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Political Science Assignment

Part A: Explanation of terms

Complex Terrorism

With technological advancement and economic innovation, it can often be noticed that rich countries across the globe have obtained unrivalled prosperity. However, there is a drawback also because these countries are often susceptible to crippling as well as unanticipated attacks of the terrorists. Advanced western nations often rely on the intricate networks and concentrate on the vital assets on the small geographical clusters. Thus, it can be viewed that these nations amplify the destructive power that the terrorists possess. These terrorists often utilize weapons of mass disruption to inflict financial as well as psychological damage. The increasing vulnerability of the economic as well as technological systems is manipulated by modern terrorists for attacking and mass violence. As opined by Florea et al. (2019), complex terrorism can threaten the modern as well as technologically developed societies in the most developed nations across the globe. It can be stated that the analysis of terrorist activities has become a current phenomenon during the last few decades. As per the opinion of Lord Alderdice (2017), terrorist attacks can be modeled as dynamic systems. Terrorism has been relevant and present in social life during decades. Nowadays, terrorists utilize the technology for economic exploitation and these multifaceted complexities can be stated as complex terrorism.


Relative Poverty

Relative poverty can be explained as a situation that demonstrates that people lack the amount of money that is needed to lead an average standard of living in a society in which people live. As per the viewpoint of Fair et al. (2017), relative poverty is the easiest way of measuring the poverty level in a country. It can be found that relative poverty measurement is very important nowadays to find out the households that are left behind as compared to those households that enjoy a good standard of living in the same country. It can be stated that unemployment, the existence of inequalities in the labour market and poor health often cause relative poverty. According to Dunn (2017), relative poverty can be explained as relative deprivation as these people or households generally do not fall under the category of absolute poverty. It can be found that those who are relatively poor cannot enjoy the same standard of life as compared to the other people of that country. Sadyrtdinov et al. (2017) have stated that relative poverty is nothing but a form of social exclusion. It can be viewed that absolute poverty is a common phenomenon in developing countries. The criteria of relative poverty are in flux and it generally depends on the economy of a country.


Rwandan Patriotic Front

Rwandan Patriotic Front is the ruling political party of Rwanda, situated in Africa. This Rwandan Patriotic Front ended in 1994 by mercilessly defeating the civilians as well as military authorities who were responsible for a killing campaign. As per the opinion of Chemouni & Mugiraneza (2019), the Rwandan Patriotic Front had been composed mainly of exiled Rwandans belonging from Tutsi heritage. These people had left the country at the time of Hutu–Tutsi violence and helped the president of the country. According to Holmes (2018), Nationalism Populism is the main ideology associated with the Rwandan Patriotic Front. It can be noticed that all those who had died due to the attacks of RPF, were Hutu. However, it can be noticed that RPF has given profound stress on national unity. The RPF explicitly disavowed any hostility that is based on ethnic distinctions. The RPF had called itself a kin group with a suggestion who adhered in it, we’re expected to feel a strong bond among themselves. As per the viewpoint of Lakin (2017), this group is quite successful in establishing the truth that Rwandans used to lead harmonized lives before the colonial regime introduced distinctions among the ethnic groups. Analysing this, it can be stated that the Rwandan Patriotic Front was famous for recruiting Hutu supporters, stopping the Genocide and establishing the ideology of national unity.

Rwandan Patriotic Front soldiers preparing to march into Kigali, Rwanda, 1994

Part B: Short Essay Questions

Question 1. The way Single Member Plurality systems work and political reform by moving to Proportional Representation

There are several ways through which a single-member plurality system works. As per the viewpoint of Faliszewski et al. (2019), the single-member plurality, each voter is allowed to vote only one candidate. It can be noticed that Canada’s electoral system is often referred to as the fast past the post system. It can be noticed that the candidate with most votes generally has the right to possess a seat in the House of Commons and the person generally represents that riding like a member of a Parliament. 

