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Category: Essay Writing

Essay on Processed Food

Processed food is mainly considered unprocessed foods. Processed food are foods that are either packaged or boxed and contain artificial colors, flavors or any other chemical substance that keeps it fresh in their containers and they may include shelf life, which means that they are kept on shelves for days or even months and still stay fresh. There are many reasons and side effects of processed food and why they exist.

What are the main methods of processed food and why does is exist?

Processed foods are anything that are bagged, boxed, jarred or canned and has a list label that has the ingredients. Processed food is more convenient, it’s so easy to bake, cook and very fast to use and eat. Thus, the main methods of processed food are also freezing, refrigerating, and aseptic processing (foods that are sterilized or packaged into containers). People eat processed food too, because it makes it easier to make food, more available, safer, and has more nutrients. Processed foods have the advantage of saving time and this makes them tempt to people who have a busy lifestyle and for those who don’t particularly like to cook. Most processed foods come with a very low-price tag that makes people buy more from it and eat more (The Many Risks of Processed Foods, 2019).However, we have to look at the bad hidden costs that it has and how it effects our health badly. Hence, 90% of the money spent on food is used to buy processed food, mostly everyone spends less on organic food rather than processed food, because processed food is cheaper and easier to cook and comes in a bigger quantity than organic foods. I do not blame people who buy processed food, because its tastier and fast to eat and all organic foods are expensive and are double the price of any processed food. The capacity of processed food isn’t a medical issue, but the reactions handled from processed food are deceptive.

Processed food

What is the difference between Ultra Processed food and Processed food?

However, there is a difference between Minimally Processed foods and Heavily processed food. (Eating Processed Foods Can Cause Many Digestive Problems, Brown, K. June 24, 2019).Minimally processed foods are food that does not change the product at all. Minimally processed food is defined as ‘unprocessed food’. However, heavily processed foods are the changes of regular food to Ultra-processed food which are called ‘Tertiary processing’ (food that are ready and fast, and easier to eat. I also learned about the health risks of heavily processed food and how it increases the risk of cancer, lacking nutritional value, depression, anxiety, and that it is full of artificial ingredients and bad for our health. What we actually eat has a humungous impact on our health and in a very bad way, and ultra- processed foods like sweets, candy, pizza, soft drinks, and chips don’t contain a sufficient amount of beneficial nutrients. The more ultra-processed foods we eat, the poorer the overall nutritional quality of our diet and health. However, not every food that comes in a box is ultra-processed. Grown-ups whose diet include progressively heavily processed foods like, burgers, ice cream, junk food mainly leads to risks like cardiovascular disease and more often their lives are shorter, because it kills and breaks down your body very fast.

Processed food

What does Shelf life (prolong) food mean and why it exists?

 Thus, Processed food exists, as a result of many reasons that embrace shelf life(prolong) which they place it in an appealing means that grabs your attention that causes you to get additional in a humongous way and doesn’t coast plenty. Processed foods area unit sometimes is less vulnerable to early spoilage than recent foods and area unit higher fitted to long distance transportation from the supply to the buyer, after they were 1st introduced, some processed foods helped to alleviate food shortages and improved the general nutrition of populations because it created several new foods offered to the plenty. As we know, every type of food merchandise remains for a special length of your time and there are a unit variety of things which will have an effect on the time period of an exact food. (Hidden Dangers of Processed and Package Foods What to Eat Instead, 2007).Not purely will the time period of your food rely upon the means during which it’s been hold on reception and also the means it’s been handled, treated and held on before incoming at supermarkets and this additionally plays a task in how long your food can remain.

How to stop eating Processed food and have a healthy lifestyle?

 However, reducing processed food could be a bit hard if your used to it, therefore by time you need to continuously scan the labels, begin slowly to make yourself get used to the routine and food in order to protect yourself and your body and have a healthy lifestyle. (Hidden Dangers of Processed and Package Foods What to Eat Instead, 2007). However, in my opinion it’s much better if you cook your meals at home, to know what you are eating and if it is harmful or healthy for you.

In conclusion, processed foods are very bad and have a humungous negative influence on your health and may lead to many diseases and sickness. However, people do not realize what they are eating is bad for them, but because it tastes delicious and fast to cook and eat, so people should start stopping processed food and go to organic and healthy food in order to have a better health without any diseases and sickness.

Reference list:

  • The Many Risks of Processed Foods. (n.d). Retrieved from

https://www.lhsfna.org/index.cfm/lifelines/may-2019/the-many-health-risks-of-processed-foods/


Essay on Processed Food By Subject Academy

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Why Should Emirati Female Students Study Abroad?

Introduction:

Every individual is unique and comes with a set of talents which are their very own. While the concept of traveling overseas for studies is not new, it has become a trend recently, with parents expecting their wards to travel far to gain an education. The question here is, should this trend be allowed or should the female students in Emirates go overseas to gain enough knowledge in their area or should they stick with the local universities?  There are many who argue that going overseas might bring more exposure and opportunities. However, there are some other sections which are against this trend and suggest that the preferences should be based upon individual interests and also upon the caliber of the student. The debate here is not about giving equal opportunities, but about what are the challenges she will be facing when traveling abroad and is it necessary to face them when she can study in Emirates itself.

Thesis Statement:

Although many Emirati women want to study abroad, they have to overcome many challenges before they can go ahead with their plans

Argumentative Essay

Support Section – 1 Parental and Guardian Approvals

While the world has advanced considerably and moved forward, there are some very big challenges faced by Emirati female students when it comes to studying abroad. One of the most challenging aspects is getting the parental or guardian permission for traveling abroad to study (Coker, M. 2018). Here, one needs to understand that it is not only the overseas studies which require permission from the guardians but even local travels away from home is controlled depending upon whether a parent or a guardian offers acceptance for it. So, despite winning a scholarship or a seat in a prestigious college abroad, parental controls act as a mandatory factor before they can travel.

Also, many female students are controlled by societal constraints when it comes to higher studies. Many times, even when they get the opportunities, the lack of male guardianship to accompany them abroad or their permission has made them leave opportunities (Steph, 2015). Parents, with close-mindedness about women traveling, stop them from grabbing opportunities which have come their way. Researchers are of the opinion that this trend be because, the parents are still scared of their daughters being made victims of hateful rumors and other societal pressures (Saeed, A., 2016). This challenge is something that many individual female students have to face before they can fulfill their dreams.

Support Section – 2 Religious and Cultural Divide

Another very serious challenge that the students face in a foreign soil is the religious and cultural divide. Although the globalization has brought many changes in the values and traditions held by people around the world, some of the most stringent norms still stick together. That is why; several Emirati women who travel for studying find it hard to get accustomed to the cultural divide faced by them outside their country. In order to cope up with this, people opt for countries which are more traditional in their norms and do not outrightly neglect traditions. Ireland, for examples, is a country where many Emirati feel at home, due to their calm and quiet surroundings and traditional values. One of the female students who is studying in Ireland has been quoted by the reporter as saying: “People are more conservative than other western countries or other European nations’’ (Gokulan, D., 2013). This attitude is seen in many female students who feel that their parents would be more forthcoming if they choose such universities.

Argumentative Essay

Even though, it is not always possible to choose such countries or institutes based upon the traditional values or equivalent family orientation alone. Students living abroad say in the US and the UK feel the one thing they miss the most is their celebrations. ‘Eid and other festive occasions mark a matter of highest importance in the life of Emirates and this is what they lack when they live abroad. There is also the fact about living independently when they are so much used to having a house help of some sort of person accompanying them everywhere (Mehari, A.D). Again here, the opinions vary. Many girl students are happy living overseas, even though there are challenges to be faced, such as discriminations or stereotyping of being from Arab countries.

Support Section – 3 Language and a Higher level of Education

It is true that the Universities in the UAE are catching up with the world in their educational reforms and modifications to match up with their contemporaries. However, there are still certain difficulties faced by the students when they travel abroad. Language barriers are one of them seen amongst not only the female Emirati students but also the male ones too. English, the primary language in all institutions across the world, save for a few countries, has posted a great challenge for the Emirati female students. Although Universities in Emirates have their medium of instruction as English, the society as a whole and the household itself has found to become bigger issues for the students traveling abroad. Many feel that this language issue has restricted their communication with fellow students and have hampered their writing skills too (Abu Rabia, H.M., 2017). Not only the writing skills or communication is affected, but the overall grades also very much decreased, making it challenging for the female students to cope up with the pressure.

The same is also true for the higher level of education in the universities abroad. While there has been constant change in the Emirati Universities to match up with the concepts and quality of education, female students traveling overseas have found the levels of education and expectations much higher in case of those universities than they were used to at home. Many take it up as a challenge to rise to the occasion and come up with several ways to tackle it, while several find it extremely difficult to cope up. The female students are more so, with their lack of communication levels and cultural shocks they face in such societies (McClusky, B., 2017). With male and female students placed in the same classrooms, it becomes difficult for many to even adjust to the norms and adapt to cultural shocks. There is also the issue of male professors in the overseas universities, which makes it difficult for the students to even get up to ask queries regarding their subjects (McLean, M & Higgins, S. B). All this and much more makes it difficult for them to cope up with a higher level of education, thereby reducing their grades.

Counterargument: 1

There is a debate in many sections and even in the media that both male and female students have similar issues when it comes to cultural and language issues. The male students are also stereotyped as the female.

Rebuttal: 1

The point of contention here is that although the issues may be the same, there are certain facts such as Arab women not used to mixing with the male at home that poses a challenge for them. Also, the clothing makes a huge difference when it comes to men and women. While most women are used to Hijab at home, the same is not true for the male students. The same is true for sitting in the same class as the male students too. One of the female students felt it a sin to sit with a male counterpart in her class overseas, or even taught by a male teacher because she is not used to it back home (Abu Rabia, H.M., 2017).

Language is also a problem more so with the female student because with male going out and communicating with more people, the language barrier seems to decrease. This is not the case with the female student, because they are confined at home, with only their siblings and family members to talk to and communicate, which is mostly in their local tongue.

Counterargument: 2

There is also a debate in different sections of the society that several Emirati female students travel abroad today and have moved to different counties for education. If there is a challenge, where is it? Parents are not restrictive anymore.

Rebuttal: 2

While it is all true on paper, there are still many challenges faced by Arab women, when they want to travel abroad for higher studies. One of the issues is that many parents believe in getting them married young, and not wanting their daughters to travel to places and bring a bad name to their households (Raghavan, S., 2017). Similarly, the researchers have found that the social and parental pressures are still very much there are and the female students cannot move to another country without someone accompanying them. There is also this conservative attitude about the ‘biological role’ played by the female students in a society, and why they should not pursue higher education, such as in Medicinal field (McLean, M & Higgins, S. B.). These girls, when they aspire to become something or want to go abroad are married off earlier to avoid such conflict of opinion. Hence, even though there are changes, and many female students are going abroad, there are still many challenges that the female students face, more than the male counterparts.

Conclusion:

The female Emirati students face a whole lot of challenges when they plan to go abroad to study further. Apart from the societal pressures, such as parental pressures, and cultural issues, they also find it difficult to cope up with the sudden changes they face in the other country. Being brought up in a confined environment and with limited interaction with the male of the society; it becomes difficult for them to face changes in the new place. The same is true with cultural shocks and other barriers such as speaking in a different language too. With most of them not very conversant in English, their communication becomes limited and they try to struggle to cope up with the problems. However, one positive aspect is that things are changing, and there are many more female Emirati students going abroad to study further. With Universities in the UAE making it easier for female students to study further than their high school, it has become easier for them to interact even with the male students in such universities. Even the parents are relenting, when they see what is happening in society. It is only up to the female students now to come out of the societal norms to make a mark in the world, in their own field.

