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Poor Water Quality in Christchurch

1.  Introduction and Research Background

The water is harmful to the people if the presence of chlorine is above the 5 mg/ litter because it causes health diseases like kidney failure (Coakley, Bridgen, Bates, & Douwes, 2018). The water chlorination damages the functions of the water heaters. This research incorporatesan investigation to identify the mitigation measures to reduce the chlorine composition. Hence, this research selects a case of Christchurch where they aregetting water supply with the presence of a high percentage of chlorine. Water testing team of theChristchurch government has tested their supplied water, where they found a percentage of chlorine of 0.2 to 1.2 parts per million (CCC, 2020). The high presence ofchlorines damages the water heater pipes that cause the sudden breakdown of those machines. The government of Christchurch has decided that the rainfall is lower in December and January that reduces the underground water level. The absence of rainfall increases the margin of chlorine within the groundwater (CCC, 2020). As per standards of New Zealand drinking water, the H level of the water should be seven and presence of Escherichia coli2 should be less than one in 100 ML samples (Health, 2020). The high pH level addressed as the presence of alkaline composition likechlorine in the water that is harmful for human consumption.

The high presence of chlorine is addressed as the Alkalosis(Rosenblum, Zaffiro, Adams, & Wendelken, 2017). The alkalosis characteristics of water signify the availability of highly chlorine composition, which is principiated presence of heated copper that destroys its function(CCC, 2020). The people of Christchurch using the cooper water heater where the water is wormed presence of copper immersion rod made with the cooper. When the copper materials are heated up in the presence of the chlorine than chlorination chemical reaction happens that precipitates the chlorine from the water (Newsline, 2020). The precipitated chlorine is stored in the water pipes, which damages the functionality of the cooper water heater. This research focuses on the mitigation measures on the poor Christchurch water quality. Christchurch has actively participated in making closely monitor the stream level of banks of the peninsula to the betterment of the quality of water by stabilisingthe pH level (Newsline, 2020). The installation of purifying machinery in the water supply station might be a potential solution to purify the water, eliminating chlorine and deliver pure water to the people Christchurch.

2.  Research problem and Problem Statement

The problem statement is the poor quality of water in Christchurch due to the presence of highlychlorine composition that damage the function of the copper water heater.

Copper is the most efficient elements to heat up the water. The people of Christchurch uses this water heater at a margin of 79.8% to heat up water to purify impurechemicals from the water, and they influenced to use that purified water safely (Health, 2020). The research problem is that the presence of the chlorine composition in the groundwater of Christchurch. The presence of alkaline composition in water that dismantles the functionality of copper water heater by precipitin chlorine. The copper water heater is used for purifying the alkaline chemicals and use the water safely. But the alkaline materials like chlorine is found 61 stations of Christchurch which supplies the people of Christchurch.

The working principle of the copper water cylinder is heated by using the copper immersion rod. The presence of heat like 60 to 70 dree temperature destroys the immunity of impure biological materials which reduces the impurity from the water. The Christchurch city council distributed the water supply in 68 service station, where 53 number of stations areusing the well to supply the water (Newsline, 2020). The usage of well increases the margin of chlorine. The microbiologicalcomposition getsa chance to make a chemical reaction in the water of stored contained that improves the composition of water. that damages the copper water heaters. The copper electrodes are used within the water heater to purify the water. Chlorines are precipitated in the presence of the heated copper electrode due to this reason, approximately 45 number of cylinders have been changed by the Christchurch city council authority (Health, 2020).

The Christchurch city council claimed that the exchange of the copper water heater consumes high financial assets. Therefore, the CCC avoids this solution of replacing the copper cylinders to resolve the poor-quality issues (Newsline, 2020).

As per the standards New Zealand drinking water, it is identified that the small water supply follows 4-9 contain the microbial, chemical and radiological compliance within the drinking water to provide pure water to their people of Christchurch. This characteristicis not present within the drinking water that signifies the violation of the standards of the New Zealand drinking water (Newsline, 2020). The New Zealand government is unable to provide pure drinking water to the citizen, which consists ofa potential risk of health issues like kidney failure. The mitigation strategies are the concern of this research which help Christchurch city council to improve the quality of water and supply to their customers (Stuff, 2020). The revision of the regulatory policy of drinking water is essential that facilitates them to maintain permanent chlorination. Chlorination is the process of reducingthe percentage of chlorine from the water.

3.  Research Aim

The aim of this research is to identify the mitigation measures for poor Christchurch water quality.

4.  Literature Review

  1. International and National Standards of Water

As per the international standards of drinking water is that the people must get the soft water for drinking. The pH level lies of drinking water must be lies between the 6.5 to 8 that addressed asa smaller presence of alkaline composition like chlorine in the water. This pH level slandered signifies as the soft water that is essential for the drinking water (WHO, 2020). As per the drinking water standard of World Health Organisation (WHO), it is identified that the percentage of chlorine must present at an amount of 0.08mg at 1 to 2-degree temperature water at the presence of the pH level of 7 to 8.5 (WHO, 2020). The presence of the micro chloramine must present in the drinking water at a margin of the 94 mg/ litter water presence in 1 to the 2-degree temperature of the water. Moreover, the percentage of monochloramine is present within the drinking water at the amount of 278 mg/litter at the presence of a pH level 6 to 9 (WHO, 2020).

As per the standards of the WHO it is identified that the Ozon and UV irradiation treatment process is significant to reduce the presence of an excessive margin of alkaline and acidic materials from the drinking water. This chemical and biological characterises must present within the drinking water as per the drinking water standers of WHO. The presence of these characteristics is signifying as the drinkable water for the people.  The presence of low alkaline materials like 0.08mg chlorine and 94mg monochloramine along with the pH level of 6 to 8.5 signifies the pure and drinkable water as per the drinking water guidelines issued by WHO.

According to On, et al. (2019), the microbial determinants including Escherichia coli, pathogenic protozoa arecharacterised that water as adrinking water. Based on section 2.2 of standards of drinking water of New Zealand,it is identified that the presence of Escherichia coli at a range of less than 100 mL of sample (Health, 2020). The presence of a low amount of microorganism is signified aspure water as per the drinking standards of the ministry of health of New Zealand. The total pathogenic protozoa must be present in the water at arange of 00 cysts per 100 L of sample3 that signifies as the pure drinking water (CCC, 2020). As per the health ministry standards of NZ, it is identified that the chlorine level must be present below the range of 5 mg/ litre. Moreover, the presence of chromium and chromium is between the 0.8 and 0.05 mg/ litter that signifies as a drinking water.