Proportional representation can be explained as a democratic principle that specifies that people must represent to that proportion the way they have voted. According to Scott (2016), this means the all over the percentage of seats a party generally has in the legislature of the country should reflect the percentage of the ordinary people who have voted for that party. Analysing this, it can be stated that Canada should move to a system of Proportional Representation because, under the first-past-the-post system, voters are eligible to elect a single representative in every single member riding. Diverse voters can elect a single representative in every single member riding. As a result of it, it becomes impossible for the voters to elect a single representative who can represent the values and priorities of the ordinary mass. It can be noticed that in some cases 70% of the voters cast ballots that cast none whereas it can be noticed that in the Proportional Representation voting system people can elect several representatives at once. Kedar, Harsgor & Sheinerman (2016) have stated that electing several representatives at once can be effective because several representatives represent several geographical regions and as a result of it. Most voters can get the accessibility of stating their opinion or voice in the parliament by their representative. It can be stated that this approach is quite fair as 50% of the votes yield 50% of the seats. It can be stated that Canada requires a fair voting system and following Proportional Representation is effective enough to establish a fair voting system in Canada. However, the link between constituent and representative is one of the most negative features of this system. It can be noticed that Proportional Representation is effective enough to resolve the unfairness of the majoritarian as well as pluralities voting system because most of the time in the majority system, the largest party generally obtains the seat bonus. One of the most important beneficial aspects of Proportional Representation is that minor parties in Canada can be privileged and elected through this system and the parties across Canada can be stronger and competitive. A healthy competition among the political parties regarding public welfare and popularity is important for fair voting. According to Riera & Cantú (2018), proper participation of the voters is the best aspect of Proportional Representation. It can be noticed that elections of smaller parties often give rise to some principal objection to the Proportional Representation system and thus it often results in the coalition government. 

Question 4. The reasons for behind the rarity of revolutions at present

It can be stated that revolutions mostly occur when a prolonged period of objective economic as well as social development is followed by a short span of sharp reversal. At that time, it can be noticed that people fear subjectively that ground that is gained with great effort will be lost and as a result of it, people become revolutionary. The evidence of the Russian revolution and the Egyptian revolution support this concept. However, it can be viewed that various statistics such as civil disturbances, rural uprisings, unemployment, industrial strikes and increased cost of living often lead people towards the revolutionary movement.

It can be evaluated that mass protests that can obtain some of the political concessions, cannot be considered revolutionary. According to Bueno de Mesquita & Smith (2017), the most important feature of a revolution in societal change. Such types of societal changes could have been noticed at the time of the American Revolution and the French revolution. The American Revolution was more effective as compared to French revolutions because of the existence of a written declaration that had been written even before the war had ended. Revolutionary mentality includes courage, want for change, opinionated, strong beliefs and motivation about the changes that can be beneficial for the overall society. As per the historical accounts, it can be found that revolution is quite effective regarding improving the standard of living of the citizens of a country over time. Analysing the present phenomenon, it can be stated that revolutions are rare because the state is strong nowadays and some of those who benefit often defend the societal order. Davies and Gurr have given rise to the concept of socio-psychological theory of revolution where it is depicted that there are several reasons associated with the occurrence of revolution. Deprivation is one of the factors that generally lead to revolution. Mann (2018) has stated the theory of equilibrium that shows that political instability often results in revolution. However, it can be stated that faster rates of innovation, complex network of global exchange and several new energy sources have made the world more complex, fragile and dangerous. Technology is presently used as a weapon to bring about changes in the lives of people the way revolution brings changes in the lives of people. However, it can be found that nowadays people lack the revolutionary courage to change society and very few revolts leave a deep impact on society. Analysing this, it can be stated that revolution is rare now.

Revolution is a term that explains about the forceful movement against the government or forceful overthrow of the government. Revolution nowadays has become extremely scarce because people lack revolutionary passion As per the viewpoint of Kourula & Delalieux (2016), revolution must bring a fundamental change in dominant values of ordinary mass regarding its political institution, leadership, social values, social structure and government policies. Analysing this, it can be stated that revolutions need to be distinguished from wars of independence, rebellion and revolts because none of these things bring about fundamental societal changes. Even, some of the revolutions remain unsuccessful to bring about changes in the communities. Analysing this, it can be stated that revolution is quite a rate as compared to revolts.

