Sabharwal, & Goodman, 2017).

Professional development of staff – Teamwork leads to sharing and learning of various skills, abilities, and qualities among the members of the group. This works in favour of all by cultivating positive characteristics among the team members, improving the quality of staff for the organization, ultimately leading to better performance and profits.

Development of competitive spirit – A healthy competition is a positive sign for any group as it drives the members to better than one another, ultimately elevating the overall quality of the team.

Development of team spirit – When a group of people works together for some time, sharing their authority and abilities, leads to the formation of a strong bond that is based upon trust and reliance. This results in the formation of team spirit which often leads to long-term retention of staff for the organization.

Self-assessment of members – Teams do not require any specialist eye of supervision as members of the team act as supervisors to one another. This is a total benefit situation for the organization(Chu & Lai, 2011).

Theory of Teamwork:

Teamwork isn’t a modern concept. In fact, it’s not even a medieval concept, it’s been around for centuries. Alexander the great, the Macedonian king who conquered every place he marched to, relied heavily upon the teamwork of his army. A further peak into this will clear up the doubts further–

  1. Scientific management theory – This theory was put forward by Frederick Winslow Taylor. He was an engineer for a firm called Bethlehem Steel in 1889. He started observing his workers who were tasked with the unloading of iron off rail cars and loading steel. He found out that they were deliberately working under capacity. He approached this observation scientifically and found out that the workers were currently loading 12.5 tonnes of metal in a day, while they were easily capable of loading 47.5 tonnes of metal per day(Fernandez & Moldogaziev, Employee empowerment and job satisfaction in the U.S. federal bureaucracy., 2013). He decided to motivate his workers by motivating them with the help of substantial incentives. He announced increased wages in return for higher metal loading goals. This scheme worked successfully. His research provided these crucial observations-
  2. Work should be scientifically analyzed to find out the best method to perform it.
  3. Staff selection should be carefully conducted in order to get the best employees.
  4. There should be co-operation among the managers and sub-ordinates. This promotes understanding and clearer communication among the employees.
  5. Management should focus on preparing plans and approaches for the workers to execute them efficiently.

This theory shows us the significance of having hard-working employees in an organization to maximize the outputs with minimum inputs ultimately resulting in greater profits(Fernandez, Resh, Moldogaziev, & Oberfield, 2015).

Teamwork in the case of Mr Simon:

As discussed earlier, the potential departure of Mr Simon from the organization has already caused a strong wave of discomfort among the members of his team. This is certainly going to hurt the individual as well as collective performances of the members, ultimately hurting the performance of the organization. Mr Simon, who is held in high regard by his team members, is seriously considering his future at the organization and even has discussed his intention to leave the firm as he feels his denial of promotion has halted his career progress. Every member of the team is bound to empathize with him, and hypothetically imagine the same scenario for themselves, leading to a strong feeling of insecurity for their future. The morale of the team will be down the hill and you can not expect unhappy employees to perform well. This is going to be a disaster for the organization(Frampton, 2014). [l5] 

Solution suggested:

Diligent, loyal and determined employees are a precious commodity to any organization. Mr Simon definitely fits the description of such an employee. His third successive rejection of promotion is forcing him to make the ultimate decision of leaving the organization for his own good. There is no doubt that Mr Simon deserves the promotion to the next level. The organization themselves will greatly benefit by having such a high-quality staff member at a higher post with greater responsibilities. This is will further motivate him to work harder. The doubts among his team members will also be addressed leading to better performances and higher profit for the organization. So, the top management should discuss the issue with Mr Simon, and duly promote him. They should also fix their promotion policy to prevent any future incidents of this nature(George & Pandey, 2017).


The case of Mr Simon has shown us a common scenario in the corporate world. He served as a trusty workhorse for the organization and expected a promotion as any other employee in his shoes would. But due to a faulty promotion policy,he wasn’t promoted. The theories discussed have helped in highlighting the issues as well as provided the ways to remedy it. One should always remember, a happy employee will always perform better than an unhappy employee.[l6] 


Andersen, J. A. (2010, Dec 24). Public versus private managers: How public and private managers differ in leadership behavior. . Public Administration Review, 70(1), 131–141. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6210.2009.02117.x

Andersen, L. B., & Kjeldsen, A. M. (2013, Aug 15). Public service motivation, user orientation, and job satisfaction: A question of employment sector? International Public Management Journal, 16 (2), 252–274. doi:10.1080/10967494.2013.817253

Baba, V. V. (2012, May 25). Toward a theory of evidence-based decision making. Management Decision, 50(5), 832–867. doi:10.1007/s10551-018-3955-6