References:

McClusky, B. (2017). Investigating the relationships between education and culture for female students in tertiary settings in the UAE. Edith Cowan University. Retrieved November 30, 2018, from https://ro.ecu.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2976&context=theses.

Ahmad, A. S., Dr, & AlDarmaki, F., Dr. (2017). Uncovering Educational Barriers to Female Leadership in the United Arab Emirates. Zayed University. Retrieved November 30, 2018, from https://www.zu.ac.ae/main/en/research/publications/_documents/Educational Barriers to Female Leadership in UAE.pdf.

Coker, M. (2018, June 22). How Guardianship Laws Still Control Saudi Women. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2018/06/22/world/middleeast/saudi-women-guardianship.html

Gokulan, D. (2013) Studying abroad: Emirati students adjust to Ireland life. Retrieved from <https://www.khaleejtimes.com/nation/education/studying-abroad-emirati-students-adjust-to-ireland-life

Mehairi, D. A. (2013). Emirati students abroad face a variety of challenges. Retrieved from http://zajelzu.ae/2013/01/24/emirati-students-abroad-face-a-variety-of-challenges/

Steph (2015) Help! I want to study abroad but my parents won’t let me! Retrieved from <https://whywaittoseetheworld.com/i-want-to-study-abroad-parents-wont-let-me/>

Raghavan, S (2017) Saudi women need permission from male guardians for life choices. Will new reforms help end this? Retrieved from <https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2017/05/12/saudi-women-need-permission-from-male-guardians-for-life-choices-will-new-reforms-help-end-this/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.a3ada632079a>

Abu Rabia, H. M. (2017). Undergraduate Arab International Students’ Adjustment to U.S. Universities. International Journal of Higher Education,6(1). Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1123643.pdf.

McLean, M., & Higgins, S. B. (2017). Male and female Emirati medical clerks ’ perceptions of the impact of gender and mobility on their professional careers. Bond University Faculty of Health Sciences & Medicine Publications. Retrieved December 1, 2018, from https://epublications.bond.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2528&context=hsm_pubs.


Essay on Why Should Emirati Female Students Study Abroad?

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Organization Behaviour Essay

Introduction:

Mr Simon is a line manager in a retail organization. He has been serving the organization at the same post for the past 12 years. During this period, he has twice been considered for promotion, and rejected in favour of other candidates due to better formal qualifications, despite having considerably more experience. Recently, he was rejected for promotion for the third time. This has completely wrecked his morale and lost all desire to work for the organization any more. He was overheard discussing with his colleague by his team leader that his career has become completely stagnant in this organization and its time to move on for the sake of his career(Erdem & Ozen, 2014). The team leader, as well as the whole team[l1] , are worried about the potential loss of Mr Simon as he is an integral part of the team. He is highly regarded by the members of the staff as well.

In this essay, we will understand and address the case of Mr Simon in the most effective way possible. The major issues arising here, such as negative perception and hurting the spirit of teamwork, will be addressed(Chong & Wolf, 2010).

Perception:

Perception is defined as the process of experiencing the world surrounding us and all the elements in it via our sensory organs. The unlimited sources of information around us emit unlimited amounts of information that we can interact with, with the help of our sensory organs. These sensory organs supply us with ‘sense’(Homberg, McCarthy, & Tabvuma, 2015).

Featuresof Perception:

Perception is a complex psychological as well as physiological process that mainly possesses the following features:

  • It is a process of intellectual form that via which a person chooses and selects the information from its sources, organizes and extracts sense out of it.
  • It is a cognitive process that indicates that the actions, thoughts, and emotions of people are directly influenced by their perception of subjects.
  • It is a subjective process. It may slightly or greatly vary from person to person(Badubi, 2017).
Organization Behaviour Essay

The process of Perception:

  1. Inputs of Perception – The first stage where a person comes across various types of data and information around him. The process of perception starts as soon as the person starts interacting with this information. These informational objects can be objects, ideas or people.
    1. Implementation of Perception – It is the second stage where the selection, organization, and interpretation of stimuli take place. The selection of stimuli is selecting the one particular stimulus to respond to, out of an infinite number of it. The organization of stimuli is the categorization and prioritization of information on the base of perceptual grouping(Hsieh, 2016).
    1. The output of Perception – After the observation, organization, and processing of stimuli, the final output comes out, it can be in the form of an action such as the formation of an attitude, belief, opinion, etc. about the stimuli(Morteza, Abbas, & Salahshour, 2013).

Perception in the case of Mr. Simon:

The situation of Mr. Simon clearly highlights a change of perception from productive, motivating and positive to the exact opposite. He started out and carried on his job diligently for over a decade. This clearly highlights his positive perception of his job. He clearly felt he deserves a promotion which a rightful expectation for an employee of his quality. But then his promotion was rejected for the first time, on the basis of comparatively lesser formal qualifications. This must-have affected his perception, although not by much but to a limited extent. Then he carries on his job diligently and in the next few years, applies for promotion again(Seejeen, 2020). This time his promotion is rejected as well, based on the same reasoning. Now, this was bound to have hurt his positive perception and demotivated him as well. A hint of negativity also spread among his team members. He still kept himself together and carried on doing his job carefully. Now, for the third time, his promotion has been rejected for the same cause, despite him serving for over 12 years with a clean and commendable record. This has clearly created a perception of negativity, depreciation, and stagnation of his career(Im & J. W., 2013). He is completely demotivated and even discussing his departure from the organization. He won’t be able to carry on his job with the same determination and industry, naturally. His team members, who acknowledge his skills and specialization, are also worried about the same treatment in their careers. This has hurt the morale of all the members of the team. This could lead to a lack of teamwork and ultimately, a loss for the organization. But what is teamwork? How it affects the performance of an organization? Let us find out(Andersen J. A., 2010). [l2] 

Motivation and Atitude

Motivation and attitude are two key points that go hand in hand. Motivation comes when there is apprication of work which in return changes the attitude of the person. If the work of an employee is not appreciated his attitude gets affected. In the case an employee who was rejected thrice his attitude changed from positive to negative and after surving the company for 10 years he considered leaving the job which agin reflects negative attitude, demotivation and  dissatisfaction(Andersen & Kjeldsen, 2013). [l3] 

Types of attitudes:

1) Explicit attitude – These are the attitudes that you are fully aware of and influence your behaviour towards the subjects. You are consciously aware of these factors that directly affect our beliefs. For example, you meet a new person through your friends, and they are wearing a jersey of your favourite football team, you automatically form a likeable opinion about the person since you both support the same team. This attitude is explicit in nature i.e. this formation of a likeable opinion was deliberate (Beier, C., &amp; Kanfer, 2018) . Now relating the same to the case as Mr Simon dedicated his 10 in the company he had fored a likeness towards the company this was reflected from the behavior that we applied three time for the promotion.

2) Implicit attitude – These are the attitudes that you are not consciously aware of but still greatly influence your behaviour towards the subjects. You have no conscious awareness of your actions and behaviour but they still influence your beliefs(Kang, 2014). For example, you are walking down the street on a Saturday night. You see a person wearing a mask advancing towards you. You automatically form a feeling of danger from that person. The person could be wearing the mask to keep the cold out, but you will still unconsciously develop an opinion about that person. This attitude is implicit in nature as this was not a deliberate action, but an unconscious opinion you formed (Coile&amp; Levine, 2011). In the case  Mr Simon discussed the issue with other employee and this might have affected perception of that another employee the attitude changed and it might have made him feel that this could happen to him as well.

The theory states about the what employee expect from the organization and what he receives can bring dissatisfaction in the employee. Mr. Simon epected a promotion based on experience which as his expectation but was denied on the base of qualification and here the theory was violated and affected the employess satisfaction(Caillier, Satisfaction With Work-Life Benefits and Organizational Commitment/Job Involvement: Is There a Connection?, 2012).

The theory states that the employee inputs his effort and expects a positive response in the form of rewars that brings satisfaction in them. In the case of Mr. Simon’s he was not rewared for his work.

[l4] 

Teamwork:

Teamwork can be defined as the collective effort put forth by a group of coordinated members. In the world of business, almost nothing can be achieved without collective efforts of a team, or simply, teamwork. Organizations employ hundreds, thousands, and even millions of employees that work in groups to achieve the goals of the organization. The members of such teams are required to possess some specific skills and qualities to able to work efficiently in a group(Caillier, Does public service motivation mediate the relationship between goal clarity and both organizational commitment and extra-role behaviours? , 2014). Let us understand the importance of teamwork in a more elaborated manner:

Teamwork

Importance of Teamwork:

Targets are achieved faster – This is the primary benefit of teamwork. It is naturally apparent that a group of skilled members will complete a task at a much higher pace than an individual. The responsibilities get delegated and workload gets distributed accordingly to relieve the pressure and improve working accuracy. When the workload gets shared and individual targets highlighted, the overall work gets done in a much quicker manner. This is the reason behind such a serious implementation of teamwork throughout the world of business(Cantarelli, Belardinelli, & Belle, 2015).

Efficiency and effectiveness – No business organization can run successfully without sufficient profits. And pending work is not going to generate profits. It is instrumental to deploy teams specializing in different fields to get as much work done as possible on time. The approaches to the accomplishment of goals can be discussed before and through the process to minimize doubts and delays.

Work is always the priority – For example, John is an accounting assistant in his organization, but he fell prey to serious illness and will be unable to attend office for four weeks. Now the work John was supposed to be doing will be delayed for as long as he is out. This is where teamwork rescues the day. Another member of his team will step up and share his workload to continue the work. This is a crucial aspect for any business organization, letting such incidents hurt the performance of the organization is not an option. Teamwork is the way to go(Chordiya, Sabharwal, & Goodman, 2017).

Professional development of staff – Teamwork leads to sharing and learning of various skills, abilities, and qualities among the members of the group. This works in favour of all by cultivating positive characteristics among the team members, improving the quality of staff for the organization, ultimately leading to better performance and profits.

Development of competitive spirit – A healthy competition is a positive sign for any group as it drives the members to better than one another, ultimately elevating the overall quality of the team.

Development of team spirit – When a group of people works together for some time, sharing their authority and abilities, leads to the formation of a strong bond that is based upon trust and reliance. This results in the formation of team spirit which often leads to long-term retention of staff for the organization.

Self-assessment of members – Teams do not require any specialist eye of supervision as members of the team act as supervisors to one another. This is a total benefit situation for the organization(Chu & Lai, 2011).

Theory of Teamwork:

Teamwork isn’t a modern concept. In fact, it’s not even a medieval concept, it’s been around for centuries. Alexander the great, the Macedonian king who conquered every place he marched to, relied heavily upon the teamwork of his army. A further peak into this will clear up the doubts further–

  1. Scientific management theory – This theory was put forward by Frederick Winslow Taylor. He was an engineer for a firm called Bethlehem Steel in 1889. He started observing his workers who were tasked with the unloading of iron off rail cars and loading steel. He found out that they were deliberately working under capacity. He approached this observation scientifically and found out that the workers were currently loading 12.5 tonnes of metal in a day, while they were easily capable of loading 47.5 tonnes of metal per day(Fernandez & Moldogaziev, Employee empowerment and job satisfaction in the U.S. federal bureaucracy., 2013). He decided to motivate his workers by motivating them with the help of substantial incentives. He announced increased wages in return for higher metal loading goals. This scheme worked successfully. His research provided these crucial observations-
  2. Work should be scientifically analyzed to find out the best method to perform it.
  3. Staff selection should be carefully conducted in order to get the best employees.
  4. There should be co-operation among the managers and sub-ordinates. This promotes understanding and clearer communication among the employees.
  5. Management should focus on preparing plans and approaches for the workers to execute them efficiently.