Part C: Interpretative Essay Questions


Liberalism and Realism are two most common concepts that tend to impact the political scenarios across the world. The two philosophies are completely opposite of one another and have different beliefs, which are to be analyzed here.


Realism as the name suggests is an attempt to portray a real picture of the current political scenario of international politics in a truthful and detailed manner. As per the ideas of Nielsen (2018), realism is sharply opposed to the concept of liberalism and negates its optimistic views regarding the current scenario of international politics. Realism puts a high amount of stress on the constraints of politics, which is largely a result of the egoistic nature of humans. Moreover, this is further aided by the lack of a proper central authority above the state, which leads to these issues of tainted nature of international politics.


Liberalism is a counter concept of realism and is based on the liberty of each individual citizen of a country. The major postulate of liberty in liberalism is accompanied by the consent of the people who are governed and the equality of all citizens before the law. As per the views of Ozkan & Cetin (2016), liberalism aims at dispersing power, fostering greater diversity and nurturing greater levels of creativity. Liberalism tends to be highly in favour of democracy and democratic institutions and puts a high stress on human rights.

Difference between the two concepts

The major difference between realism and liberalism stems in the very basic nature of the two concepts. As per the ideas of Dirzauskaite & Ilinca (2017), liberalism tends to emphasize the need to set-up a hegemony, which will govern each and every state and will look after the welfare and well-being of the world. This hegemony is to ensure greater peace and security in the international arena and is to have greater military and economic powers than all the other states. This idea is sharply contrasted by the concept of realism, which clearly explains that international politics is ridden with amoral concepts and any international hegemony will function to meet their individual ends. In the opinions of Hayes (2017), there is a need to understand the fact that realism is of the view that the egoistic nature of human beings affects the proper functioning of international politics. Therefore, personal favouritism is an integral part of all human beings and this can lead to biased decisions.

The theory of Realism tends to represent international politics as a war-mongering entity, which is a grave threat to international peace and security. In the opinions of Nielsen (2018), realism believes that in times of crises political institutions ought to make biased decisions based on their personal needs. This is a major threat to world peace and security, which can only be evaded in case the unitary states are ensured that there, is no danger to their individual peace. The views of realism clearly show a very limited scope for international peace and security amidst the unitary functioning of the states and the egoistic nature of political institutions of all organizations. As per the idea of Dirzauskaite & Ilinca (2017), liberalism believes that the creation of an international body that represents all the states of the world can help in attaining a more collaborative effort and can ensure a higher amount of peace and international security. However, the theory of realism negates this proposition and strongly condemns the views. According to realists, all the states have their own lookouts and therefore, reaching a union of states is impossible.

Thus, it is obvious that realism tends to present a pessimistic picture of international collaboration between the various governments to ensure world peace and security. However, in the case of liberalism, it tends to take a more positive approach towards the same views, which is the main point of difference between the two ideologies concerning peace and international security.

Suitability of the concepts to current scenario

The current medical crisis across the world requires a greater collaboration between the various states and in this regard, the view that states tend to be self-centred is required to be scrapped off (Hayes, 2017). In this regard, the application of liberalism tends to be higher as it can help in ensuring a higher amount of collaboration between the various states and ensure that the world is fighting against the medical emergency that has arrived in a unitary manner. Another major aspect that is required to be mentioned here is the fact that traces of realism can be found when the crises tend to deepen, but it is the responsibility of the governments of the countries to stand united in their fight to ensure a quick relief from the medical emergency that it is facing at present.


Thus, the two philosophies stand correct in their own way, but in this period of crisis the theory of liberalization can be seen to be more effective in ensuring better results. This is a modern concept in comparison to realism, which can be seen as a classic concept and cannot be applied here.