  • Issues associated with drinking water

Water pollution is significant in the groundwater level that hampers the percentage of the Escherichia coli, pathogenic protozoa from the drinking water. As stated by Coakley et al. (2018), the excessive margin of chlorine-like above 5 mg/litter signifies as the polluted water, which could be drinkable by the human being. People of Christchurch getting the poor quality of water which hasa high presence of chlorine at a margin of 9.2 to 10 and a pH level of 8.2 (Stuff, 2020). The presence of a high margin of chlorine destroys the functions of the copper water heater functionality. The copper is used in the water heater because its thermal conductivity is 399 W/(m*k). Copper is widely used for heating and purifying the water from the harmful germs present within the water.

Drinking Water

According to Zia et al. (2020),the presence of chlorine is a high percentage precepted in the presence of heated copper. The precepted copper creates a layer on the heater cylinder that destroy its functions. As an example, 75% of people Christchurch is facing this issue with their copper water heater where it destroys the functions due to high precipitation of chlorine (Newsline, 2020). For example, 68 water supply stations are present in Christchurch, where 53 number of water supply stations store and supplied water from the well (Newsline, 2020). Hence, the consumption of water enhances the percentage of chlorine due to the reaction between the microbiological organism. Therefore, the people of Christchurchis getting water with high chlorine that destroyers the function of their water heater.

  • Mitigation measures on poor water quality

The water supply department of the city council must follow the guidelines of international standers for the drinking water. This guideline is important to maintain the purity of the drinking water by reducing the presence of the chlorine (Newsline, 2020). Christchurch city counciltaking initiatives to change the regulatory policy for drinking water as per the international standards of drinking water proposed by the WHO. Moreover, Christchurch city council is seeking to the exception for the Lyttleton harbour basic water supply to maintain permanentchlorination and provide the pure drinking water (Newsline, 2020). According to Batley & Simpson (2020), the Christchurch eliminate the temporary chlorine dosing solution and implement a purifying system to reduce the costing for repairing copper heater cylinder and provide chlorine-free water. Therefore, the puffing system implementation is the potential solution to reduce the chlorineof 5 Mg as per the international standards and reduce the chances of destroying the function of copper water heater function.

5.  Research Significance and Limitation

  1. Research significance:

This research is significant because it incorporates investigation on a social issue of Christchurchwhere people are getting impure water presence of chlorine composition. Due to this reason, the functions of their copper water heater isdestroyeddue to precipitation of chlorine from the water that consumes huge cost to repair or replacement. This research is significant because it investigates the reason behind the presence of a high margin of chlorine withinthe drinking water. This research is alsoinvestigatingthe reasons behind the presence of chlorine in drinking water that destroys the functionality of the copper water heater by precipitating chlorine in the cylinder of the heater. The research is significant to make research on the international and New Zealandstandards of drinking water. This investigation is beneficial for identifying the mitigations measures to implement permanent chlorination to betterment the purity of the water by reducing chlorine composition.

  • Limitations:

This research willbe investing the water issues on a particular location like Christchurch instead of considering the overall of New Zealand. This research will not consider the primary source of data so that this research will not project the practical experience of the citizen of Christchurch. This research will consider the secondary source of information so that only theoretical and conceptual measures will be highlighted. It reduces the authenticity of the information related to mitigations measures for Christchurch water qualitybecause it collected from the secondary sources.

6.  Project Design

The research methodology is a process of collection of data from the data sources to meet the objectives of this study(Humphries, 2017).

  1. Research design

Research design is a set of method to analyse the variables are associated with the research problem to find out the answer tothe research question(Cuervo‐Cazurra & Mudambi, 2017).  Research design is segmented as a type of exploratory, explanatory and descriptive. This study will be following the exploratory research design to create a link between the two variables named mitigation strategy and poor water quality of Christchurch. During this investigation, the reason behind the poor water quality is identified by reviewing the research paper related to mitigation measures of poor quality of water. The identification of the reason behind the poor water quality will also influence to make research on the variable like mitigation strategy.

  • Research philosophy

Research philosophy identifies a way to accomplish the research to meet the objective(Ledford & Gast, 2018). the positivism philosophy will be suitable for the poor water quality is social issues which require mathematical information like pH level to define it. Hence, positivism philosophy will instruct to the researcher to draw the inference on mathematic information and identify the reason behind the delivery of poor quality of water. It also instructed to collect information related to mitigation measures to implement permanent chlorination that purifies the drinking water supplied to people of Christchurch.

  • Research approach

The research approach is a set of instruction that help to identify the inference of variables associated with the research topic(Quinlan & Babin, 2019). The research approach iscategorised in mainly two types, including inductive and deductive approach. The inductive approach will be adopted by this research to investigate the mitigation strategies of the poor water quality of Christchurch. The inductive approach will provide a scope to generate inference based on the investigation of the reason for the poor quality of water in Christchurch. This mitigation strategy will help to identify the reason behind destroying the functionality ofcopper water heater. The inductive approach helps to identify the inference based on the mitigation techniques like revising the water policy, repairing the copper water cylinder to resolve the issue.

  • Research strategy

The research strategy is a technique to investigate the research problem associated with the topic(Saunders & Bezzina, 2015). Ethnographic, case study, narrative, and grounded theory are the type of strategies are commonly used within the research. Case study methods will be followed in this study because it helps to develop the collect examples of different mitigation measures by reviewing the website of the Christchurch city council. This investigation will help to develop the meet the research objective by delivering appropriate measures to improve the quality of drinking water. The case study approach will help to collect secondary information related to international and domestic water standards. The knowledge gathering regarding water standards will influence to identify the proper solution to establish permanent chlorination.

  • Data collection

Data collection is a process of gathering relevant and authentic information from the data sources(Taylor & Bogdan, 2015). The primary and secondary method is followed by research studies to collect information to meet the objective of the research study. The secondary data collection process will be followed in this study to collect facts, figures and regulations of water pollution rate in New Zealand. Moreover, the secondary data will be collected from the relevant, recent and authentic journal and news article. The collection of secondary information associated in relation to the mitigation measures to provide permanent solution about the colonisation.

  • Data analysis

Data analysis is a process of analysis of the collected statistical and theoretical information to provide an answer to research questions(Flick, 2015). The thematic analysis process will be followed by this research that enables them to prepare code, the theme from the collected secondary information. The analysis of theme helps to identify the measures that help to provide a better quality of water to their people of Christchurch by implementing a permeant solution of the chlorination.