This theory shows us the significance of having hard-working employees in an organization to maximize the outputs with minimum inputs ultimately resulting in greater profits(Fernandez, Resh, Moldogaziev, & Oberfield, 2015).

Teamwork in the case of Mr Simon:

As discussed earlier, the potential departure of Mr Simon from the organization has already caused a strong wave of discomfort among the members of his team. This is certainly going to hurt the individual as well as collective performances of the members, ultimately hurting the performance of the organization. Mr Simon, who is held in high regard by his team members, is seriously considering his future at the organization and even has discussed his intention to leave the firm as he feels his denial of promotion has halted his career progress. Every member of the team is bound to empathize with him, and hypothetically imagine the same scenario for themselves, leading to a strong feeling of insecurity for their future. The morale of the team will be down the hill and you can not expect unhappy employees to perform well. This is going to be a disaster for the organization(Frampton, 2014). [l5] 

Solution suggested:

Diligent, loyal and determined employees are a precious commodity to any organization. Mr Simon definitely fits the description of such an employee. His third successive rejection of promotion is forcing him to make the ultimate decision of leaving the organization for his own good. There is no doubt that Mr Simon deserves the promotion to the next level. The organization themselves will greatly benefit by having such a high-quality staff member at a higher post with greater responsibilities. This is will further motivate him to work harder. The doubts among his team members will also be addressed leading to better performances and higher profit for the organization. So, the top management should discuss the issue with Mr Simon, and duly promote him. They should also fix their promotion policy to prevent any future incidents of this nature(George & Pandey, 2017).

Conclusion:

The case of Mr Simon has shown us a common scenario in the corporate world. He served as a trusty workhorse for the organization and expected a promotion as any other employee in his shoes would. But due to a faulty promotion policy,he wasn’t promoted. The theories discussed have helped in highlighting the issues as well as provided the ways to remedy it. One should always remember, a happy employee will always perform better than an unhappy employee.[l6] 

References

Andersen, J. A. (2010, Dec 24). Public versus private managers: How public and private managers differ in leadership behavior. . Public Administration Review, 70(1), 131–141. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6210.2009.02117.x

Andersen, L. B., & Kjeldsen, A. M. (2013, Aug 15). Public service motivation, user orientation, and job satisfaction: A question of employment sector? International Public Management Journal, 16 (2), 252–274. doi:10.1080/10967494.2013.817253

Baba, V. V. (2012, May 25). Toward a theory of evidence-based decision making. Management Decision, 50(5), 832–867. doi:10.1007/s10551-018-3955-6

Badubi, M. R. (2017, Aug 3). Theories of Motivation and Their Application in Organizations: A Risk Analysis. International Journal of Innovation and Economic Development, 3(3), 44-51. doi:10.18775/ijied.1849-7551-7020.2015.33.2004

Caillier, J. G. (2012, May 8). Satisfaction With Work-Life Benefits and Organizational Commitment/Job Involvement: Is There a Connection? Sage Journal, 33(4), 340-364. doi:10.1177/0734371X12443266

Caillier, J. G. (2014, Nov 26). Does public service motivation mediate the relationship between goal clarity and both organizational commitment and extra-role behaviours? . Public Management Review, 18(2), 300–318. doi:10.1080/14719037.2014.984625

Cantarelli, P., Belardinelli, P., & Belle, N. (2015, March 31). A meta-analysis of job satisfaction correlates in the public administration literature. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 36(2), 115–144. doi:10.1177/0734371X15578534

Chong, E., & Wolf, H. (2010). Factors influencing followers’ perception of organisational leaders. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 402-419. doi:10.1108/01437731011056434

Chordiya, R., Sabharwal, M., & Goodman, D. (2017, Feb 27). Affective organizational commitment and job satisfaction: A cross-national comparative study. Public Administration, 95(1), 178–195. doi:doi/abs/10.1111/padm.12306

Chu, L.-C., & Lai, C.-C. (2011, jan 1). A research on the influence of leadership style and job characteristics on job performance among accountants of county and city government in Taiwan. Public Personnel Management, 101–118. doi:10.1177/009102601104000202

Emirza, S., & Katrinli, A. (2019, Nov 4). The relationship between leader construal level and leader-member exchange relationship: The role of relational demography. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 845-859. . doi:10.1108/LODJ-02-2019-0084

Erdem, F., & Ozen, J. ( 2014, Nov 14). Cognitive and affective dimensions of trust in developing team performance. Team Performance Management, 9 (5/6 ), 131 – 135. doi:10.1108/13527590310493846

Fernandez, S., & Moldogaziev, T. (2013, Nov 6). Employee empowerment and job satisfaction in the U.S. federal bureaucracy. The American Review of Public Administration, 45(4), 375–401. doi:10.1177/0275074013507478

Fernandez, S., Resh, W. G., Moldogaziev, T., & Oberfield, Z. W. (2015, March 31). Assessing the past and promise of the federal employee viewpoint survey for public management research: A research synthesis. . Public Administration Review, 75(3), 382–394. doi:10.1111/puar.12368

Frampton, J. S. (2014, Jan 31). Commentary: Public sector job satisfaction: A conversation with impact. . Public Administration Review, 74(3), 396–397. doi:10.1007/s11115-020-00465-6

Frank, J. d. (2018, July 2). Ethics and Behavioural Theory: How Do Professionals Assess Their Mental Models? Journal of Business Ethics volume, 2(19), 933–947. doi:10.1007/s10551-018-3955-6

George, B., & Pandey, S. K. (2017, March 15). We know the yin—But where is the Yang? Toward a balanced approach on common source bias in public administration scholarship. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 37(2), 245–270. doi:10.1177/0734371X17698189

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Organization Behaviour Essay by Subject Academy

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Role of Elephants in Ecosystem

Elephants are important to Ecosystem but there are many threats associated with them and we should start taking measures to protect them.

 Significance

As we are aware that all species play a vital role in our ecosystem same is the case with elephants. They are the most intelligent species with a very strong emotional consciousness. They are also the keystone to maintain the biodiversity of the ecosystem.

 It is belied the huge animal provides water for various other species, during the dry season they use their trunk to dig for water and this not only helps the elephants to survive in dry seasons but the water source is also used by other spices as well.

The animal is feared due to its huge size but this species has its own way to contribute towards the environment. Its major role is not mass destruction but their action eventually leads to some benefits as well. Likewise when they eat they create huge gaps in the vegetation which people might think is the destruction of plantation but these processes allow new plants to grow. These gaps also create pathway for small animals. They also help in seed dispersion helping other species to grow.

As the animal feed on fruits and vegetables, so where it leaves its dung that is full of seeds it helps in seed dispersion. Later the seeds are sown and grown into new grasses, bushes, and trees.

Owning an elephant?

This huge animal can also be used for business purposes like tourism etc. In some places, they are used for safaris. Some people use them to lift heavy logs. In India where people worship these animals, the elephant owners take a huge amount of money from worshipers just to touch the huge beast. Though the animal is really huge it is really cool-headed and it will not harm you until it senses danger around. In the southern part of India, they are the source of amusement as these animals are used for transportation. People who visit these parts enjoy animal safaris. Not only has this elephant also been an attraction of various circuses.

Role of Elephants in Ecosystem

 Impact of their existence

As already discussed earlier this animal has also been an essential element of our ecosystem. They have played a very vital role in the environment’s balance.  History has been quite evident of the fact that these animals have played a very vital role in construction work whether it was carrying the heavy logs and stones or changing the route of rivers. We have also learned that these animals have also been the part of wars in ancient history. This beast is also hunted for its ivory tusk which has led to decrease in population of this animal.

Savanna Elephants

They are known as largest subspaces of elephants and they are easy to distinguish as this beast has very large ears which radiate excessive heat and their front legs are comparatively larger than their hind legs. They are found in Africa. In Savanna, these species are further grouped in which there are 10 females and their cub the males associated with the group only during the mating timing. Sometimes in order to form a clam, the members of other group or herd mingle with other groups or herds. As the Savanna’s are grassland these animals are found gazing the grass but they also feed on wide variety of plants and fruits.  They feed more on grass during the rainy season than during the dry season. (T.R Mc Clanahan, 1996)

Threats for them

Though the animal is facing many threats the biggest threat is the human race. Due to the increasing population, most of the forest area or green lands are being converted into widely populated areas thus leading to deforestation and pollution which means encroaching their habitat and disturbing their lifestyle. There is a huge conflict between the humans and elephants as the human has encroached their grassland these beast move into the populated area or they sometimes enter the fields and destroy the crops due to which sometimes they get shot for raiding crops.

Sometimes these animals are hunted for their ivory tusk. Though the elephant tusk selling is prohibited it has a huge value in the black market and that is the most frequent hunting of these animals.

Not only this they are also hunted for their meat. It is quite evident that the threat is not just to this huge beast but human population is becoming a threat to every species. We are disturbing the balance of the ecosystem. (K.N. Ninan, 2007)

Conservation Acts

National park and Reserves

Though the national park and reserves are there to protect these wild animals the space is not enough and is too isolated for these wild beasts. These are the reason why these animals wander in the populated area and destroy the vegetative land.

Tourism

African government has taken strong steps to protect the species due to rising significance of the tourist trade to their economies. Every year Kenya alone receives 50 million dollars from tourism alone. (Kasnoff, 1996)

Prohibition of Trade

The decline of the species has been a big concern and due to this, there was a complete ban on ivory in 1990. All trade of elephant species was prohibited, some countries have built up strong laws to stop poachers but still in some parts illegal trade is still done. (T.R Mc Clanahan, 1996)

Conclusion

The only threat to these wild species is the human population. We humans have grown so greedy that we are ready to scarify the entire species in order to fulfill our greed, unnecessary needs and demands. Though the elephants are huge they are very emotional and friendly animals. As they are already aware of their huge size they are very gentle towards their surroundings. Whenever we think of an elephant we image a huge animal that moves slowly and is cool and calm most of the time.

It is believed the elephants were tamed in the Indus valley around 4000BC. They play a very important role in both Hindu and Buddhist religion. In Hindus lord Ganesha has an elephant head, he is believed to remove all the obstructions from your life. In Buddhism lord has spoken a lot about the elephants in his teachings.

Bibliography

K.N. Ninan, S. (2007). The econony of biodiversity Conservation. earthscan in the UK and USA.

Kasnoff, C. (1996). Bagheera. http://www.endangeredspeciesjournalist.com/ .

T.R Mc Clanahan, T. Y. (1996). East African Ecosystem and their conservation. Oxford university press.

K.N. Ninan, S. (2007). The econony of biodiversity Conservation. earthscan in the UK and USA.

Kasnoff, C. (1996). Bagheera. http://www.endangeredspeciesjournalist.com/ .

T.R Mc Clanahan, T. Y. (1996). East African Ecosystem and their conservation. Oxford university press.