Reference list

Bueno de Mesquita, B., & Smith, A. (2017). Political succession: A model of coups, revolution, purges, and everyday politics. Journal of Conflict Resolution61(4), 707-743. Retrieved on: 25 March 2020 from: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=

Chemouni, B., & Mugiraneza, A. (2019). Singing the struggle: The Rwandan Patriotic Front’s ideology through its songs of liberation. Aegis Working Paper. Retrieved on: 25 March 2020 from: http://www.genocideresearchhub.org.rw/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/Chemouni-and-Mugiraneza-final-PB.pdf

Dirzauskaite, G., & Ilinca, N. C. (2017). Understanding “Hegemony” in International Relations Theories. Development and International Relations, Aalborg University, Denmark. Retrieved on: 2 April 2020, from: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/9346/b0f35f0e890a49eaf73cca105e19ae2fb274.pdf

Dunn, A., 2017. Relative poverty, British social policy writing and public experience. Social Policy and Society16(3), 377-390. Retrieved on: 25 March 2020 from: http://eprints.lincoln.ac.uk/22411/3/Dunn%20Relative%20Poverty%20Nov%202015.pdf

Fair, C. C., Littman, R., Malhotra, N., & Shapiro, J. N. (2018). Relative poverty, perceived violence, and support for militant politics: Evidence from pakistan. Political Science Research and Methods6(1), 57-81. Retrieved on: 25 March 2020 from: https://scholar.princeton.edu/sites/default/files/jns/files/relative-poverty-perceived-violence-and-support-for-militant-politics-evidence-from-pakistan.pdf

Faliszewski, P., Skowron, P., Szufa, S., & Talmon, N. (2019, May). Proportional Representation in Elections: STV vs PAV. In Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Autonomous Agents and MultiAgent Systems (1946-1948). Retrieved on: 25 March 2020 from: https://digitalcommons.osgoode.yorku.ca/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1061&context=public_writing

Florea, M., Potlog, C., Pollner, P., Abel, D., Garcia, O., Bar, S., … & Asif, W. (2019). Complex Project to Develop Real Tools for Identifying and Countering Terrorism: Real-time Early Detection and Alert System for Online Terrorist Content Based on Natural Language Processing, Social Network Analysis, Artificial Intelligence and Complex Event Processing. Retrieved on: 25 March 2020 from: http://www.open-access.bcu.ac.uk/7783/1/RP_9788770220873C9.pdf

Hayes, J. (2017). Reclaiming Constructivism: Identity and the Practice of the Study of International Relations. PS: Political Science & Politics, 50(1), 89-92. Retrieved on: 2 April 2020, from: https://www.academia.edu/download/50522745/S1049096516002213.pdf

Holmes, G. (2018). Gender and the military in post-genocide Rwanda. Women and Genocide: Survivors, Victims, Perpetrators, 223-249. Retrieved on: 25 March 2020 from: https://www.academia.edu/download/56730132/12_Bemporad_ch11_Holmes_final_proofs.pdf

Kedar, O., Harsgor, L., & Sheinerman, R. A. (2016). Are voters equal under proportional representation?. American Journal of Political Science60(3), 676-691. Retrieved on: 25 March 2020 from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Liran_Harsgor/publication/282907542_Are_Voters_Equal_under_Proportional_Representation/links/59bc0c200f7e9b48a28e1e95/Are-Voters-Equal-under-Proportional-Representation.pdf

Kourula, A., & Delalieux, G. (2016). The micro-level foundations and dynamics of political corporate social responsibility: Hegemony and passive revolution through civil society. Journal of Business Ethics135(4), 769-785. Retrieved on: 25 March 2020 from: http://www.academia.edu/download/42062493/The_Micro-level_Foundations_and_Dynamics20160204-30232-e1bx2v.pdf

Lakin, S. (2017, October). Negotiating Genocide in Rwanda: The Politics of History. In Oral History Forum d’histoire orale (Vol. 37). Retrieved on: 25 March 2020 from: http://www.oralhistoryforum.ca/index.php/ohf/article/download/654/735

Lord Alderdice, J. (2017). Fundamentalism, Radicalization and Terrorism. Part 1: terrorism as dissolution in a complex system. Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy31(3), 285-300. Retrieved on: 25 March 2020 from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/John_Alderdice/publication/320171862_Fundamentalism_Radicalization_and_Terrorism_Part_1_terrorism_as_dissolution_in_a_complex_system/links/5a32a017458515afb66c87f0/Fundamentalism-Radicalization-and-Terrorism-Part-1-terrorism-as-dissolution-in-a-complex-system.pdf