  • Ethical consideration

The ethical consideration is associated with the collection of secondary information from the authentic journal and news articles. This ethical consideration will support to collect authentic information regarding international and New Zealand standards of water and suggest mitigation measures for permanent chlorination. The ethical standardswill include the rules of selection of journal articles above 2015 to implicate authentic information regarding thereason behind the poor water quality of Christchurch. Moreover, the collected information will be used for academic purpose only.

7.  Conclusion

This research concludes that the chlorine composition is increased in water due to reaction with the microbiological determinants. The drinking water supply with chlorine composition destroys the functionality of copper water heater by precipitated the chlorine in the presence of heated copper immersion rod. The people of Christchurch getting water highly presence of chlorine composition. Whiling heating water the chlorine composition is precipitated in the presence of heated copper rod. The installation of the purification system for establishing permanent chlorination is essential to mitigate the impurity related to chlorine composition and deliver purified water to the people of Christchurch.

8.  References

Batley, G., & Simpson, S. (2020). Short‐term guideline for chlorine in marine waters. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 1(1), 1, DOI: 10.1002/etc.4661.

CCC. (2020). Where we have chlorinated. Retrieved April 29, 2020, from https://ccc.govt.nz/services/water-and-drainage/water-supply/water-chlorination

CCC. (2020). Water quality and monitoring. Retrieved April 29, 2020, from https://ccc.govt.nz/services/water-and-drainage/water-supply/quality-and-monitoring/water-quality-and-monitoring

Coakley, J., Bridgen, P., Bates, M., & Douwes, J. (2018). Chlorinated persistent organic pollutants in the serum of New Zealand adults, 2011–2013. Science of the total environment, 615(1), 624-631, DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.331.

Cuervo‐Cazurra, A., & Mudambi, R. (2017). Research methodology in global strategy research. Global Strategy Journal, 15(6), 233-240, DOI: 10.1002/gsj.1164.

Flick, U. (2015). Introducing research methodology: A beginner’s guide to doing a research project. London: Sage, ISBN: 0792349156.

Health. (2020). Drinking-water Standards for New Zealand 2005 (Revised 2018). Retrieved April 29, 2020, from https://www.health.govt.nz/publication/drinking-water-standards-new-zealand-2005-revised-2018

Health. (2020). Drinking-water Standards for New Zealand 2005 (Revised 2018). Retrieved April 29, 2020, from https://www.health.govt.nz/publication/drinking-water-standards-new-zealand-2005-revised-2018

Humphries, B. (2017). Re-thinking social research: anti-discriminatory approaches in research methodology (Vol. 3). London: Routledge, ISBN: 9781315244280.

Ledford, J., & Gast, D. (2018). Single case research methodology: Applications in special education and behavioural sciences (2 ed.). London: Routledge, ISBN: 9781315150666.

Newsline. (2020). Level 4 water restrictions for parts of Banks Peninsula. Retrieved April 29, 2020, from https://newsline.ccc.govt.nz/news/story/level-4-water-restrictions-for-parts-of-banks-peninsula

Newsline. (2020). The word on water: Latest on chlorination. Retrieved April 29, 2020, from https://newsline.ccc.govt.nz/news/story/the-word-on-water-latest-on-chlorination

On, S., Althaus, D., Miller, W., Lizamore, D., & Wong, S. (2019). Arcobacter cryaeropHilus isolated from New Zealand mussels harbour a putative virulence plasmid. Frontiers in microbiology, 10(1), 1802, DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.01802.

Quinlan, C., & Babin, B. (2019). Business research methods (3 ed.). London: South-Western Cengage, ISBN: 9781473760356.

Rosenblum, L., Zaffiro, A., Adams, W., & Wendelken, S. (2017). Effect of chlorination by-products on the quantitation of microcystins in finished drinking water. Toxicon, 138(1), 138-144, DOI: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2017.08.023.

Saunders, M., & Bezzina, F. (2015). Reflections on conceptions of research methodology among management academics. European management journal, 15(7), 297-304, DOI: 10.1016/j.emj.2015.06.002.

Stuff. (2020). Chlorine levels in some Christchurch water might be enough for swimming pools. Retrieved April 29, 2020, from https://www.stuff.co.nz/the-press/news/103631494/chlorine-levels-in-some-christchurch-water-might-be-enough-for-swimming-pool

Taylor, S., & Bogdan, R. (2015). Introduction to qualitative research methods: A guidebook and resource (2 ed.). London: John Wiley & Sons, ISBN: 1446244776.

WHO. (2020). Drinking-water quality guidelines. Retrieved April 29, 2020, from https://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/water-quality/guidelines/en/

WHO. (2020). Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality. Retrieved April 29, 2020, from https://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/gdwq0506.pdf

WHO. (2020). INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS FOR DRINKING-WATER. Retrieved April 29, 2020, from https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/205104/205104_eng.pdf;jsessionid=4202C0271A1E24AD862C08DB2688CA1D?sequence=2

Zia, Z., Hartland, A., & Mucalo, M. (2020). Wastewater treatment in New Zealand: zeolites as a potential low-cost solution for heavy metal removal. In The International Symposium on Macrocyclic and Supramolecular Chemistry, 1(1), 26, DOI:10.1016/j.desal.2007.02.022.

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Quality Management in Celsete Medical Center


Total Quality Management (TQM)  refers to management methods used to enhance quality and productivity in business organizations. TQM is a comprehensive management approach that works horizontally across an organization, involving all departments and employees and extending backward and forward to include both suppliers and clients/customers. TQM has five major elements that are essential to successful implication, which are:

  1. Focus on customer satisfaction: TQM focus employees on the importance of fulfilling customers’ expectations.
  2. Continuous improvement: is apolicy or process that helps keep the focus on improving the way things are done through regular incremental improvements or achieving larger process improvements.
  3. Employee involvement: ensure that employees are involved in implementing the TQM concept.
  4. Strategic and systematic approach: in TQM, organizations have a strategic plan in place which integrates quality as its primary component.
  5. Fact based decision making:TQM requires the organization to continually collect and analyze data in order to improve decision making accuracy.

Quality management plays a crucial role in your company’s growth and performance. It is also a key resource in the competition for customer relationships, striving to deliver a superior experience. Total quality management can help the organization by maintain loyal customers, due to the continuing improvements of the products, incorporating changes, and neglecting the defects. Furthermore, quality management provides companies with the specific information they need in order to develop the goods and services that customers want. This will increase the market share and gives the organization a competitive advantage. Also, total quality management can decrease human errors, and this helps to improve the company’s validation. For example, the employees will have a list of guidelines which they have to follow it during their day to day operations. 