Badubi, M. R. (2017, Aug 3). Theories of Motivation and Their Application in Organizations: A Risk Analysis. International Journal of Innovation and Economic Development, 3(3), 44-51. doi:10.18775/ijied.1849-7551-7020.2015.33.2004

Caillier, J. G. (2012, May 8). Satisfaction With Work-Life Benefits and Organizational Commitment/Job Involvement: Is There a Connection? Sage Journal, 33(4), 340-364. doi:10.1177/0734371X12443266

Caillier, J. G. (2014, Nov 26). Does public service motivation mediate the relationship between goal clarity and both organizational commitment and extra-role behaviours? . Public Management Review, 18(2), 300–318. doi:10.1080/14719037.2014.984625

Cantarelli, P., Belardinelli, P., & Belle, N. (2015, March 31). A meta-analysis of job satisfaction correlates in the public administration literature. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 36(2), 115–144. doi:10.1177/0734371X15578534

Chong, E., & Wolf, H. (2010). Factors influencing followers’ perception of organisational leaders. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 402-419. doi:10.1108/01437731011056434

Chordiya, R., Sabharwal, M., & Goodman, D. (2017, Feb 27). Affective organizational commitment and job satisfaction: A cross-national comparative study. Public Administration, 95(1), 178–195. doi:doi/abs/10.1111/padm.12306

Chu, L.-C., & Lai, C.-C. (2011, jan 1). A research on the influence of leadership style and job characteristics on job performance among accountants of county and city government in Taiwan. Public Personnel Management, 101–118. doi:10.1177/009102601104000202

Emirza, S., & Katrinli, A. (2019, Nov 4). The relationship between leader construal level and leader-member exchange relationship: The role of relational demography. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 845-859. . doi:10.1108/LODJ-02-2019-0084

Erdem, F., & Ozen, J. ( 2014, Nov 14). Cognitive and affective dimensions of trust in developing team performance. Team Performance Management, 9 (5/6 ), 131 – 135. doi:10.1108/13527590310493846

Fernandez, S., & Moldogaziev, T. (2013, Nov 6). Employee empowerment and job satisfaction in the U.S. federal bureaucracy. The American Review of Public Administration, 45(4), 375–401. doi:10.1177/0275074013507478

Fernandez, S., Resh, W. G., Moldogaziev, T., & Oberfield, Z. W. (2015, March 31). Assessing the past and promise of the federal employee viewpoint survey for public management research: A research synthesis. . Public Administration Review, 75(3), 382–394. doi:10.1111/puar.12368

Frampton, J. S. (2014, Jan 31). Commentary: Public sector job satisfaction: A conversation with impact. . Public Administration Review, 74(3), 396–397. doi:10.1007/s11115-020-00465-6

Frank, J. d. (2018, July 2). Ethics and Behavioural Theory: How Do Professionals Assess Their Mental Models? Journal of Business Ethics volume, 2(19), 933–947. doi:10.1007/s10551-018-3955-6

George, B., & Pandey, S. K. (2017, March 15). We know the yin—But where is the Yang? Toward a balanced approach on common source bias in public administration scholarship. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 37(2), 245–270. doi:10.1177/0734371X17698189

Homberg, F., McCarthy, D., & Tabvuma, V. (2015, July 31). A meta-analysis of the relationship between public service motivation and job satisfaction. Public Administration Review, 75(5). doi:10.1111/puar.12423

Hsieh, J. Y. (2016, Jan 11). Spurious or true? An exploration of antecedents and simultaneity of job performance and job satisfaction across the sectors. Public Personnel Management, 45(1), 90–118. doi:10.1177/0091026015624714

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Morteza, R. D., Abbas, R., & Salahshour, S. (2013, June 21). Effects of Motivational Factors on Job Satisfaction: An Empirical Study on Islamic Azad University’s Faculty Members . World Applied Sciences Journal, 21(6), 894-901. doi: 10.5829/idosi.wasj.2013.21.6.2034

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Organization Behaviour Essay by Subject Academy

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Compensation and Benefits in an Organization

Assessment of the compensation system of Simply Literature Production

The compensation system of Simply Literature Production is unsystematic. There is no official system for compensation and benefits of the employees of the firm. There is no regular record-keeping for the performances of the employees. There is no performance analysis and no systematic arrangement of employees. Despite employing 120 people, there is a complete lack of methodical and structured employment as most of them are made to work in production. A small number of supervisors who are puzzled about their job are often contradicting each other. How are they supposed to “supervise” their subordinates if they are themselves disorganized and ill-informed about their jobs? The employment of relatives despite their inability to perform well shows bias, appointment of only one book-keeper for over a hundred employees is bound to result in confusions and conflicts, the dearth of specialists in any field shows a complete deficiency of specialization in the firm, the lackadaisical distribution of leaves shows no ambition for the organizational goals and, lastly, the jumbled bonus system will sure to hurt the morale of the employees. In short, there’s a total lack of a systematic approach throughout the management of the firm which is bound to failure.(Long, Strategic Compensation in Canada: Evaluating Individuals, 2018)