Mann, L. (2018). Left to other peoples’ devices? A political economy perspective on the big data revolution in development. Development and Change49(1), 3-36. Retrieved on: 25 March 2020 from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Laura_Mann3/publication/320198812_Left_to_Other_Peoples%27_Devices_A_Political_Economy_Perspective_on_the_Big_Data_Revolution_in_Development/links/5af96fb30f7e9b026bf73513/Left-to-Other-Peoples-Devices-A-Political-Economy-Perspective-on-the-Big-Data-Revolution-in-Development.pdf

Nielsen, N. F. G. (2018). The Notion of the European Superpower Analyzed Through the International Relations Theories of Realism and Liberalism. Retrieved on: 2 April 2020, from: https://projekter.aau.dk/projekter/files/281139399/The_Notion_of_the_European_Superpower_Analyzed_Through_the_International_Relations_Theories_of_Realism_and_Liberalism.pdf

Ozkan, E., & Cetin, H. C. (2016). The realist and liberal positions on the role of international organizations in maintaining world order. European Scientific Journal, 12(17). Retrieved on: 2 April 2020, from: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/9f75/a8b9dc6c3ad0db26ceea9b1f6ffeeb5e4ef4.pdf

Riera, P., & Cantú, F. (2018). Determinants of legislative committee membership in proportional representation systems. Party Politics24(5), 524-535. Retrieved on: 25 March 2020 from: https://franciscocantu.github.io/Papers/PP%20-%20Europe.pdf

Sadyrtdinov, R., Rodnyansky, D., Makarov, I., & Shirokova, O. (2017, June). Relative Poverty Measurement by Equivalent Income. In International Conference on Trends of Technologies and Innovations in Economic and Social Studies 2017. Atlantis Press. Retrieved on: 25 March 2020 from: https://download.atlantis-press.com/article/25885497.pdf

Scott, C. (2016). Why Mixed Member Proportional Representation Deserves to Be at the Top: Mixed Member Proportional is the Ideal System, but Principled and Respectful Compromise Can Do the Job Too. Policy Options. Retrieved on: 25 March 2020 from: http://digitalcommons.osgoode.yorku.ca/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1053&context=public_writing

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Sustainability In Food Production


In the twenty-first century, the integration of sustainability with business models is a running trend and most of the multinational organisations are exploiting this idea in order to get a superior position in the competitive market. It has been evaluated that the sustainable approach of tread has been imparting multidimensional beneficial impact, not only over the growth of the business but also the growth of the community and the planet as well. The purpose of this study is to identify the utilisation of sustainable approach in the context of food production in Australia. George Weston Food (GWF) has been selected to conduct this study to explore the practice of SUSTAINABILITY IN FOOD PRODUCTION.

The thesis statement of this study is that GWF is practising Sustainable food production approach and has created a positive impact over the economic, social and environmental aspects of the operating market and the company.



Background of the study and company

In the previous section, it has already been mentioned that sustainability is one of such ideas which provides multilayered beneficial influence over the growth of trade and commerce and also in the community and environmental level. Further, as per the idea of Crist, Mora & Engelman (2017), sustainability always creates scope for the economic development of a business unit. Likewise, this idea is quite applicable for the trade model of GWF as they have successfully integrated sustainable ideas to run their commercial activity at the cross-border level. As per the official report, GWF has expanded its business up to 46 nations around the globe, among which the trade in Australia and the UK is notable (gwf.com, 2019). This information is quite pertinent in delineating the scoped scenario of the organisation. Moreover, the organisation has got its popularity by being under the ownership of British Food PLC.

The support of business associates is another important factor which has promoted GWF in the implementation of its sustainable ideas. As per the viewpoint of Rahimifard et al. (2017), the support of the stakeholders like investors, employees and suppliers is highly crucial to run a sustainable business. As per the official reports, GWF has a strong and supportive workforce at the international level with the strength of 1, 00,000 individuals (gwf.com, 2019). Hence, from this point, it can be analysed that the organisation has got the support of its HR, one of the major stakeholders to implement sustainability. Moreover, the supportive and reliable suppliers of the company have also helped the firm to proceed to the path of success.