Nowadays people demand for better healthcare systems. The importance of total quality management has risen in the health care field as it has become a part of the hospital’s competitive strategy. Using quality management in the health care system will help balance efficiency, equity, and quality which could be very challenging in order to provide a high-quality service. This strategy will improve performance and increase patient satisfaction (Mosadeghrad 2016).  

In healthcare services there are three definitions distinguished; Total Quality Management from other approaches: “it is a comprehensive strategy of organizational and attitude change for enabling personnel to learn and use quality methods, in order to reduce costs and meet the requirements of patients and other customers” (Balasubramanian 2016).

Total Quality Management is also defined as “a management philosophy concerned with people and with the work processes that focuses on customer satisfaction and improves organizational performance” (A.Al-Shdaifat 2015). In other words,we use quality to reflect high value service. With this concept we can see that the importance of total quality management has increased in the health care system as it has become part of the hospitals competitive strategy.This will provide the hospital or clinic to offer potential cost saving while quality is maintained and improved. As a result of undertaking all these measures would insure the satisfaction of the patient and will reduce the risk of consequences regarding human health. Alongside using and implementing quality management this system will establishpolicies to fulfil the healthcare service providing in the market. Quality management has several principles to guide the achievement of the system. These principles were mentioned in Greame Knowles, a book on quality management, which includes the following:  (Knowles 2011)

  • Customer Focus
  • Strategic Focus
  • Leadership Focus
  • Process Focus
  • People Focus
  • Scientific Focus
  • Continual Improvement, Innovation and Learning
  • System Thinking

As said above the most important focus is the customer, we must understand the customer’s needs and expectation to create the value wished. Moreover, to insure getting the most out of the system, it needs to have a committed leader who can actively drive the strategy and spread positive vibes to have better engagement with the clients. All these aspects contribute to attain a recognizable quality management system.

Research objective

The research objective of this report is to understand and to identify the use of total quality management in Celeste Medical Center.


Our research follows a qualitative design. We conducted an interview that was based on a set of qualitative questions which were directed to the manager of Celeste Medical Center to identify what type of quality tools they use.

Literature Review

Quality management is defined as the act of managing all the actions and responsibilities required to keep a desired level of quality. This includes the aim of a quality policy, which is making and applying quality arrangement and guarantee, as well as quality control and quality development. It is also known as total quality management (TQM). Overall, quality management emphasizes on the long-term goals of the application of immediate initiatives.

At its center, quality management (TQM) is a business philosophy that holds the impression that the long-term success of a business originates from client satisfaction. TQM requires all shareholders in a firm to work together in order to advance developments, products, services and the values of the business itself.

A famous example of quality management is the Toyota’s application of the Kanban system. A Kanban is defined as a physical sign that generates a chain response, resulting in a precise act. Toyota used this knowledge to apply its just-in-time inventory method. To make its assembly line more effective, the firm decided to just keep enough inventory available to fill client’s requests as they were produced.

Thus, all pieces of Toyota’s assembly line are allocated a physical card which has a related inventory number. Before a part is fit in a car, the card is detached and moved up in the supply chain, successfully demanding one more of the same part. This permits the firm to keep its inventory lean and not overstock needless assets.(Quality Managemnet , 2018)

Quality Management in Service Industry

Overseeing the quality of products and services is essential to assure that the company excels at meeting their consumers requirements and accomplishes their organizational goals. Whether it’s an industrial company producing hardware or a software firm delivering services to customers, quality management is the very core of constant development and business advancement.

Quality Management

The process of handling the quality of services brought to a client according to his expectations is named Service Quality Management. It essentially measures how good a service has been delivered, to progress its quality in the future, recognize issues and fix them to increase client satisfaction. Service quality management includes the monitoring and preservation of the diverse services that are accessible to customers.

Whether it is a software company delivering services to customers or working in hospitality or travel business, service quality management is essential to handling customer’s expectations and company development.

Quality Management in the UAE and GCC Service Industry

Many contemporary organizations across the UAE, GCC and the globe are implementing total quality management (TQM)systems to please and satisfy their clients. The necessities of today’s modern world require us to deliver quality products and open services in order to increase the competitive advantage and to improve client time value. TQM involves making a client‐centered principle in the service business. Starting and implementing a TQM system in most of the service organizations is a key task. It requires a full and organized analysis of client expectations, system procedures, functions, detailing and quality restrictions. TQM has a huge effect on various service industries performance. (Talib, 2010)

Companies in the UAE are facing problems in attaining high level of client satisfaction and constant progress. Lately, quality divisions such as center of quality have been added to many firms in the United Arab Emirates whether to the government, private, or semi-government firms. This is because good quality management is anessential field that should be combined in such firms.

There is a requirement to study Total Quality Management and barriers of application of TQM in UAE firms. TQM arena is a new management style that came in 1980s in US and therefore, UAE firms have been influenced by the novel management style; though, no information or evidence is given in journals or documents concerning the affects or achievement aspects in UAE. The culture in UAE still requests experimental evidence and actual case successes to simplify the new style built on results.

Total Quality Management is a novel philosophy of management that was recognized in United Arab Emirates and the Gulf region quite recently. Total Quality Management in UAE nevertheless, received slight care and studies from researchers and experts concerning the critical success aspects and constant development. (AbdulAziz & Al Ali, 2012).

Research Methodology

Our research is qualitative research. Qualitative research is a scientific, exploratory method used to gather non-numerical data. We used this method to enquire and gain more understanding regarding quality management. As a team, we prepared a questionnaire and conducted an interview with the Manager of a small medical centre in Al Ain.

Questionnaire development

We first drafted 8 questions which covered areas including; quality management, quality control, performance standards and customer satisfaction. Then we continued to edit the questions until we came up with the final 10 questions.

Data collection

A member of our team Miss ReemKheir had contacted an aesthetic clinic known as Celeste Medical Center to schedule an appointment with the top manager.

On the day of the meeting, which was on 7th October 2018, all the team members were prepared for the interview with their set of questions. After arriving at the clinic, we were taken to the manager’s office, and with permission we started to record the interview. The interview session lasted for 30 min to answer all our questions.

The interview was conducted in English. It was a two-way conversation where we were supported even by their monthly quality checklist towards the end of the session. After leaving the clinic, the team members discussed their experience of the session. It was not surprising when we all agreed that the there wasn’t any formality involved in getting to choose a flexible time for an interview with the manger, which is unlikely for many other companies. Since our objective of this research is Quality Management, it was imperative that we also analysed the clinic’s conditions and equipment’s. We were given a friendly tour to look around the clinic to better understand their services conditions and hygiene standards. Finally, we took away a lot of information from the interview, which will be further discussed in the analysis of this research paper.