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Compensation and Benefits in an Organization

Assessment of the compensation system of Simply Literature Production

The compensation system of Simply Literature Production is unsystematic. There is no official system for compensation and benefits of the employees of the firm. There is no regular record-keeping for the performances of the employees. There is no performance analysis and no systematic arrangement of employees. Despite employing 120 people, there is a complete lack of methodical and structured employment as most of them are made to work in production. A small number of supervisors who are puzzled about their job are often contradicting each other. How are they supposed to “supervise” their subordinates if they are themselves disorganized and ill-informed about their jobs? The employment of relatives despite their inability to perform well shows bias, appointment of only one book-keeper for over a hundred employees is bound to result in confusions and conflicts, the dearth of specialists in any field shows a complete deficiency of specialization in the firm, the lackadaisical distribution of leaves shows no ambition for the organizational goals and, lastly, the jumbled bonus system will sure to hurt the morale of the employees. In short, there’s a total lack of a systematic approach throughout the management of the firm which is bound to failure.(Long, Strategic Compensation in Canada: Evaluating Individuals, 2018)

Compensation and Benefits

The reason behind the high turnover of new employees

Considering the highly unorganized nature of the management of the firm, it is not a surprise that most of the employees end up resigning in a short passage of time and are replaced by the new ones. The major reasons behind this are:

  • The supervisors have to work in the management as well as the production. They have confused about their job profile. How can one expect them to control and supervise their subordinates? This leads to poor management and creates chaos among the employees. Ultimately, they leave and the vacancies are filled by recruits.
  • There is no proper program for employee compensation and benefits. They are given bonuses based on the owner’s memory of them every Christmas. This will demotivate the employees and ultimately force them out of the firm. The basic concept of motivation by monetary incentives is absent.
  • The lack of organizational goals and objectives has led to a mix-up of employees in various tasks. Supervisors are working in production, only one bookkeeper is handling the books of 120 employees and most of the recruitments are biased in favour of the owner’s relatives. There are no organizational or personal goals outlined.
  • There is no performance review and analysis, no salary and compensation audit and no appraisal program on a timely basis. The new employees are on the mercy of the owner’s memory. The older ones are always well-paid since the owner considers them loyal no regards to their performance whatsoever. This will alienate the new employees instead of welcoming them, ultimately forcing their hand to pen the resignation.
  • There is no delegation of decision making power, authority and responsibility throughout the firm. Everyone is clueless about their powers and ultimately come to the owner for the solution. This will unnecessarily prolong a simple decision and also create a sense of low self-esteem among the employees since they hold no authority to make even a simple decision.
  • The noticeably larger difference among the bonuses distributed among the employees is bound to create discontent among them. This will spread disharmony among the employees resulting in their resignations one after another.
  • Lastly, the complete lack of a systematic operation of the firm will fail in the retention of the employees in the long term.(Long, Strategic Compensation in Canada : A Behavioural Framework for Compensation, 2018)
  • Concepts of Compensation and Benefits that are violated here are:
  • A positive and natural reward system – Completely absent in this case. Irregular rewards harm than good.
  • Alignment of organizational goals with individual goals – There are no organizational objectives outlined and no relevance of individual interests.
  • Integrated reward system – The employees are rewards only on Christmas with no relation to their actual performances.
  • Faulty recruitment – The recruitment is biased towards the relatives of the owner with no regard to their actual suitability for the organization.
  • Performance review – There is no performance analysis and review system. No appraisals for well-performing staff and no periodic audit for salary compensations.
  • Staff retention – The owner is least bothered about staff satisfaction and the fact that there is a high of new employees.
  • Fairness and Effectiveness of the compensation system:

The compensation system applied here is neither effective nor fair. The bonus is distributed once a year based on the owner’s memory and personal opinion with no regard to their actual performances. The absence of a formal compensation system further deteriorates the situation.

  • Changes that should be introduced:
  • Proper and systematic recruitment of the staff. The bias towards the relatives of the owners despite their unsuitability for the job should be stopped.
  • Clear job descriptions and work-allotment. All fields should be given equal attention, from production to supervision to book-keeping.
  • A systematic performance analysis and review program.
  • A systematic approach to the compensation and benefits offered.

Establishment of a link between the personal goals of employees to the goals of the organization.(Long, Strategic Compensation in Canada :A Road Map to Effective Compensation, 2018)

Compensation and Benefits

Recommendations:

The company should carefully consult a Human Resource consultancy to create an effective compensation and benefit system. The recruitment process also needs help from professional hiring agencies. The job profiles and the corresponding compensation packages must be highlighted in the job descriptions. The appointment and work-allocation of the employees must be based on their qualities. There must be a balanced focus on all the necessary fields of the firm instead of focusing only on the production. The compensation and benefits provided to the employees must be linked with the organizational goals of the firm to create a sense of accomplishment among the employees. A fair, just and satisfactory compensation system goes a long way in securing the best employees for the long term future of the firm.A happy employee will always contribute in the growth of the company.

References

Long, S. (2018). Strategic Compensation in Canada : A Behavioural Framework for Compensation. Nelson.

Long, S. (2018). Strategic Compensation in Canada :A Road Map to Effective Compensation. Nelson.

Long, S. (2018). Strategic Compensation in Canada: Evaluating Individuals. Nelson.


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Essay on Technological Disruption

Introduction

The 21st century is a time of profound technological disruptions. There are many positive consequences of these disruptions for technology along with some negative consequences too. Democratic campaigning is directly changing by digital technology. In the modern era, technological change is a distinctive factor. Some of the small new technological breakthroughs can have unexpected and huge consequences in changing the world. An innovation that alters the way that industries, consumers and businesses operate is termed as a disruption in technology. Preparing technological disruptions are difficult to prepare because they can appear suddenly. In this essay, a contradiction has been raised regarding the technological disruption and its negative impact on the social lives in the 21st century.

Technological disruptions in the 21st century

As per the viewpoint of García (2019), these technological disruptions are having both positive and negative consequences for democracy. The few examples of digital technology streaming media, self-driving cars, smart phones, and data science and analysis. Excessive use of technologies such as smart phones, televisions, video games and technical toys has a negative impact on the kids. This puts a bad effect on behavior, obesity, sleep problems, violence, and loss of social skills. Children who spend more time on digital devices experience symptoms of strain in the eye. Technologies and digital devices are providing a lot of data that assists people to gain deeper insights into motivation and brain processes under different conditions. In order to maximize focus and creativity, this enables people to design learning and environments to work. A huge ecosystem of innovative business models and e-commerce business tools has been created due to the digital explosion.

Technological Disruption

Negative consequences of technological disruptions

According to Del Barrio-García et al. (2019), technological disruptions have some negative consequences in the 21st century and many industries are threatened by technological disruption. Some of the industries that have been affected by creative destruction are like different types of travel websites that have eliminated the need for human travel agents. Due to blogs and online media, newspapers have seen a steady decline in recent times. On the other hand, Gordon (2017) advocated that lots of booksellers have to close their stores due to the rapid growth of online bookstores. Different car-sharing applications are giving the traditional taxi drivers a run for their money. One of the things of the past is the radio DJ’s and the software now chooses most of the played music, ads have been inserted and even reads the news. Media streaming has almost more or less the sales of CD and changed the model distribution of the home and music video industries. Supporting the previous opinion Read (2019), say that due to technological advancements, many jobs and industries will be lost. On the other hand, technology has also largely impacted the mental and physical health of the users. Being overly connected with technology can cause psychological issues and can also have negative repercussions by causing vision problems, loss of hearing and neck strain. 

Supporting argument

Initially, the discoveries in science do not have the positive and the negative impact but the usage of these technologies and its adverse effect develop the impact. Like the disruptive technologies that developed in the 21st century has created various negative impacts on democracy. According to Gainous, Wagner & Gray (2016), the use of social media has created a negative influence on the change of attitude of common people. The authors in 2010 have used multilevel models and to estimate the change in attitude of the common people by the increasing use of the internet. The result visualizes that social media usage is more profound to the countries with more internet freedom as for example Latin America.

The flow of information via the internet has created substantial effect on people’s feeling about the government and thus creating political instability. On the other hand Jurasz & Barker, (2019), the impact of social media on the section of e-commerce. The social media platforms are used by various people for harassing and using abusive tweets to politicians. For example, evidence from the amnesty international study says about harassing female politicians. The social media platforms are used for sending sexual threats, vulgar tweets and anti Semitic and hateful words. These social media platforms are also used by the opponent parties for delivering fake news among the citizens about the opponent team and thus creating misbalance in democracy among the public. As per Delis, Hasan & Ongena (2019) the e banking procedure of delivering loans has created disruption in democracy. The survey results show that the loans that are given online are hampering democracy as the loans are not refunded to the bank with proper interest. Due to the lack of documents, frauds are increasing in case of online banking. According to Alsayed & Bilgrami (2017), the recent increase in internet banking has increased the financial risk among many users. The phishing attacks have become most common and have become an online identity of theft because the confidential data can be easily stolen from the online portals by the hackers. Smartphone’s have shaped up the mind of the younger generation, video games, social media and various other apps has become the addictive zone. The recent study says that the recreation of the new activities in computers has deteriorated the labor supplies between the age group 21 to 30. The research also views the main problem that is faced by the common people is getting fake news which spread faster on twitter and other portals. As a result the citizens are less informed about many cases and thus delude is created in choosing a public figure (weforum.org, 2018).    

While adoption of technology may be disruptive to the well-being of people in the short term especially in relation to the jobs, it also has extended its negativity through centuries and makes the rights of democracy more vulnerable. As per the view of Young (2018), technologies are affecting the economy of a country, different businesses, data security, different crimes and terrorism, over-reliance on gadgets and a few more factors. Disruption of technology has equally supported the advantages and interrupted in the democratic rights of people. In the opinion of Moglia et al. (2018), data security is one of the most important factors which are getting violated by digital technology and lots of data can be stored and collected through digital technology. This consists of private data concerning individuals and organizations. It sometimes gets very difficult to keep all the data safe and important information may go into the hands of criminals, foreign enemies, and terrorists with just a single breach.

The Internet is often considered as the fertile territory of evil forces to operate due to its large scale and international nature that users can enjoy. For instance, using social media by the terrorists in order to promote them and encourage others, using chat rooms for exchanging various data like photos, videos, and other information. Gordon (2017) has mentioned that social disconnection and isolation happens due to the gradual increase in the tendency for people to communicate through social media rather than contacting in real life. Due to the lack of contact in real life, depression and mental illness are found very common in many people nowadays. 

Work overload is a primary matter of concern which is found in many workers nowadays who spend their days by keeping up with lots of emails which they are sent every week and some of those require immediate reply or action after reading. In some jobs such as minutes of a meeting, photographs, training videos, and reports where a huge amount of digital data are organized can also cause headaches. As per the opinion of García (2019), the global economy is deeply affected by technology and its use has been connected to the transformation in the marketplace. Progress in technology is supposed to increase the productivity of the economy and potential growth. 

The ever-present fake news problem is also there due to the high use of social media. According to Alsayed & Bilgrami (2017), it is found that fake news through social media spreads faster than true news. In many cases, this has not only made citizens less informed but also made the public figures dismiss the truth as fake. One of the most notable incidents is the 2016 election of the US when it is assumed that fake news on Facebook helped to elect Donald Trump as the new president. Adding to this, real-life events are no longer experienced by many people. With the use of social sites media is uploaded, concerts of music are videoed on mobile phones and different events are being photographed now. As digitized machines are replacing humans, society continues to become more depersonalized.               

Opposing argument

In contrast to previous arguments, this part has analyzed those concepts that strongly oppose the statement of negative consequences on democracy due to technological disruption in the 21st century. In the 20th century, technologies like social networking and electronic commerce were not developed at such a high rate as in 21st century. The disruption is remembered to be a positive force so the disruptive technologies are not breakthrough but it is an innovation of new techniques that signifies and alter the way of many industries, customers and the business operators. The disrupted technologies made the service more accessible and affordable and thereby making them applicable to a huge span of population. The disruptive technologies are like e-commerce, online new sites for registering complaints and other forms of the GPS system.