Compensation and Benefits

The reason behind the high turnover of new employees

Considering the highly unorganized nature of the management of the firm, it is not a surprise that most of the employees end up resigning in a short passage of time and are replaced by the new ones. The major reasons behind this are:

  • The supervisors have to work in the management as well as the production. They have confused about their job profile. How can one expect them to control and supervise their subordinates? This leads to poor management and creates chaos among the employees. Ultimately, they leave and the vacancies are filled by recruits.
  • There is no proper program for employee compensation and benefits. They are given bonuses based on the owner’s memory of them every Christmas. This will demotivate the employees and ultimately force them out of the firm. The basic concept of motivation by monetary incentives is absent.
  • The lack of organizational goals and objectives has led to a mix-up of employees in various tasks. Supervisors are working in production, only one bookkeeper is handling the books of 120 employees and most of the recruitments are biased in favour of the owner’s relatives. There are no organizational or personal goals outlined.
  • There is no performance review and analysis, no salary and compensation audit and no appraisal program on a timely basis. The new employees are on the mercy of the owner’s memory. The older ones are always well-paid since the owner considers them loyal no regards to their performance whatsoever. This will alienate the new employees instead of welcoming them, ultimately forcing their hand to pen the resignation.
  • There is no delegation of decision making power, authority and responsibility throughout the firm. Everyone is clueless about their powers and ultimately come to the owner for the solution. This will unnecessarily prolong a simple decision and also create a sense of low self-esteem among the employees since they hold no authority to make even a simple decision.
  • The noticeably larger difference among the bonuses distributed among the employees is bound to create discontent among them. This will spread disharmony among the employees resulting in their resignations one after another.
  • Lastly, the complete lack of a systematic operation of the firm will fail in the retention of the employees in the long term.(Long, Strategic Compensation in Canada : A Behavioural Framework for Compensation, 2018)
  • Concepts of Compensation and Benefits that are violated here are:
  • A positive and natural reward system – Completely absent in this case. Irregular rewards harm than good.
  • Alignment of organizational goals with individual goals – There are no organizational objectives outlined and no relevance of individual interests.
  • Integrated reward system – The employees are rewards only on Christmas with no relation to their actual performances.
  • Faulty recruitment – The recruitment is biased towards the relatives of the owner with no regard to their actual suitability for the organization.
  • Performance review – There is no performance analysis and review system. No appraisals for well-performing staff and no periodic audit for salary compensations.
  • Staff retention – The owner is least bothered about staff satisfaction and the fact that there is a high of new employees.
  • Fairness and Effectiveness of the compensation system:

The compensation system applied here is neither effective nor fair. The bonus is distributed once a year based on the owner’s memory and personal opinion with no regard to their actual performances. The absence of a formal compensation system further deteriorates the situation.

  • Changes that should be introduced:
  • Proper and systematic recruitment of the staff. The bias towards the relatives of the owners despite their unsuitability for the job should be stopped.
  • Clear job descriptions and work-allotment. All fields should be given equal attention, from production to supervision to book-keeping.
  • A systematic performance analysis and review program.
  • A systematic approach to the compensation and benefits offered.

Establishment of a link between the personal goals of employees to the goals of the organization.(Long, Strategic Compensation in Canada :A Road Map to Effective Compensation, 2018)

Compensation and Benefits


The company should carefully consult a Human Resource consultancy to create an effective compensation and benefit system. The recruitment process also needs help from professional hiring agencies. The job profiles and the corresponding compensation packages must be highlighted in the job descriptions. The appointment and work-allocation of the employees must be based on their qualities. There must be a balanced focus on all the necessary fields of the firm instead of focusing only on the production. The compensation and benefits provided to the employees must be linked with the organizational goals of the firm to create a sense of accomplishment among the employees. A fair, just and satisfactory compensation system goes a long way in securing the best employees for the long term future of the firm.A happy employee will always contribute in the growth of the company.


Long, S. (2018). Strategic Compensation in Canada : A Behavioural Framework for Compensation. Nelson.

Long, S. (2018). Strategic Compensation in Canada :A Road Map to Effective Compensation. Nelson.