Strategies in measuring customer satisfaction

The clinic has high quality services because of the type of machines uses. The origins of machines are from the best countries in the market to satisfy their customers. This results eventually in a very good service given to their customers. As a part of measuring their satisfaction, they have not implemented any such strategy to measure service after its completion or after visiting the clinic. Leaders establish a comprehensive plan for their business to manage the daily operations. Failing to contribute towards strategic customer management plan could risk the business its survival. The clinic could initiate by creating a plan for managing the customer satisfaction that outline the initiatives, and milestones. They should figure what they want to achieve and how do they want to record its feedback technically. To measure the satisfaction dimensions that they want to measure, the clinic must have its objectives set and their standards which should be in compliance with the HAAD standards.Finally, an approach to collect the data, analyse the customer response, and address major issues for continual progress. (Duggan, 2018)

Measuring customer feedback

The clinic has feedback forms always placed in the reception. There are also suggestion boxes, and the employees of the clinic accept complaints in person. However, the manager at the clinic is the one who reviews these feedbacks forms and evaluates them in his own perspective. There is no software, or anytactics implemented for measuring customer satisfaction. The Manager could consider liable approaches best suitable for measuring customer satisfaction from techniques such asmeasuring customer growth orthrough the referral rate.(Olsen, 2011)

Future planning to develop the approach of receiving customer feedback & incorporating or using technology

The clinic does not receive many complaints. Therefore, we understand that our customers are satisfied. However, when these complaints are made, they are only recorded through the feedback form or left in the suggestion box. Management is later approached to resolve those issues face-to face with responsible persons.

Motivating team to achieve quality performance standards

The management team of the clinic believes that it is a must for their employees to match the standards of service that is expected of them in the line of service where demand is very high, and it is believed that this is very sensitive because the customers are directly impacted through it. The technicians and doctors are informed from the phase of their selection and orientation about what is expected from them in this regard. The management team provides its employees with greater monetary rewards than what is given in their local industry market. This is one of their motivational approaches. For their overtime after the completed shift for the employees, the manager applies the minimum wages as per labour laws and multiplies it by 2 times its amount,  as a motivational technique for working extra hours in the clinic.

Enforcing Quality

Celeste Medical Centre has a contract with another quality company who regularly check their machines. However, it seems that they are not reliable enough as the manager informed us that he must be there in person when an inspection takes place. This is because he has seen some sort of neglecting of ethics from their behalf in the form of putting tags on machines which haven’t been checked.

Overall satisfaction with the outcome of quality at the clinic

The current manager is satisfied with the quality of the existing machines but mentioned that when he was first hired as a manager, he was not satisfied with all the operations running in the clinic. The previous manager didn’t have any contracts with health insurance companies and wasn’t following the health authority standards. He acknowledged that as a manager, it was the first crucial thing he had to do. To ensure that quality controls were enforced.

Although the manager didn’t mention using any tools to measure patient’s satisfaction regarding quality, one could suggest that using patient satisfaction surveys could be beneficial. Studies have shown that patient satisfaction surveys have gained increasing attention as meaningful and essential sources of information for identifying gaps and developing an effective action plan for quality improvement in healthcare organizations. In the western world, specifically in Germany, measuring satisfaction has been required since 2005 as an element of quality management reports. Furthermore, since 2002, the Department of Health (DOH) has launched a national survey program in which all NHS trusts in England have to survey patient satisfaction on an annual basis and report the results to their regulators. Therefore, measurement of patient satisfaction is a legitimate indicator for improving the services and strategic goals for all healthcare organizations ( Al-Abri& Al-Balushi, 2014).

HAAD standards

The company started following HAAD standards in August 2017 with the help of an insurance coordinator because they had more knowledge about them.

HAAD is responsible for licensing, quality control, and regulating all of the health care facilities and health professionals in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi.HAAD standards are consistent with JCI standards but focus on the fundamentals of patient and facility safety. All health care facilities in Abu Dhabi must achieve the authorized or compulsory standards during an inspection to be licensed in the Emirate. Each new version of the standards, which is conducted approximately every three years, reflects the dynamic changes occurring around the globe in health care. As a general principle, licensed providers are expected to meet the following professional obligations:

  • Ensure the clinical and other professional qualifications of all staff according to HAAD licensing policies; in turn licensed clinical staff is expected to act in a manner that is consistent with international good practice in the management of patients to maintain safety and provide such benefit as they are able.
  • Ensure their facilities and equipment are enough to deliver safe, high-quality care in accordance with international good practice.
  • Ensure there are healthy clinical and management processes for the tracking of patient safety and the effectiveness of treatment, including the keeping of accurate, fit-for purpose clinical records.
  • Report any occurring incidences that result in a risk to patient safety or compromises the
  • delivery of high-quality care. ( Health Policy & Regulation, Health Authority Abu Dhabi, 2008)
  • The importance of HAAD standards are very clear. It was also very noticeable that the quality of service in the centre improved after adopting the HAAD standards.

Software that measure quality management

The company doesn’t have any special software directly related to quality, but they have an employee system that shows the duties of each doctor, and a patient schedule to manage bookings.

It would be extremely beneficial and in fact necessary that the company invests in a QMS. One could be ENCOR, which is an award-winning software platform, that provides comprehensive quality reporting solutions for hospitals and clinicians.

Standards at a clinic that differ from the department of health standards in UAE

The company do also have their own set of slightly different standards that they apply. They have a check list in every room which is collected at the end of the day to measure and observe how many patients have visited the clinic, and how many patients have cancelled the appointment.

One of the checklists they could use in the  future is a Patient Safety and Quality Improvement (PCQ) scoring requirement, which is one of the measurements of HAAD Standards. PCQ will be very valuable to the centre because quality and safety will be rooted in the daily work of the health care professionals and other staff. Doctors and nurses will assess patient needs and provide care. PCQ can help them understand how to make real improvements to help their patients and reduce risks (Health Policy & Regulation, Health Authority Abu Dhabi, 2008).


From our research, we come to conclude that Celeste Medical Center uses some techniques in order to enhance its quality. However, we observed that it’s mostly manual based and they haven’t installed any special software, nor do they have any strategies to enforce quality management. TQM is an important aspect of any business because it will help the organization in eliminating human errors, increasing customer’s satisfaction, and improving the company’s performance.