According to Chesney & Citron (2019), disruptive technologies have a positive effect on democracy as by using the online portals the distortions in the policy debates and the online manipulation of elections can be stopped. As per the concern of Shufutinsky et al. (2018), the practice in case of analyzing the conflicts of democracy and the resolutions will be changed by the disruptive technology. The advancement and the emerging of the new innovations of technology in the third decade of the 21st century have composed a good relationship between the society and the government. On the other hand, the viewpoint of Persily (2017), the innovative tools to call up the common people or the voters through social media that has been designed improved the way voting campaign by micro targeting them. As for example, the use of innovative social technologies during the 2016 election campaign has helped Barrack Obama in reaching a huge number of citizens at a time. In distinction to others Rukasha & Bankole (2019), focused on disruptive technology like electronic commerce has a positive impact on corporate governance and on the retail sectors. E-commerce has become the fastest option to carry out business transactions and has come out one of the safest means for all the common people including globalization on the market place. The introduction of e-commerce has brought many changes in the manner of functions incorporate institutions and has provided a positive impact on the ethics of various organizations.

The e-banking, online selling, purchasing and online payment these all has simplified the way of living for all the common people. Differently, Anvari & Norouzi (2016) highlighted the impact of e-commerce on the economic development of the country. The development and the application of the diffusion of internet, e-commerce has created a global effect on the economic zone of some countries. The Internet is profoundly affecting most of the business as millions of people conduct research on various new portals that are opened from the government for purchasing and selling the products. This made economic benefits for the government and also created opportunities for all common people to transact across the borders.

At the same time Wolf, Sze & Beyene (2019), focused on the smart voting keys that have positively affected the democracy by creating various issues. The voting systems and the information technology have come up with the idea of a new electronic voting system. The proper democracy has some fundamental criteria like fair government leadership election by authorized voting. The smart electronic voting system explored the authentication of the voting so that the common people do not face any challenges. As advocated by (Atkinson, 2018), the greater digital innovations of the new technologies have helped in holding the connectivity among all people. Not only these disrupted technologies are also creating a path for disruption in politics and also broadcast by taking the test of stability in a democratic system. The catalytic change in the technology by the invention of new modes and the models has engaged the citizens in new policymaking. The shifting of the parties, the campaign, to communicate with the voters, economic build-up and most importantly the authentication in election system these all positively affected by the disrupted technology.

Technological Disruption

Final decision

 The previous arguments deal with the analysis of both the positive and negative aspects of disruptive technology and about its impact on democracy. In the opinion of (Jurasz & Barker, 2019), the technology may improve the political responsiveness but at the same time it may raise up the challenges to all the traditional practices for all plural republics. The other concerns that play with this democratic technology are that the political ruler is using the social network as an echo-chamber. It can be said that at the broad this social networking is diminishing the capacity of all the groups that are created. It confuses common people as the citizens are not able to understand the interest as well as the perspective by weakening the social togetherness.

The positive and negative news that are advertised in social media is increasing the risk of conflict between various age groups by hindering democracy.  According to Makvand & Fernández (2017), the challenges faced by social media in case by increasing the spread of disinformation or the theories of conspiracy and by increasing its effect on common people. The generation of expanding the capacity of data with the combination of processed power may create structural hazards to the function of democratic societies. The automation in the business has created a threat among the whole sectors by replacing the efficient methods and the machines. As per Atkinson, (2018), this structural change has created a threat among the workers because the capacity of technologies is delivering high risk of obsolete among the employees. From these all viewpoints, it can be decided that disrupted technologies of the 21st century might have some useful or productive effect but in contradiction, it has a more negative impact on both the public and in government.

Conclusion

From all the above points it can be concluded that the disruptive technologies of the 21st century have more negative aspects rather than the positive aspect. The disruptive technologies like new social websites, e- portals and electrical banking this may save the time of people but at the same time increase the risk factors. The automated generated pins and OTP can be easily hacked by other persons by increasing the chance of economic insecurity. The web portals or the social sites that are used by the politicians in voting campaigns sometimes deliver fake news among the citizens resulting in conflict between two parties. The automated machines that are recently developed are used in many workplaces by obsolescing manual workers. Thus, technologies have started creating dilemma among the workers. The manual workers are being terminated for the usage of these technologies and thus creating an unemployment situation which is a democratic hurdle. 

Reference list

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Anvari, R. D., & Norouzi, D. (2016). The impact of e-commerce and R&D on economic development in some selected countries. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences229, 354-362. Retrieve on: 20 January 2020, from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877042816310813/pdf?md5=667dc9f0dd957c347b830c33d7b8cbc6&pid=1-s2.0-S1877042816310813-main.pdf&_valck=1s

Atkinson, R. D. (2018). Shaping structural change in an era of new technology. Praise for Work in the Digital Age, 103. Retrieve on: 20 January 2020, from: http://pmb5.cereq.fr/Documents_numeriques_PMB/Work-in-the-digital-Age.pdf#page=126

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Budget_Allocations_How_Economic_and_Technological_Disruptions_Affected_Media_Choices_Across_Industries/links/5afaaa85a6fdccacab16fa10/A-Longitudinal-Cross-Product-Analysis-of-Media-Budget-Allocations-How-Economic-and-Technological-Disruptions-Affected-Media-Choices-Across-Industries.pdf

Delis, M. D., Hasan, I., & Ongena, S. (2019). Democracy and credit. Journal of Financial Economics. Retrieve on: 20 January 2020, from: https://www-1.aueb.gr/sites/default/files/Delis.26-1-2017.pdf

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Gordon, R. (2017). Development Disrupted: The Global South in the 21st Century. Temp. Int’l & Comp. LJ31, 195. Retrieve on: 20 January 2020, from: https://sites.temple.edu/ticlj/files/2017/05/31.1_Gordon_Article-11.pdf

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Sustainable Water Management

Introduction

The global crisis has emerged due to extensive consumption of natural sources like energy, water, petroleum, and greeneries. The unrestricted consumption of natural elements has led to retarded ecological balance. The crisis of water has become one of the significant aspects of global crisis as it has been found that only 2.5 % of water is suitable for drinking (Yang, Hyndman and Winkler 12 ). The gradual reduction in the availability of freshwater has made it indispensable to look for sustainability programs that can save water. Hence, water sustainability has been selected as the area of interest for the present research essay.

The purpose of the research essay is to investigate the impact of sustainable water management for dealing with global challenges such as the depletion of water, health concerns coming out of consuming polluted water and termination of marine life. The concept of sustainable water management will be provided at the beginning. Next, to that, the existing global challenges will be discussed. The impact of the sustainability programs on the global challenges will be discussed at the end.

Sustainable water management

The section defines the sustainable water management programs that would deal with global challenges such as water scarcity (Shahzad, Burhan and Ang 52-64). The sustainable water management aims at developing programs such that water consumption can be controlled and used efficiently to quench the vast global water necessity. The sustainable water management comes from the need of developing environmental integrity for committing towards social responsibility (Poff, Brown and Grantham 25-34). Apart from the unrestricted use of water, the leakage in pipes, pump failures, and other infrastructure disputes also contribute towards the need for sustainable water management (Marques, da Cruz and Pires 142-151). The water supply systems require timely maintenance to prevent the unnecessary flow of water. The maintenance is ought to be performed through checking of pipe fractures, internal repair and many more to ensure that there are no infrastructural issues that restrict the flow of water.

In terms of sustainable ways of preserving water, some human practices are required, such as keeping taps closed, using already used water if applicable, using less water to take shower and steamed eating habits. Protection of environment by reducing consumption of water comes under the social responsibility of every human kind (Jacobs, Lebel and Buizer 4591-4596).  The closing of taps after filling buckets helps to restrict the unnecessary flow of water (Gude 87-106). Using dishwater to wash other utensils is another way of controlling water usage. In simpler words, putting a stop to water usage is a manual sustainable approach to water management.

Water reclamation technology is another sustainable approach to restrict the consumption of the huge amounts of water. The reclamation technology is to reuse used water by filtering it. Even the used water from sewage, toilet, and kitchen are also recycled in some parts of the world and is consumed by people as fresh drinking water (Butler, Ward and Sweetapple 63-77). The water reclamation technology is active in cities like Perth in Australia, where the water is recycled through the toilet to tap scheme (Van Franeker and Law 89-96). The sustainable water management has remained successful in controlling water usage, to deal with the global challenge of water scarcity and retaining the stock of freshwater intact.

Global challenges

The global challenges related to environmental disruption have been seen in areas of water scarcity, land pollution, polluted farming and depletion of marine life. Since the area of interest in the present research essay is water sustainability, the global challenges that have triggered the need for sustainability programs for water have been discussed in the section. Due to the disposal of garbage into seawater, the marine littering percentage got increased abruptly. The disposal of an enormous amount of wastes has created a layer in the seawater, which resists the entry of oxygen into the water leading to breathing problems for marine creatures.

The depletion of marine life is one of the significant global challenges that is required to be mitigated using sustainable water management sessions. Salinization has also come as a significant effect due to the scarcity of non-polluted water (Gude 15-63). Water containing a high percentage of toxic elements gets rushed into the fields and increases salinity of soils. The increased salinization of soils resists plant to extract nutrients from soil, leading to toxic farm fields. Salinization is one of the global challenge coming out of fresh water scarcity and release of toxic water into fields.

The increased pollution of water is mainly caused by the release of factory wastes into water bodies. The factory wastes consist of toxic chemicals that increase the chemical context of water and make it toxic (Shahzad, Burhan and Ang 36-45). The toxic water affects marine life, farming and also the health of people because, water from those water bodies gets distributed to people’s houses, as domestic water supply. Sustainable water management programs are required to deal with global challenges.

Effect of sustainable water management on global challenges

The section is concerned with the evaluation of how sustainable water management programs have dealt with the global challenges that have arisen such as scarcity of water, an increase of toxic water content, depletion of marine life and farming pollution.   Sustainable water management is practiced in response to global challenges such as polluted domestic water supply, pollution in farm fields and depletion of marine life. The sustainable management of controlling the unnecessary flow of water is obtained through repairing of leakages and regular maintenance of water pipes (Shahzad, Burhan and Ang). The effect of infrastructural maintenance, as a part of sustainable water management program helps in controlling water leakage. As a result of the sustainable water management program of infrastructural maintenance, the global challenge of water scarcity can be addressed to some extent.

When there will be null, water leakage, the global challenge of water scarcity is controlled to some extent. However, there are also other sustainability programs that have been successful in dealing with the global challenge of water scarcity (Yang, Hyndman and Winkler). Apart from water scarcity, there are also other global challenges such as toxic content of water affecting the domestic supply and the depletion of marine life. The water reclamation process is a sustainability program that is deliberately helpful in controlling over usage of water, thereby dealing with water scarcity. Since water reclamation helps in the recycling of used water, the impact of such sustainable water treatment technology will help in the preservation of freshwater content globally.

The water reclamation process enables the reuse of used water and hence, the same water gets recycled to be used for domestic purposes such as drinking, cooking and in washrooms (Shahzad, Burhan and Ang). Due to the filtration of water that is done through the reclamation process the used water gets filtrated, such that the unhygienic particles can be removed and the water again becomes suitable for consuming. The impact of such sustainable technology for water recycling is perceived in controlling water scarcity, retention of global freshwater content and resisting the waste of water. The repetitive phrases of water collection and filtration recycle the same water and hence saves people from acute water scarcity.