Sustainability- Idea definition and application

The concept and discussion regarding sustainability is needed to be stated as it is the backbone of this study. As per the statement of Vieira et al. (2018), the idea of the development of community, trade and economy of a specific location with the conservation of the natural resources is expressed by the term Sustainability. Hence, from this point, it can be analysed that minimal wastage of natural resources and the minimisation of burden over the biosphere in the context of the development of the business sector is the major intention of Sustainable growth. As per Lawrence et al. (2019), sustainable growth in the industrial sector always prefers the acceleration of the economic growth of the same by means of the development of society and environment. The same thing has been identified for GWF.

Sustainable food production in George Weston Food

Sustainable food production is the method of the production of the food where the process and the systems that are used are none polluting. The process used renewable energy that is conserved and natural resources that are used are economically efficient (Dwivedi et al. 2017). This process is safe and for the workers and for the community and it is also abided by the needs of the future generation.

Maintenance of the sustainability by George Weston Food (GWF)

The company has also maintained this sustainability in their food production because they include the environmental targets as their part of the management in their business. At the end of 2013 GWF’s water consumption was lowered down to 12 % which was the baseline compared to the other companies (gwf.com, 2020). The GWF has set the goal of the reduction in their water consumption by 20% in per ton of their goods by 2020. GWF has taken the initiative of water recirculation and the cleaning practices by rainwater along with rainwater harvesting. GWF BY 2015 has decided to supply palm oil which has been certified sustainability and the RSPO trading scheme.

Environment Application

The steps of reducing the emission of the greenhouse gas by their production have been taken by various operations and by monitoring the performance. The company was able to achieve a depreciation of 18.9 % in the emission of greenhouse gas (gwf.com, 2020).

Supply chain management

The GWF has audited some programs which have been certified as the vendor assurance program where the suppliers are taught about the relevant regulatory and about the industries the maintenance of the consumer standard. The GWF has been able to achieve the responsibility chain by maintaining safe transportation and warehouse traffic management. The suppliers related to the company have to agree with the company’s responsible sourcing code of conduct for the maintenance of sustainability. GWF has captured the expectation of maintaining the labor standards ethically and to prevent bribery along with that the corruption related to the sourcing of the ingredients and materials. The suppliers of the animal products must be abided by local animal welfare law and also demonstrate the certification, regulation, standards and the traceability of their published standards.

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) of GWF for sustainability maintenance

The social responsibilities taken by GWF are to give employment to more than 6000 people across the 58 sites of Australia where the company is located (gwf.com, 2020). GWF is responsible for the maintenance of quality, with robust supply chain, with supporting communities along with performing the environmental targets.

Benefits of the process in economic development

In the previous section, it has been identified that GWF has been using natural ingredients for its food production and has created trustable relationships with the local suppliers to keep the uninterrupted flow of natural resources as the raw material of its food production system. This is the main factor which has invoked economic development to the organisation. As per the official report, GWF has effectively enhanced its revenue, from 2,122 million dollars to 2,243 million dollars in the year 2018 (weston.ca, 2018). From this angle it can be analysed that sustainability has its impact over the economic upliftment of an organisation in both national and international level and GWF is the most relevant example to establish this idea.

The sustainability approach has also helped the organisation to minimise its production cost and the aspect of capital investment has helped to identify this. As per the data of the annual report, the capital investment of GWF has decreased from 241 million dollars to 215 million dollars and lastly to 212 million dollars for 2016, 2017 and 2018 respectively (weston.ca, 2018). Henceforth it can be analysed that, the organisation is enhancing its revenue figure with the decrease of its capital investment. This is one of the most profitable strategies which have been formulated with the help of sustainability (Tait et al. 2016). Moreover, as per the sustainability report of the GWF, the company has been using the standards of the waste hierarchy which includes recovery, recycle and reuse (gwf, 2016). This has also provided economic growth to the company.