A.Al-Shdaifat, Emad. 2015. “Implementation of total quality management in hospitals.” Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences 10 (4): 461-466. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtumed.2015.05.004.

AbdulAziz, E., & Al Ali, A. S. (2012). Total Quality Management Implementation. A Study to Critical Success Factors and Continuous Improvement to UAE organizations, 122.

Al-Abri, R., & Al-Balushi, A. (2014). Patient satisfaction survey as a tool towards quality improvement. Oman medical journal, 29(1), 3-7.   https://www.haad.ae/HAAD/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=dI0JyhF3pDc%3D

Balasubramanian, M. 2016. “Total Quality Management [TQM] in the Healthcare Industry.” Science Journal of Public Health 4. doi:10.11648/j.sjph.20160404.11.

Focusing on Continuous Improvement in the Workplace. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.creativesafetysupply.com/articles/continuous-improvement/

Knowles, Graeme. 2011. Quality Management. http://www.znrfak.ni.ac.rs/SERBIAN/010-STUDIJE/OAS-3-2/PREDMETI/III%20GODINA/316-KOMUNALNI%20SISTEMI%20I%20ZIVOTNA%20SREDINA/SEMINARSKI%20RADOVI/2014/S175%20-%20S200.pdf

LEARN ABOUT QUALITY. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://asq.org/learn-about-quality/total-quality-management/overview/overview.html

Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad. 2016. “Total Quality Management in Healthcare.” In Tehran University of Medical Sciences, by Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad. Routledge.

Picincu, A. (n.d.). The Importance of Quality Management. Retrieved from https://bizfluent.com/about-5377881-importance-quality-management.html

QualityManagemnet.(2018).Retrieved from investopedia: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/q/quality-management.asp#ixzz5XTkYnz4F

Richa. (2014, May 15). Service Quality Management: How to Measure and Manage It. Retrieved from Udemy: https://blog.udemy.com/service-quality-management/

Talib, F. (2010). Studying the impact of total quality management in service industries. Int. J. Productivity and Quality Management,, 6, 249.

Total Quality Management. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.inc.com/encyclopedia/total-quality-management-tqm.html

TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://tqmgroups.blogspot.com/p/customer-satisfaction-is-key-component.html

Duggan, T. (2018, November 24). How to Measure Customer Satisfaction for Strategic Management. Retrieved from Small Business: https://smallbusiness.chron.com/measure-customer-satisfaction-strategic-management-51164.html

Olsen, E. (2011, November). STRATEGIC PLANNING: MEASURE CUSTOMER SATISFACTION. Retrieved from dummies: https://www.dummies.com/business/business-strategy/strategic-planning-measure-customer-satisfaction/

Research report on quality management by Subject Academy

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Event Marketing Plan

1. “Do you agree with the definition of marketing used in this chapter? How can it be improved?”

This chapter is based on the micro definition of marketing given by Miller and Layton. According to the definition, marketing is a combination of business activities which are based on planning, price of product, promotion and distribution of products and services in the targeted market to achieve the goals of the organization (Burrow & Fowler, 2015). This definition includes a limited aspect of marketing and it can be further improved if it is based on the process of attracting potential customers for the products and services offered by the company. The process word in this definition includes planning, price, promotion and distribution of products and services but the main aim of this process is to attract the customers. This definition of marketing can be useful for event management a well (Maiske, Neware, Jamgade, Jamgade, & Dubey, 2017).

2. “Why should an event manager segment a market? What are the advantages?”

Market segmentation helps to categorize potential customers into small groups. This customer-oriented term carries modern philosophies of marketing. In other words, it is a process of categorizing a homogenous group of customers based on their common expectations.  Even the manager can easily understand the interests, needs and expectations of the customers through this process of market segmentation (Thomas & Bowdin, 2012). An event manager cannot make its marketing strategy successful without proper segmentation of the market. Market segmentation helps in increasing the focus of the firm. It further increases the competitiveness of the firm in the market. The event manager will also be able to increase brand loyalty through this process.

Event Marketing Plan

3. “Outline five key motives of attending a community festival. Why should an event manager focus on these motives, rather than motives of a festival organizer?”

Event managers used to attend community festivals to make environmental analyses.  The main motives behind these environmental analyses are to judge socio-cultural criteria, political, economic, technical and entertainment factors which decide the success of an event. Political factors describe the role of government in sponsoring these events. Economic factors show how this event management is a strength for economic aspects (Crowther, 2010). A Sociocultural aspect decides about the organization of the event as per the socio-cultural requirements of the customers. Use of online and offline technology for the marketing of the event decides the strength of the technological aspects. Entertainment factor decides the satisfaction of leisure consumption of the consumers. The event manager can assess the major aspects to satisfy the customer for leisure consumption by attending such events. Thus every event manager should focus on these motives, rather than motives of a festival organizer (Reid, 2011).

4. “Identify the key steps in the consumer decision process. Offer examples of how each step affects the event consumer?”

Before purchasing a product, a consumer goes through various stages. These stages are considered as the consumer decision process. The consumer decision process of event consumers is based on the PIECE acronym:

  • Problem Identification: The first step of the consumer decision-making process of event consumers is to identify their need related to their leisure consumption. This will help in understanding the requirements of the customers.
  • Information Search: To search internal and external solutions based on the choice of leisure consumption of consumers so that the event manager can satisfy the needs of the customers (Clarke & Jepson, 2012).
  • Proper evaluation and selection of leisure activities: To choose leisure activities as per the choice of the consumers. The customers will be able to enjoy extra leisure activities in addition to the targeted one.
  • Choice of attending an event: To analyse the choice of consumers based on their choice for extra purchases at the event.
  • To evaluate the post-event experience of consumers for future decision making. The customers will be able to provide feedback for their experience at the event so that the event manager can improve it further if required.
Consumer Decision Process

5. “Given that Manly Musical Society does not wish to make enormous profits and their cast and musicians are not paid, what do you think would be a fair price to pay for a ticket to one of their productions that covers their costs and produces a surplus to fund their next production? Five shows including a matinee would be scheduled.”

According to the case study, Manly Musical Society is a nonprofit organization. They are not paying to their musicians and casts. But they are bearing advertisement cost. They are providing extended facilities to the customers through SABO (Reverté & Izard, 2011). Previously, they were not charging any fee from customers, but now as they have shifted to the larger theatre – Glen Street and are using their in-house box office facilities. The company will be able to bear this cost if it is charging a small amount of $5-$7 for a ticket. This amount will help to cover the expenditure of ticketing agency and managerial costs. As society is going to schedule five shows including a matinee, the cost of marketing can also be easily covered through this small amount of ticket.