The toile to tap schemes have been widely accepted by countries like Australia to deal with the global challenge of drought. The toilet to tap scheme talks about the reutilization of the wastewater from human toilets for the domestic purposes (Mukherjee and Jensen 5-14). The impact of the sustainability scheme is seen highest in parts of Western Australia, as they experience frequent drought. Despite having disgust to use toilet water for drinking, people has also appreciated the concept, as the water entirely gets recycled and suitable for drinking, which tastes alike fresh drinking water.

The water reclamation process, however does not complies with the global challenge of the depletion of marine life. Due to both manual and industrial pollution, the marine littering got increased exponentially, resulting in increase of the fatality rate of marine organisms. The manual efforts of sustainability such as underground waste disposal instead of littering into the water bodies reduces the global challenge of depletion of marine life (Wang, Li and Li 171-179). The effect of controlling manual littering practices has led to reduced threats in marine life. As a result, of controlled waste disposal practices in water bodies, the marine organisms will be again able to breathe.

The removal of the layer of litters from the surface of water bodies creates a passage of air, which in turn normalizes the respiratory process of the marine animals. The impact of the low littering practices on the beaches has also made water bodies fresh and lack of an unhygienic ingredient. The initiative of lowering manual practices of littering beaches has been taken widely by multiple governments such as the UK, Ireland and many more. The reason behind taking such a sustainability initiative to protect water is the high littering levels on the beaches of Wales. An average of 35 wet wipes have been found on the coast of the UK and have been cleaned by the beach authority (Gude). As an impact of such manual sustainability intuitive the water got cleaned to some extent and the concentration of litters got reduced.

As an impact of the sustainability initiative to reduce littering on beaches, plastic pollution also gets controlled along with water pollution. Due to the water sustainability practice of controlling the human activity of littering, the blockage of drains also gets reduced.  In the Great British Beach Clean event, about 15,000 people participated (Wang, Li and Li 171-179). Such a great number of participation for beach cleaning has led to the cleaning of 500 number of beaches.

The beach cleaning has remained one of the significant water sustainability programs, as it resists natural water bodies from getting polluted through human activities. The impact of frequent maintenance of water pipelines has been seen in the controlled flow of unnecessary water. The entire impact of the sustainability programs has resulted in controlled pollution of water, reduced chances of drought and has enabled people to reduce unnecessary usage of water.

The knowledge gap in the articles lies in limited discussion of the innovative sustainable methods for preserving water. The articles have been more focused towards the concern that has been created due to rising water crisis. However, the need for sustainable water management has been explained broadly in the articles.

Conclusion

The effect of the water sustainability programs has been seen in the eradication of the chances of water scarcity. The water reclamation process, where used water is being recycled by making it suitable for re consumption. The process has saved a huge quantity of water from getting wasted. Manual control measures of keeping water taps closed and preserving used water for using them for other domestic purposes have also contributed to the active water sustainability program.

Works Cited

Butler, D, et al. “Reliable, resilient and sustainable water management: the Safe & SuRe approach.” Global Challenges (2017): 63-77. Online.

Gude, V.G. “Desalination and sustainability–an appraisal and current perspective.” Water research 89.02 (2016): 87-106 ; DOI:10.1016/j.watres.2015.11.012.

Jacobs, K, et al. “Linking knowledge with action in the pursuit of sustainable water-resources management.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2016): 4591-4596. Online.

Marques, R.C., N.F. da Cruz and J. Pires. “Measuring the sustainability of urban water services.” Environmental Science & Policy 54.01 (2015): 142-151 ; DOI:10.1016/j.envsci.2015.07.003.

Mukherjee, M. and O. Jensen. “Making water reuse safe: A comparative analysis of the development of regulation and technology uptake in the US and Australia.” Safety Science 121.01 (2020): 5-14 ; DOI:10.10925753519304199. 08 April 2020. <https://www.bbc.com/future/article/20160105-why-we-will-all-one-day-drink-recycled-wastewater>.

Poff, N.L, et al. “Sustainable water management under future uncertainty with eco-engineering decision scaling.” Nature Climate Change (2016): 25-34. Online.

Shahzad, M.W., et al. “Energy-water-environment nexus underpinning future desalination sustainability.” Desalination 413.01 (2017): 52-64 ; DOI:10.1016/j.desal.2017.03.009.

Van Franeker, J.A. and K.L. Law. “Seabirds, gyres and global trends in plastic pollution.” Environmental Pollution 203.01 (2015): 89-96 ; DOI:10.1016/j.envpol.2015.02.034.

Wang, Q., S. Li and R. Li. “Evaluating water resource sustainability in Beijing, China: Combining PSR model and matter-element extension method.” Journal of cleaner production 206.01 (2019): 171-179 ; DOI:10.1007/978-981-10-5047-3_7. 08 April 2020. <

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Sustainability In Food Production

Introduction – SUSTAINABILITY IN FOOD PRODUCTION

In the twenty-first century, the integration of sustainability with business models is a running trend and most of the multinational organisations are exploiting this idea in order to get a superior position in the competitive market. It has been evaluated that the sustainable approach of tread has been imparting multidimensional beneficial impact, not only over the growth of the business but also the growth of the community and the planet as well. The purpose of this study is to identify the utilisation of sustainable approach in the context of food production in Australia. George Weston Food (GWF) has been selected to conduct this study to explore the practice of SUSTAINABILITY IN FOOD PRODUCTION.

The thesis statement of this study is that GWF is practising Sustainable food production approach and has created a positive impact over the economic, social and environmental aspects of the operating market and the company.

SUSTAINABILITY IN FOOD PRODUCTION

Discussion

Background of the study and company

In the previous section, it has already been mentioned that sustainability is one of such ideas which provides multilayered beneficial influence over the growth of trade and commerce and also in the community and environmental level. Further, as per the idea of Crist, Mora & Engelman (2017), sustainability always creates scope for the economic development of a business unit. Likewise, this idea is quite applicable for the trade model of GWF as they have successfully integrated sustainable ideas to run their commercial activity at the cross-border level. As per the official report, GWF has expanded its business up to 46 nations around the globe, among which the trade in Australia and the UK is notable (gwf.com, 2019). This information is quite pertinent in delineating the scoped scenario of the organisation. Moreover, the organisation has got its popularity by being under the ownership of British Food PLC.

The support of business associates is another important factor which has promoted GWF in the implementation of its sustainable ideas. As per the viewpoint of Rahimifard et al. (2017), the support of the stakeholders like investors, employees and suppliers is highly crucial to run a sustainable business. As per the official reports, GWF has a strong and supportive workforce at the international level with the strength of 1, 00,000 individuals (gwf.com, 2019). Hence, from this point, it can be analysed that the organisation has got the support of its HR, one of the major stakeholders to implement sustainability. Moreover, the supportive and reliable suppliers of the company have also helped the firm to proceed to the path of success.

Sustainability- Idea definition and application

The concept and discussion regarding sustainability is needed to be stated as it is the backbone of this study. As per the statement of Vieira et al. (2018), the idea of the development of community, trade and economy of a specific location with the conservation of the natural resources is expressed by the term Sustainability. Hence, from this point, it can be analysed that minimal wastage of natural resources and the minimisation of burden over the biosphere in the context of the development of the business sector is the major intention of Sustainable growth. As per Lawrence et al. (2019), sustainable growth in the industrial sector always prefers the acceleration of the economic growth of the same by means of the development of society and environment. The same thing has been identified for GWF.

Sustainable food production in George Weston Food

Sustainable food production is the method of the production of the food where the process and the systems that are used are none polluting. The process used renewable energy that is conserved and natural resources that are used are economically efficient (Dwivedi et al. 2017). This process is safe and for the workers and for the community and it is also abided by the needs of the future generation.

Maintenance of the sustainability by George Weston Food (GWF)

The company has also maintained this sustainability in their food production because they include the environmental targets as their part of the management in their business. At the end of 2013 GWF’s water consumption was lowered down to 12 % which was the baseline compared to the other companies (gwf.com, 2020). The GWF has set the goal of the reduction in their water consumption by 20% in per ton of their goods by 2020. GWF has taken the initiative of water recirculation and the cleaning practices by rainwater along with rainwater harvesting. GWF BY 2015 has decided to supply palm oil which has been certified sustainability and the RSPO trading scheme.

Environment Application

The steps of reducing the emission of the greenhouse gas by their production have been taken by various operations and by monitoring the performance. The company was able to achieve a depreciation of 18.9 % in the emission of greenhouse gas (gwf.com, 2020).

Supply chain management

The GWF has audited some programs which have been certified as the vendor assurance program where the suppliers are taught about the relevant regulatory and about the industries the maintenance of the consumer standard. The GWF has been able to achieve the responsibility chain by maintaining safe transportation and warehouse traffic management. The suppliers related to the company have to agree with the company’s responsible sourcing code of conduct for the maintenance of sustainability. GWF has captured the expectation of maintaining the labor standards ethically and to prevent bribery along with that the corruption related to the sourcing of the ingredients and materials. The suppliers of the animal products must be abided by local animal welfare law and also demonstrate the certification, regulation, standards and the traceability of their published standards.

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) of GWF for sustainability maintenance

The social responsibilities taken by GWF are to give employment to more than 6000 people across the 58 sites of Australia where the company is located (gwf.com, 2020). GWF is responsible for the maintenance of quality, with robust supply chain, with supporting communities along with performing the environmental targets.

Benefits of the process in economic development

In the previous section, it has been identified that GWF has been using natural ingredients for its food production and has created trustable relationships with the local suppliers to keep the uninterrupted flow of natural resources as the raw material of its food production system. This is the main factor which has invoked economic development to the organisation. As per the official report, GWF has effectively enhanced its revenue, from 2,122 million dollars to 2,243 million dollars in the year 2018 (weston.ca, 2018). From this angle it can be analysed that sustainability has its impact over the economic upliftment of an organisation in both national and international level and GWF is the most relevant example to establish this idea.

The sustainability approach has also helped the organisation to minimise its production cost and the aspect of capital investment has helped to identify this. As per the data of the annual report, the capital investment of GWF has decreased from 241 million dollars to 215 million dollars and lastly to 212 million dollars for 2016, 2017 and 2018 respectively (weston.ca, 2018). Henceforth it can be analysed that, the organisation is enhancing its revenue figure with the decrease of its capital investment. This is one of the most profitable strategies which have been formulated with the help of sustainability (Tait et al. 2016). Moreover, as per the sustainability report of the GWF, the company has been using the standards of the waste hierarchy which includes recovery, recycle and reuse (gwf, 2016). This has also provided economic growth to the company.

Impact of sustainable food production in environmental conservation

Environmental sustainability can be seen as the most important concern that the world is facing at present. As per the ideas of Dwivedi et al. (2017), global warming and climate change have taken the world by storm. Food production has a significant impact on the immediate environment and has been accredited with multiple negative impacts associated with this. Food production is responsible for eutrophication, acid rain and the depletion of biodiversity as well. This, in turn, contributes largely to the phenomenon of climate change. However, as per the ideas of Pickett et al. (2019), the major impact of food production is on the use of resources such as land and water, which is an essential aspect. Eliminating such negative implications can be facilitated using sustainable food production techniques.