Impact of sustainable food production in environmental conservation

Environmental sustainability can be seen as the most important concern that the world is facing at present. As per the ideas of Dwivedi et al. (2017), global warming and climate change have taken the world by storm. Food production has a significant impact on the immediate environment and has been accredited with multiple negative impacts associated with this. Food production is responsible for eutrophication, acid rain and the depletion of biodiversity as well. This, in turn, contributes largely to the phenomenon of climate change. However, as per the ideas of Pickett et al. (2019), the major impact of food production is on the use of resources such as land and water, which is an essential aspect. Eliminating such negative implications can be facilitated using sustainable food production techniques.

The use of sustainable food production techniques has evolved over the years. However, as per Govindan (2018), a rise in the global population has led to an increase in the need for food production. As a consequence, all organizations associated with the production of food, have undertaken modern farming techniques, which has taken a considerable toll on the overall environment. Nevertheless, farming techniques have evolved over the years, which have led to a minimization in the use of chemical fertilizers. Instead, the practice has shifted towards the use of organic fertilizers, which has helped in conserving the quality and nutritional value of the land (Stevens et al. 2018). Moreover, it has also helped in reducing the levels of eutrophication caused as a result of fertilizer runoff. The use of resources has also been limited by making use of several modern techniques.

Impact of GWF’s measures in environmental sustainability

The organisation is making use of IoT in farming and techniques like drip irrigation and sprinkler irrigation. As per the ideas of Thyberg & Tonjes (2016), the modern irrigation techniques help in ensuring the conservation of water and at the main time reduces groundwater pollution. Furthermore, the organization makes use of organic fertilizers as well, which has helped it to enhance productivity and contain impacts on the environment considerably.

Impact over social development

Overall impact on social development

Sustainable food production is a very essential aspect as per the reports of the UN. In 2017, UN reports claim that one out of nine people across the world remains hungry for more than a day and one of three suffers from malnutrition (tiptop-foodservice.com, 2020). Given this scenario, there is a need to leverage food production, without any adverse impact on the environment and the natural resources. Therefore, sustainable food production is an essential aspect that is required to be ensured. Moreover, as per Ueasangkomsate & Santiteerakul (2016), sustainable food production also helps in ensuring lower pollution rates and preserves the nutritional value of the food products. This can largely help in ensuring healthy eating habits. This is of high social importance, as the spread of major diseases has become a common phenomenon across the world.

Use of sustainable food production has also helped in reducing the use of major non-renewable forms of resources, which can be utilized to meet the needs of the growing population. Apart from that, as Fontana et al. (2018) points out, conservation of water has become an essential need, as there is an acute scarcity of freshwater for drinking across many countries in the world. This can largely help the people of these countries to meet their water requirements and will also inhibit the growth and spread of waterborne diseases largely. Thus, sustainable food production has major social consequences, apart from the economic and environmental impacts.

Impact of GWFs activities on social development

GWF has put the best foot forward in the aspect of water conservation, as it has been able to cut down water conservation by 12% since 2013 (tiptop-foodservice.com, 2020). Moreover, the organization has set a target of reduction by 20% by the year 2020 (tiptop-foodservice.com, 2020). It also undertakes water recirculation and rainwater harvesting practices in this direction. Apart from these, GWF also undertakes energy efficiency practices and greenhouse gas elimination practices. The organization has been able to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 18.9% (tiptop-foodservice.com, 2020). All these efforts have helped the organization in ensuring greater social and environmental sustainability simultaneously.


Food production is a very important aspect that is required to be taken into consideration from the point of view of sustainability. Greater sustainability in food production is reported to have a wide range of economic, environmental and social implications. Taking a sustainable approach in food production not only allows greater productivity but also ensures a higher amount of nutritional value of the overall production. Moreover, it allows the reduction of the environmental impacts associated with the practice of food production. GWF has been able to meet all these criteria with their practices. Thus, GWF is practising Sustainable food production approach and has created a positive impact over the economic, social and environmental aspects of the operating market and the company.

Reference list

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