Long, S. (2018). Strategic Compensation in Canada: Evaluating Individuals. Nelson.

Essay on Compensation and Benefits in an Organization by Subject Academy

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ADNOC Abu Dhabi National Oil Company

1. Introduction:

ADNOC is considered as one of the largest energy company of the world both in case of reserves and production. Ruwais and Umm Al Nar are two oil refineries operated by the company. These two oil refineries are having 18 subsidiary companies at upper level and under it at down level stage of production. The company gas fields at both onshore and offshore level. To increase the supply of local electricity and water utilities, the company export Liquid natural gas. The company provide electricity and water services to petrochemical plants.

Headquarter of ADNOC is located in Abu Dhabi. The building of the company contains sustainable technologies. There are more than 65 floors with an office tower in overall building complex which consists ofcrisis management center, a heritage museum, and other support facilities.

1.2 Objectives of the company:

The primary focus of the company is on strategic areas:

  • Investing in the people
  • Enhancing the company’s performance
  • Increasing profitability
  •  Optimizingefficiencies

1.3 Services of the company:

  • Exploration and production of oil and gas

Abu Dhabi Company for Onshore Petroleum Operations (ADCO)

In Abu Dhabi, ADCO works onshore and in shallow coastal water. The original name of the company was Petroleum Development. The first concession was given to the company on 11 January 1939 but its geological operations did not begin until after World War II. The first oil discovery of oil was made at Bab in 1960. In 1962, the company was renamed the Abu Dhabi Petroleum Company. Then the company started its exports on 14 December 1963. Then in 1973, 25% equity was acquired by government.And it was increased to 60% in 1974. This name Abu Dhabi Company for Onshore Petroleum Operations was adopted by the company in 1978.

Generating new job opportunities:

The company has clear motive of generating new job opportunities working towards the research and development and contributing towards growth in employment rate. Since 1971 they have created thousands of job for the people of Abu Dhabi and they have driven the growth of a diverse knowledge-based economy they also play a key role in the county’s global emergence. Not only this have they also contributed in education sector as well like an engineering education and energy industry Research College and a K-12 school.

Enhancing the company’s performance

The company strives towards success and continuous growth. It has been notice that over the years the company has become one of the leading industries. From past 45 years the company has played a major role in Abu Dhabi’s economic growth and development and also keeping on mind the preservation of hydrocarbons reserves of   the Emirate’s. They also provide operation and management of seaport and also offer oil and gas technical training services in order to enhance services. They are the leading energy producers in the world and the main reason behind Abu Dhabi’s development, growth and diversification. The work has had a positive and lasting impact on the quality of millions of lives. As for the contribution towards society is concerned so since 1971 they have created thousands of job for the people of Abu Dhabi and they have driven the growth of a diverse knowledge-based economy they also play a key role in the county’s global emergence. (OGJ, July 10)

Increasing profitability

They are the leading energy producers in the world and the main reason behind Abu Dhabi’s development, growth and diversification. The company across the entire natural oil chain creating huge network of businesses which is only possible by  including  exploration, distribution, storage ,production and refining to the development of a wide-range of petrochemical products in the industry.

As we all are aware that the company strives for excellence and is continuously working on the growth and development of the country as well as the company itself. (Anon., Oct. 16)


Energy Management Systems structure of ADNOC

As mentioned above the company focuses on overall growth. As stated by the Director Energy Manage Sponsor as large suppliers and consumer of energy the EnMS enables to deliver long-term gas plans under effective and cost effective way. The company has gained benefits of 6% from ENMs. So far the improvement has gone to 6% from the baseline since 2014

Optimizing efficiencies

The cumulative cost savings of US $150 million has been observed and reduction in emission of 3.1 million metric tons of carbon dioxide. The company’s midterm target is to reach to an improvement level of 10% by 2020 almost making the saving of about US $1 billion.

Now they strive for new and innovative ways to maximize the value of pioneering those approaches, the resources and technologies that will make sure that the company is able to meet the demands of every business market and will work towards the contribution of Abu Dhabi’s economy for coming future.



  • Oil

Crude oil production

  • Gas

Gas oil, kerosene, fuel gas, LPG

  • Sulphur and marine transportation
  • Manufacture of petrochemicals

Polypropylene, ethylene, and polyethylene

  • Distribute petroleum products

Marine fuel, gasoline, jet fuel and lubricants.