The use of sustainable food production techniques has evolved over the years. However, as per Govindan (2018), a rise in the global population has led to an increase in the need for food production. As a consequence, all organizations associated with the production of food, have undertaken modern farming techniques, which has taken a considerable toll on the overall environment. Nevertheless, farming techniques have evolved over the years, which have led to a minimization in the use of chemical fertilizers. Instead, the practice has shifted towards the use of organic fertilizers, which has helped in conserving the quality and nutritional value of the land (Stevens et al. 2018). Moreover, it has also helped in reducing the levels of eutrophication caused as a result of fertilizer runoff. The use of resources has also been limited by making use of several modern techniques.

Impact of GWF’s measures in environmental sustainability

The organisation is making use of IoT in farming and techniques like drip irrigation and sprinkler irrigation. As per the ideas of Thyberg & Tonjes (2016), the modern irrigation techniques help in ensuring the conservation of water and at the main time reduces groundwater pollution. Furthermore, the organization makes use of organic fertilizers as well, which has helped it to enhance productivity and contain impacts on the environment considerably.

Impact over social development

Overall impact on social development

Sustainable food production is a very essential aspect as per the reports of the UN. In 2017, UN reports claim that one out of nine people across the world remains hungry for more than a day and one of three suffers from malnutrition (tiptop-foodservice.com, 2020). Given this scenario, there is a need to leverage food production, without any adverse impact on the environment and the natural resources. Therefore, sustainable food production is an essential aspect that is required to be ensured. Moreover, as per Ueasangkomsate & Santiteerakul (2016), sustainable food production also helps in ensuring lower pollution rates and preserves the nutritional value of the food products. This can largely help in ensuring healthy eating habits. This is of high social importance, as the spread of major diseases has become a common phenomenon across the world.

Use of sustainable food production has also helped in reducing the use of major non-renewable forms of resources, which can be utilized to meet the needs of the growing population. Apart from that, as Fontana et al. (2018) points out, conservation of water has become an essential need, as there is an acute scarcity of freshwater for drinking across many countries in the world. This can largely help the people of these countries to meet their water requirements and will also inhibit the growth and spread of waterborne diseases largely. Thus, sustainable food production has major social consequences, apart from the economic and environmental impacts.

Impact of GWFs activities on social development

GWF has put the best foot forward in the aspect of water conservation, as it has been able to cut down water conservation by 12% since 2013 (tiptop-foodservice.com, 2020). Moreover, the organization has set a target of reduction by 20% by the year 2020 (tiptop-foodservice.com, 2020). It also undertakes water recirculation and rainwater harvesting practices in this direction. Apart from these, GWF also undertakes energy efficiency practices and greenhouse gas elimination practices. The organization has been able to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 18.9% (tiptop-foodservice.com, 2020). All these efforts have helped the organization in ensuring greater social and environmental sustainability simultaneously.

Conclusion

Food production is a very important aspect that is required to be taken into consideration from the point of view of sustainability. Greater sustainability in food production is reported to have a wide range of economic, environmental and social implications. Taking a sustainable approach in food production not only allows greater productivity but also ensures a higher amount of nutritional value of the overall production. Moreover, it allows the reduction of the environmental impacts associated with the practice of food production. GWF has been able to meet all these criteria with their practices. Thus, GWF is practising Sustainable food production approach and has created a positive impact over the economic, social and environmental aspects of the operating market and the company.

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Ueasangkomsate, P., & Santiteerakul, S. (2016). A study of consumers’ attitudes and intention to buy organic foods for sustainability. Procedia Environmental Sciences34, 423-430. Retrieved on: 25 January 2020, from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1878029616300597/pdf?md5=06cc74229a42b23944666197df5be17d&pid=1-s2.0-S1878029616300597-main.pdf&_valck=1

Vieira, L. C., Serrao-Neumann, S., Howes, M., & Mackey, B. (2018). Unpacking components of sustainable and resilient urban food systems. Journal of Cleaner Production200, 318-330. Retrieved on: 25 January 2020, from: http://www.projechi.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/vieira2018.pdf

weston.ca, (2018), ANNUAL INFORMATION FORM 2018, Retrieved on 10 January 2020, from: http://www.weston.ca/en/pdf_en/gwl_2018aif_en.pdf


ESSAY ON SUSTAINABILITY IN FOOD PRODUCTION BY SUBJECT ACADEMY

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A COMPARISON OF BUSINESS-GOVERNMENT-SOCIETY RELATIONSHIPS IN THE UNITED STATES AND EUROPE

Introduction

The activities of business, society, as well as Government are quite fundamental in the globe, which is influential on various aspects of daily life. Businesses act for the satisfaction of the needs of society through the access of different services and products in exchange of monetary profit. Government is an individual structure that defines various rules and authorises application of such rules and policies. They also act for the betterment of the society and act as a regulatory body for observing the activities of business. Society can be said as a network constituting of human relations, which is composed of various methodologies, material things, ideas, and institutions. Hence, all the factors are mutually collaborated with one another, having great influence on one another through effective interactions. This essay deals with the three sectors, which are business sector, government sector, and society sector and a comparison of their relationship in the UK and Europe.

A COMPARISON OF BUSINESS-GOVERNMENT-SOCIETY RELATIONSHIPS IN THE UNITED STATES AND EUROPE

Business Sector

The business sector in the US highlights a system where different businesses can freely operate in a free market structure. In this system, the government of the country is having compelling rationale that must be followed for its intervention in the business system. Moreover, it is seen that the business system of the country is having a powerful bias of individualism among them, where the business is not always associated with the community (Puksas et al. 2019). The motive of profit is more intense in the business, which is relevant for individuals along with the individual businesses. There has always been the existence of a monopoly market in the US, which has created individualism in this sector of the country. However, the business sector of Europe does not highlight the features of individualism among the various businesses. It has shown the presence of various short-term as well as long-term developments through the presence of large enterprises. From the view of the business sector of both the places, it has various relations with the government along with the society of the respective countries.

Government Sector

As the markets of the US are having a mixed economy, both the features of socialism and capitalism are present in the market. This is because some of the businesses in the country are controlled directly by the government. Others are capitalised, as they are individually owned in public sectors. However, with the application of some business rules and regulations of the country, the private ones have to follow such rules for maintaining their operations. This is done through their registration with the government agencies of the country and the businesses can be carried on after legal approval of operations and licenses (Lam, 2016). The government of the country acts for the betterment of its economic affairs through the influence of direct control. This is also associated with the economy of the US, which is connected with licensing requirements and restrictions such as country infrastructures, roads, postal deliveries, and so on (Holtzman et al. 2011). However, it does not control the voluntary movements of the princes in the market, which is entirely dependent on the rise and fall of supply and demand.

The markets along with the operations of Europe are operated from the end of the government of the country. The business of the country is supported by the government, as the authorities spend money of the public for the development of the business and other industries. Moreover, the operations of the government are based on the fulfilment of the public interest, so that the society and the economy of the country can be benefited as a whole (Roy, 2019). For this, the government of Europe is having the power for supporting the business through grants, tax reliefs, and other types of advantages. Hence, the government sector of Europe is quite different from that of the US.

Society Sector

In a developed country such as the US, the advocacy groups have critical roles in creating interdependence among the society and the businesses. The businesses are responsible for the society with CSR practices, which are inclusive of creating remedies for several issues such as customer issues, governance, human rights, and so on (Gabsa, 2017). Moreover, another social sector that is involved with the operations in the US is the media, which act as an important intermediary between the connections of the society, government, and businesses (Lin, 2019). However, in Europe, it is seen that the social sector is entirely associated with the businesses, as the business’s operations are inclusive of social responsibilities for the society of the country. Moreover, the government of the country intervenes in the market and the businesses, so that the betterment of the society can be prioritised.

Comparison of Relation

The relation of business-government-society can be compared with effect from the situations seen in the US and Europe. This comparison can highlight the key differences in such relations between the two mentioned countries. In both the mentioned countries, the government is seen acting for protecting the interests of the businesses along with the businesses of the society. There are still some differences as the regulations of Europe are based on some principles, which make the relation in Europe more advanced than that in the US. This is due to the evolution of Marxism principals in Europe along with renaissance that brought drastic changes in the relationship. However, it is required in comparing the key relationship aspects that create differences in both countries.

US

The role of the businesses of the US is quite vital for its society, which are entirely regulated by the government authorities. With the effects of advanced globalisation, the development of the relationship is evident in the country, accelerating its pace. As the business transactions are being made on an international level, it is quite required in looking over the connections the government of the country is having with the business and the society (Toepler, 2018). Though there has been presence of individualism among the businesses of the country, it is also required for them in adhering to appropriate social responsibilities, which can be regulated by the government of the US (Holtzman et al. 2011). This is also true for the betterment of the immediate community along with fulfilling their own business interests and profitability. In the US, it is quite evident that the government directly does not intervene in the activities of the business houses. The intervention of the government can be against the business or can also be in the support of the business, which is entirely dependent on meeting the interests of the society. However, sometimes this is relevant for the sake of the society, which is measured in terms of CSR practices, which can be evaluated with the help of several cases.

The relationship among the three factors can be explained with the help of the beef recall case in the country, which happened in 2008 (Holtzman et al. 2011). After a video of a slaughtering house was leaked regarding the workers of the plant forcibly transferring sick cows to the slaughter areas, this was taken over by the Humane Society of the country. This led to a huge recall of the products of the plant. However, the Department of Agriculture of the country removed all of its officers from the issue, as it did not have the authority of directly recalling the products of the accused plant (Holtzman et al. 2011). However, as per the regulations of this department, it does not allow sick cattle to slaughter them in the production process of beef as they may have chances of carrying pathogens. As there were loopholes in the regulation activities, the department banned using sick cattle in the food supply process. The case has a clear view that the regulatory system of the US is not appropriate at first, which, however, acted quite quickly addressed the issue was identified (Holtzman et al. 2011). At this stage, it can be concluded the entire actions were taken by the advocacy group of the country so that the problem can be brought under control through the treatment of animals. The open media of the US took active part in spreading the news within the society, for which rapid actions were taken by the government authorities of the country.

Europe

Considering the facts of BGS relationship In Europe can be seen different from the US and it has changed the overview of the democratic ideal. Due to emerging industrialisation in Europe, BGS relationship growth can be seen with rejecting the ideas of Social Dominance model, which was backed by the idea of Marxism (Traverso, 2017).Such ideas were opposite to industrial capitalism, which obstructed the idea of dominating society through specific class and consideration of business with the decision-making from one standard. Achievement of the socialist reformation and dominance theory lacked equal distribution, which could be gained through power and wealth distribution. 

Technology and innovation has been fuelling business proposition from an ancient era, which remains unchanged in the business development in the modern age. In the year 1450, the printing press changed the overview of social activity and reformed the business proposition through the enactment of the printed documentation process. Such changes can be seen through reshaping European culture and innovative changes in the industry-wide sectors, Renaissance in Europe has been the motivator, and projector of the innovation, which later enhanced business support and gave rise to various free-market ideas. Martin Luther’s challenge to the scriptural dogma presented the Protestant Reformation. Scientific revolutions in entire Europe started technology upgrades, which changed the ideas based on business propagation. The invention of the Steam Engine in 1700 and Waterwheel in 1800 s triggered an industrial revolution (Stearns, 2018).

Variations in the process changed the business customs and improved the group versus individual initiatives in different cases. Apart from that, acceptability of women in the organisation, ethical values, gratuities changed the authority challenges and time changes in the business setting. Cultural differences stated the business factors, which can be seen with implementation of the US fast food in France, which forced out the traditional French dishes. Wearing custom nametags in the business meeting can be seen as an unacceptable medium, which lacked maturity states the cultural differences in Business development in a different nation. Modern nation-state system emerged as an unplanned process with the contiguous extension of the languages and it was subsequently alternated with the language-based reformation in eastern and Western Europe. Entire European culture and languages seen with these territories formed colonial empires for attaining high prestige and the mixed idea of ethnicity, culture, language, and religion (Botrić & Božić, 2016).