Burrow, J. L., & Fowler, A. R. (2015). Marketing. Cengage Learning.

Clarke, A., & Jepson, A. (2012). Power and hegemony within a community festival. International Journal of Event and Festival Management, 2 (1), 7-19. https://doi.org/10.1108/17582951111116604.

Crowther, P. (2010). Marketing event outcomes: from tactical to strategic. International Journal of Event and Festival Management, 2 (9), 68-82. https://doi.org/10.1108/17582951111116623

Make, K., Netware, p., Jamgade, N., Jamgade, A., & Dubey, P. (2017). Review Paper on Event Management System. International Journal for Research in Applied Science & Engineering Technology, 5 (8), 45-98. https://www.ijraset.com/fileserve.php?FID=12457Reid, S. (2011).

Event stakeholder management: developing sustainable rural event practices. International Journal of Event and Festival Management, 2 (9), 20-36. https://doi.org/10.1108/17582951111116597.

Reverté, F. G., & Izard, O. M. (2011). The role of social and intangible factors in cultural event planning in Catalonia. International Journal of Event and Festival Management, 2 (1), 37-53. https://doi.org/10.1108/17582951111116605

Thomas, R., & Bowdin, G. (2012). Events Management Research: State of the Art. Event Management, 16 (3), 103-106. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/262895335_Events_Management_Research_State_of_the_Art

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Corporate Strategies of KPMG

1. Introduction

In this era of globalization, almost all the organizations in the world are facing dynamic challenges. The organizations are required to think strategically with the use of effective corporate strategies to be competitive in the world’s market (Lamb, Butler, & Roundy, 2017). Corporate strategy refers to decisions and commitments of the organizations towards the achievement of strategic competitiveness. This report is a detailed analyses of corporate level strategies adopted by KPMG which is a multinational professional services network, and one of the big four  accounting organizations, along with Deloitte, Ernst & Young(EY), and PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) (Goldman, Schlumpf, & Scott, 2017). The report has explained in detail about the corporate level strategies of KPMG, suitability of the current strategies of the organization and recommended strategic alternative initiatives that the organization should pursue to improve its effectiveness.

2. Corporate level strategies of KPMG

The strategy followed by KPMG works with various organizations of private, public and non-profit sector. Every organization decides its corporate strategy on the basis of direction and scope of the organization in long term. The corporate strategy of KPMG is based on where the business of the organization is trying to get in the long term (Palumbo & Manna, 2018). The organization is mainly focusing on the agile strategies which are too essential to focus on in this dynamic global environment. In other words, the corporate strategy of KPMG is based on scope of the organization to meet with the expectations of stakeholders. Investors play an important role in affecting the corporate strategy of the business. Thus the organization makes strategic decision making on the basis of the views of the investors (Erkutlu & Chafra, 2018). 

Corporate Strategies of KPMG

The main components of corporate strategy of KPMG are resource allocation, design of organization, portfolio management and strategic tradeoffs. People and capital are the two main factors related to resource allocation. The company decides the allocation of resources by considering these two key factors to maximize the value of the firm. This process includes well distribution of people in all over the firm, movement of leaders from one department to another and appropriate supply of workers. The company also focuses on analyses of external opportunities to make proper allocation of capital for external and internal opportunities (Kryger, 2019). Through organizational design, the company focuses on determining the level of autonomy to the business units, analyses of different type of strategies on the business units. Organizational structure of the company determines how commitments and initiatives of the company can be divided into small projects. It helps the organization to merge the business units and functions. The organization separates the responsibilities of all business units to maintain a balance between risks and return (Pehrsson, 2016). Corporate strategy of KPMG related to portfolio management is related to the actual requirements of the business units. The company focuses on managing risk through the process of diversification. The strategic options created by the company leads to new opportunities in the market (Rumbles & Rees, 2013). The corporate strategy of the company balances the tradeoffs between risk and return which is the most challenging aspect of every firm.

3. Suitability of current strategies of KPMG

The corporate level strategies of KPMG are based on the identification and implementation of growth platform to make the clients able to achieve their desired targets. KPMG has followed this distinctive approach to provide benefits to the clients by focusing on future opportunities, collaboration and efficiencies (KPMG, 2019). The organization create one opportunity after the other for its clients because it has identified that there is need to increase the level of value to provide more benefits to the clients. The clients of the company always value for its industrial insight, experience of growth, entering new markets, for creation of new business plans and models and financial challenges (Schoenberg, Collier, & Bowman, 2013). The current strategies of KPMG are suitable for its competitiveness in the market and for its growth in future. These strategies help the organization focuses on the attractive ways to improve its revenue and margin, to create new business models to generate quick values and to analyses the alignment of operating model and cost structure with its strategy.

4. Recommendation for strategic initiatives

Every organization works according to the basic agenda for growth. Most of the company’s focus on aggressive growth strategies to meet with the problems caused by structural shifts including change in technology, varying regulations, changing needs of the customers. But it is a challenging task to estimate the growth and to project the growth in the future. The corporate level strategy of KPMG is also based on the growth strategies (Wadstrom, 2019). The literature depicts that most of the organizations remain unsuccessful in obtaining their growth objectives. Thus on the basis of the analyses of the current corporate level strategy of KPMG, we have recommended the following strategy initiatives.

  • KPMG should focus on realistic objectives for growth.

 The company can set realistic objectives through proper analyses of new and unmet revenue pools. The distinctive approach followed by the company to provide maximum benefits to the clients can be helpful in the fulfillment of this strategic initiative (Wang, Noble, Dahl, & Park, 2019).

  • It should increase its ability to innovate to response to changing requirements of the market as well as the customers.

The company should set short time frame to enter into new markets after understanding the requirements of the market. New and innovative products can help the company to attract more and more customers. New opportunities, internal collaboration and efficiencies of the company should be inter-related with each other (Sinha, 2019). This type of realistic strategic initiatives can make the corporate level strategy of the company more effective.

5. Conclusion

To conclude, the corporate level strategy of KPMG is based on the identification and implementation of growth platform to make the clients able to achieve their desired targets. For this corporate level strategy, the company mainly focuses on organizational structure, resource allocation, portfolio management and strategic trade-offs. Although the current strategies followed by KPMG are suitable with the corporate environment, yet the organization needs to work on refinement of these strategies. As per the analyses of current strategies of the organization, we have recommended that KPMG should focus on the realistic objectives of growth and should increase its ability to innovate to response to changing requirements. These strategic initiatives will help in making the corporate level strategy of the organization more effective.