  • Other services

Oilfield services and oil shipping

Convenience stores

The ownership and operation of gas stations


They provide services like drilling, crude oil production, natural gas, sour gas and liquefied natural gas, refined petroleum products like gasoline, gas oil, kerosene, fuel gas, LPG, liquid and granulated sulphur. Not only this the company also worked in the manufacture of petrochemicals which including polypropylene, ethylene, and polyethylene. Moving on to intermediate chemicals it including liquid and gaseous oxygen and nitrogen, xenon and krypton, some agriculture products include granular urea and ammonia.

They also distribute petroleum products that include marine fuel, gasoline, jet fuel and lubricants. The other services provided are oilfield services and oil shipping, convenience stores, the ownership and operation of gas stations, not only this they also have contributed in education sector as well like an engineering education and energy industry research college and a K-12 school, they also provide operation and management of seaport and also offers oil and gas technical training services in order to enhance services. (Oxford Business Group, 2015)

2. Contribution

2.1 Responsibilities Creation

They also have contributed in education sector as well like an engineering education and energy industry Research College and a K-12 school, they also provide operation and management of seaport and also offers oil and gas technical training services in order to enhance services.

They are the leading energy producers in the world and the main reason behind Abu Dhabi’s development, growth and diversification. The company across the entire natural oil chain creating huge network of businesses which is only possible by  including  exploration, distribution, storage ,production and refining to the development of a wide-range of petrochemical products in the industry.

Responsibilities Modification

As the company works towards its growth and achievements it also understands its responsibilities towards society and these are the reasons why the company is working on providing employment, education and research opportunities. The company looks for its betterment but it also works for the betterment of the society. They are the leading energy producers in the world and the main reason behind Abu Dhabi’s development, growth and diversification. (Molina, 2014)

The company across the entire natural oil chain creating huge network of businesses which is only possible by  including  exploration, distribution, storage ,production and refining to the development of a wide-range of petrochemical products in the industry.

ADNOC Abu Dhabi National Oil Company

Preconceived view of assignment

The six week internship provided a huge amount of knowledge and experience. According to my view this was the best way gain practical knowledge. I feel privileged to be a part of ADNOC internship team.

The internship was a golden opportunity to learn new thing from one of the biggest company.

Learning of the Internship

  • Introduction to Finance support manager function structure and role of responsibilities.
  • Checking the invoice uploaded by supplier at the end of the month.
  • Month end closing activities.
  • Contract review process.
  • Handling General ledgers
  • Cash Management
  • Providing cash forecast budget

The company’s contribution:

  • The company is making its strategy related to a Human resource by having in view the development and formation of mission, vision, and strategy of the business.
  • The company also ensure that there should be proper implementation of plans so that business targets can be achieved.
  • The company also motivate the employees time to time by providing those bonuses and appraisal.
  • It recommends a proper organizational structure to Human resource department so that all the resources can be properly utilized and communication should be proper. (Wilson, 1980)
  • There is proper arrangement of meetings, campaigns and conferences time to time to promote the plans for achievement of the desired target.
  • The company manages the recruitment strategy as well. There is proper structured interviewing of candidates, psychometric tests before hiring them.
  • The company ensures human resource department to make a timely budget for all the plans so that no budgetary issues should be there.
  • It ensures personal development plans for all the employees for their personal growth.
  • Training and development programs are organized time to time for growth of employees.

Explore new methods for learning new techniques which will augment the training process for the purpose to successfully train and develop personnel and improve organizational effectiveness.

This internship would be very beneficial for the future and placements. The experience of the industry would make me the right candidate for the job.

  • Can also apply in ADNOC
  • Practical knowledge hold great value.
  • Made my CV valuable

4. Impact on career

ADNOC Abu Dhabi National Oil Company
  • Contribution of College towards organization and career
  • The college provided the opportunity to work with the organization and gain experience.
  • Internship programs help students learn more and practically implement their knowledge.
  • Focuses on professional growth and development.

Contribution of college towards organization and your career

  • As the college provides these internship programs to the students thus paving the path of great success for the students.
  • Such programs provide job opportunities to the students.
  • Internship programs help students learn more and practically implement their knowledge.
  • Focuses on professional growth and development (Anon., Nov. 15)

Before hiring the employees, company need to have a match of individual and organizational needs. The company also focus on performance and appraisals time to time to motivate the employees. It’s the responsibility of Human resource manager to make sure for proper fit among employees and organization. Thus under career planning practices of the company, main considered facts are:

  • Matching of Individual-Organization before hiring employees
  • Identification of Career Opportunities and Requirements
  • Assessment of potential of employee
  • Instituting Career Development Initiative

The six week internship provided a huge amount of knowledge and experience. According to my view this was the best way gain practical knowledge. I feel privileged to be a part of ADNOC internship team.

ADNOC Abu Dhabi National Oil Company Research by Subject Academy

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