Changes in the government environment can be seen in the European context also, which includes a reduction in the spending average, GDP growth, welfare of the business with broad aspects of functional strategies. Europe can be seen with an increase in the percentages compared to developing countries, which is due to the new initiatives taken by the government. Social welfare promotion with provision for different transfer payment to the patients stated compliance with the enactment of new functions and enlargement of the electorates. This expansion was done through the selection of the lower class citizens in the new process and regulation of the industries to strict rule against abuses. Government growth was seen with a change in the practical business scenario changing the notion of social and business growth with developed business constraints (Hamann, 2019). 

Conclusion

The relationship of business-government-society is seen quite different in the economy of the two concerned countries. In both of them, the government plays an important role in protecting the interests of both businesses and society. Moreover, the ideology of industrial capitalism was not constituted in the relationship for Europe. It forms a well balance of the business-government-society relationship in Europe, thus forming an advanced relationship and interconnections among them by benefitting all of them. This was not present in the economy of the US, which followed some populist movements, which did not have successful efforts in reforming the relation of business-government-society of the country. As a concluding remark, it can be said that the relationship of the three concerned factors in Europe can set a different example as compared to that in the US, due to the presence of advanced industrialised system and the practices of Marxism, and therefore, forms a better relationship structure than that in the US.


Reference List for BUSINESS-GOVERNMENT-SOCIETY RELATIONSHIPS

Botrić, V., & Božić, L. (2016).Business-Government Relationship in European Post-Transition Countries: Do Innovators Get the Worse End of a Stick?. Transylvanian Review of Administrative Sciences12(49), 5-21.

Gabsa, W. (2017).Business and Government Relations in Cameroon. In Business and Government Relations in Africa (pp. 291-313). Routledge.

Hamann, R. (2019). Dynamic de-responsibilization in business–government interactions. Organization Studies40(8), 1193-1215.

Holtzman, Y., Puerta, M., Lazarus, H., Wu, J., & Davidson, D. K. (2011). The business‐government‐society relationship: a comparison between China and the US. Journal of Management Development.

Lam, N. M. (2016). Business-government relationship in economic development. Asian Education and Development Studies.

Lin, P. (2019). Does the use of social media by US politicians negatively impact the relationship between the government and society?. What is Ratio?, 67.

Puksas, A., Gudelis, D., Raišienė, A. G., &Gudelienė, N. (2019). Business, government, society and science interest in co-production by relative evaluation using google trends. Management of Organizations: Systematic Research81(1), 55-71.

Roy, O. (2019). Business-Government Interaction: A Thematic Analysis. Economics-Innovation and economic research7(2), 7-17.

Stearns, P. N. (2018). The industrial revolution in world history. Abingdon: Routledge.

Toepler, S. (2018). Public philanthropic partnerships: The changing nature of government/foundation relationships in the US. International Journal of Public Administration41(8), 657-669.

Traverso, E. (2017). Left-wing melancholia: Marxism, history, and memory. Columbia University Press.


Essay on Business

A COMPARISON OF BUSINESS-GOVERNMENT-SOCIETY RELATIONSHIPS IN THE UNITED STATES AND EUROPE

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Business Studies Essay – Topics for Term Paper

In this section, we suggest more than 100 topics, including some for each chapter. Most are suitable for students in an introductory course and require research outside the text. Some are more challenging than others, but most are suitable for either term paper topics or in-class presentations and debates by individuals or teams. We offer excellent Business Studies Essay Help.

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CHAPTER 1    THE STUDY OF BUSINESS, GOVERNMENT, AND SOCIETY

  • A Description and Analysis of the Business, Government, and Society Relationships of (Any Large Corporation)
  • Capitalism: Its Strengths and Weaknesses Assessed
  • The Stakeholder Idea: Its Strengths and Weaknesses Assessed

CHAPTER 2    THE DYNAMIC ENVIRONMENT

  • The Changing Global Environment of Royal Dutch/Shell.
  • How the Natural Environment Has Been Changed by Human Activity Since the Industrial Revolution
  • How Postmaterialist Values Change the Business Environment
  • How Advertising Reflects Changing Social Values
  • Ten Events of the Last Decade that Most Changed the Business Environment

CHAPTER 3    BUSINESS POWER

  • How Economic Growth between 1860 and 1929 Changed American Society
  • A History of the Dow Jones Industrial Average
  • Economic Concentration in American Industry: Is It Too Great for the Public Interest?
  • The Life of J. P. Morgan and His Impact on American Industry and Society
  • The Life of John D. Rockefeller and the Rise of the Oil Industry
  • Theories of Economic Elites in the United States: An Evaluation

CHAPTER 4    CRITICS OF BUSINESS

  • The Life and Times of Huey Long (or Mary Lease) and His (Her) Populist Message
  • Nestlé’s Marketing of Infant Formula: A Case Study of Criticism and Corporate Response
  • The Story of the Anti-Apartheid Movement: Its Impact on American Corporations
  • The Marxist Critique of Capitalism
  • The Use of Social Responsibility Shareholder Proposals to Challenge Corporate Power
  • Ralph Nader’s Life and Views about Corporations
  • The Rise and Importance of Nongovernmental Organizations

CHAPTER 5    CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

  • A Description and Analysis of the Social Programs of (Any Large Corporation)
  • The Contrasting Views of Milton Friedman and Ralph Nader on Corporate Social Responsibility
  • The Rise of Civil Regulation as a Method for Advancing Global CSR
  • The Story of the Kimberly Process Certification Scheme
  • Are Socially Responsible Corporations More Profitable?

CHAPTER 6    IMPLEMENTING CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

  • How (One Large Corporation) Implements Social Performance
  • The Tylenol Crisis and the Role of Johnson & Johnson’s Credo
  • An Assessment of Philanthrocapitalism
  • An Assessment of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
  • A Description and Evaluation of the Global Reporting Initiative
  • Is Cause-Related Marketing an Ethically Compromised Form of Philanthropy?

CHAPTER 7    BUSINESS ETHICS

  • Ethical Theory in Aristotle’s Nichomachean Ethics and Its Applicability to Modern Organizations
  • Nineteenth-Century Business Ethics as Described in Matthew Josephson’s The Robber Barons
  • Use of Fines to Punish Corporations for Wrongful Behavior
  • The Criminal Prosecution of Enron CEO Kenneth Lay
  • A Description and Assessment of Ethics Programs in Corporations
  • The Use of  Paper-and-Pencil Honesty Tests for Detecting Thieves
  • A Comparative Study and Assessment of Corporate Ethics Codes

CHAPTER 8    MAKING ETHICAL DECISIONS IN BUSINESS

  • Religious Ethics as Guidelines for Business Decisions
  • The Story of J. C. Penney: An Ethical Business Leader
  • Immanuel Kant or Níccolò Machiavelli: Whose Ethics are More Appropriate for Modern Business?
  • The Ford Motor Company and the Pinto Gas Tank: A Case Study in Corporate Ethics
  • A Study of Corrupt Payments by Chiquita Brands in Colombia

CHAPTER 9    BUSINESS IN POLITICS

  • The U.S. Constitution: A Document of Economic Determinism or Liberal Idealism?
  • Influence Tactics of Business Lobbies in Washington
  • Have Efforts to Regulate Corporate Campaign Contributions Been Successful?
  • The Rise of Corporate PACs and Their Impact in Federal Elections
  • The Federal Election Commission: Its History, Powers, and Importance
  • Resolved: Corporate Campaign Contributions Are Free Speech and Should Not Be Restricted

CHAPTER 10    REGULATING BUSINESS

  • The Historical Growth of Government Regulation of Business
  • Evolving Interpretation of the Commerce Clause in American Constitutional Law
  • The New Deal Era as a Turning Point in the Business-Government Relationship
  • The Rulemaking Process in Federal Regulatory Agencies
  • The History and Enforcement Patterns of the Environmental Protection Agency (or the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, or the Federal Trade Commission)
  • The Federal Register as a Window on Federal Regulation of Business
  • Command-and-Control Regulation versus Market Incentive Regulation
  • Deregulation of the Airline (or Savings and Loan, Electric Power, or Telecommunications) Industry

CHAPTER 11    MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS

  • United States-Based Multinational Corporations in Foreign Countries: Are They Socially Responsible?
  • Codes of Conduct for Transnational Corporations: Sources, Content, Strengths, and Weaknesses
  • The United Nations Global Compact
  • Should the Alien Tort Claims Act Apply to Transnational Corporations?
  • Export of Tobacco Products to Third World Countries by U.S. Tobacco Companies

CHAPTER 12   GLOBALIZATION, TRADE, AND CORRUPTION

  • The History of Economic Globalization
  • The History of the European Union
  • The North American Free Trade Agreement: How Has It Worked?
  • Protectionist Trade Legislation: Pro and Con
  • The Impact of Globalization on Nation-State Sovereignty
  • The Impact of American Entertainment Products on Foreign Cultures
  • An Analysis of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and Its Enforcement

CHAPTER 13    INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

  • Sustainable Development: Implications and Prospects
  • Should the United States Senate Ratify the Kyoto Protocol?
  • Should Drilling Be Allowed in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge?
  • An Assessment of the Superfund Law and Its Accomplishments
  • Should the Environmental Protection Agency Regulate Global Warming Gas Emissions?

CHAPTER 14    MANAGING ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

  • The Use of Cost-Benefit Analysis in Environmental Regulation
  • The Use of Cap-and-Trade Schemes for Global Warming Gases
  • An Assessment of Green Taxes as a Method for Promoting Sustainable Manufacturing
  • The Precautionary Principle as a Guide for Business Decisions
  • The Greening of American Industry: How Leading Corporations Promote Sustainability

CHAPTER 15    CONSUMERISM

  • The History of Consumer Regulation in the United States
  • An Essay Comparing the Ideas of Henry David Thoreau with the Values of Modern Americans
  • The Story of Ralph Nader as a Consumer Advocate
  • The Global Spread of Consumerism
  • Using Product Liability Law to Hold Firearm Manufacturers Accountable for Gun Violence
  • Taxing Internet Purchases: Pro and Con
  • Is Tobacco Manufacture and Advertising Ethical?

CHAPTER 16    THE CHANGING WORKPLACE

  • Demographic Change in the Labor Force: Implications for Management
  • How Technology and Automation Affect Employment
  • A Comparative Study of Protections for Workers in America, Europe, and Japan
  • The Story of Secretary of Labor Francis Perkins during the New Deal Years
  • Offshoring: Its Causes and Its Significance

CHAPTER 17    CIVIL RIGHTS IN THE WORKPLACE

  • The History of Employment Discrimination Against the Chinese in California
  • The Americans with Disabilities Act
  • Affirmative Action in Corporations: Pro and Con
  • Strategies for Diversity Management in Corporations
  • Barriers to the Advance of Women in Management
  • Sexual Harassment in the Workplace
  • Racial Harassment in the Workplace

CHAPTER 19    CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

  • The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002: Its Costs and Benefits
  • Governance Policies of American Corporations: A Comparative Study
  • Trends in Top Executive Compensation
  • Separating the Chairman of the Board and CEO Positions: Pro and Con
  • Director Compensation: A Comparative Study of (Any Four) Fortune 500 Corporations
  • Analysis of Three Social Responsibility Shareholder Resolutions in the (Most Recent) Proxy Season

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