6. References

Erkutlu, H., & Chafra, J. (2018). Despotic leadership and organizational deviance. Journal of Strategic Management , 11 (2), 150-165. https://doi.org/10.1108/JSMA-04-2017-0029

Goldman, E. F., Schlumpf, K. S., & Scott, A. R. (2017). Combining practice and theory to assess strategic thinking. Journal of Strategic Management , 10 (4), 488-504. https://doi.org/10.1108/JSMA-02-2017-0012

KPMG. (2019). Corporate strategy and mergers & acquisitions. Retrieved from advisory.kpmg.us: https://advisory.kpmg.us/services/corporate-strategy-mergers-acquisitions.html

Kryger, A. (2019). Iterative prototyping of strategy implementation workshop design. Journal of Strategy and Management , 11 (2), 166-183. https://doi.org/10.1108/JSMA-07-2017-0051

Lamb, N. H., Butler, F., & Roundy, P. (2017). Family firms and corporate social responsibility: exploring “concerns”. Journal of Strategy and Management , 10 (4), 469-487. https://doi.org/10.1108/JSMA-02-2016-0010

Palumbo, R., & Manna, R. (2018). The need for requisite variety to support growth: an organizational life cycle perspective. Journal of Strategy and Management , 11 (2), 241-256. https://doi.org/10.1108/JSMA-10-2016-0072

Pehrsson, A. (2016). Firm’s strategic orientation, market context, and performance. European Business Review , 28 (4), 378-404. https://doi.org/10.1108/EBR-11-2015-0142

Rumbles, S., & Rees, G. (2013). Continuous changes, organizational burnout and the implications for HRD. Industrial and Commercial Training , 45 (4), 236-242. https://cquprimo.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/permalink/f/1rb43gr/TN_emerald_s10.1108/00197851311323538

Schoenberg, R., Collier, N., & Bowman, C. (2013). Strategies for business turnaround and recovery: a review and synthesis. European Business Review , 25 (3), 243-262. https://doi- org.ezproxy.cqu.edu.au/10.1108/09555341311314799

Sinha, S. (2019). The emergent-strategy process of initiating organizational ambidexterity. Journal of Strategy and Management , 12 (3), 382-36. https://doi.org/10.1108/JSMA-12-2018-0140

Wadstrom, P. (2019). Aligning corporate and business strategy: managing the balance. Journal of Business Strtaegy , 40 (4), 44-52. https://doi.org/10.1108/JBS-06-2018-0099

Wang, H. S., Noble, C. H., Dahl, D. W., & Park, S. (2019). Successfully Communicating Cocreated Innovation. Journal of marketing , 83 (4), 38-57. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0022242919841039

Corporate Strategies of KPMG by Subject Academy

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Mezlai: The first Emirates Food Restaurant

1. Introduction

Having a dinner outside, especially with family or with loved ones is really a great experience. On 5 November 2017 my parents made a plan for dinner outside. After so much discussion, we decide to go to the Mezlai restaurant, first Emirati restaurant in Dubai. We reached them at 10 pm. After a long time, my father came from abroad and to have a celebration, we wanted to have a dinner outside. Thus we went to Mezlai restaurant.

Mezlai first Emirates Food Restaurant

2. Product Strategy

•    The menu was there on the table, I started analyzing the menu. It was very attractive from outlook. They are having different sections for main course, appetizers, chicken, salad and sweet dish. Their special product is Arabic coffee they offers. Then we ordered our dinner.

•    The services they provide while offering food are really different from any other restaurant I have ever visited in Dubai. Quality of food was also great. They were having special types of Arabic salads.

•    The restaurant is having playing area for children as well, so that parents can have important discussion while having dinner. One side of restaurant is peaceful for important discussions and another side of restaurant is for youngsters who want to celebrate their occasions. Proper DJ system is there.

•    I visited the restaurant on Zomato.com as well. Mostly the customers have given five star rating to the services and quality of products offered by the restaurant.

•    According to my experience about Mezlai restaurant, this is providing quality services to its customers.

3. Pricing Strategy

•    For any company, restaurant or café, pricing is an important part of strategy, which helps in increasing sale of company’s product in the market (Schindler, 2011). Mezlai is also having its own pricing mix strategy. The restaurant has designed different combination of prices for products which are demanded in combination as soups with meals.

•    Price adjustment strategy is when a company is changing its a price rapidly as according to the customers. But as I have observed that Mezlai is not having any price adjustment strategy. No doubt price has been increased and has been varied as compared to last time when I visited, it was approximate six months ago, I visited there, prices have been increased. But that change in price is due to rises in general price. As such company is not adopting any price adjustment strategy.

4. Promotion strategy

•    Web page of the restaurant is having all the information regarding, hotel rooms, Rooms and suites, Restaurants and bar, Meetings and events, Luxury and spa and also having a corner for reviews by customers. (Tellis, 1988) If we visit the website of the restaurant, we will automatically come to know its features and we will be willing to visit it at least one time. For promotion purpose, the restaurant is having specialized features in its websites, describing all about its products and policies. (Mezlai, 2017)

•    Mezlai is also having its own Facebook page for social media presence. The restaurant time to time update all its products and pricing structure on the page. Whatever the new feature restaurant is going to provide gets published at the page.

•    The restaurant is also involved in advertisements in local magazines and newspaper for its promotions. It is also offering free services to celebrities and time to time inviting them for promotion of their acts or movies. This thing automatically attracts a large number of customers.

5. Place Strategy

•    The restaurant is located at West Corniche Road – Abu Dhabi – United Arab Emirates. It is one of the famous road for visitors and tourists of Dubai. The restaurant is also providing smooth parking facility to customers. The area the restaurant is located is full of crowd. All types of markets are the neighbor to this restaurant.

•    I have visited many other cafés and restaurants of Dubai. They are also providing best to the customers but as much as I have analyzed, Mezlai is at its best in providing best services to the customers. Other restaurants have adopted different price adjustment strategies to attract customers but Mezlai, without following any strict strategy is a center of attraction to customers.

mezlai restaurant

6. Targeting and Positioning

•    The Mezlai has created such kind of position in the market that its market is continuously expanding. Whether the customer is visiting one time or a regular customer, the restaurant maintains a long-term relationship with them through social media.

Targets of the company is to expand its services at global level. Through offering services like luxury hotels, spa and special facilities to tourists, their services are expanding by word of mouth by the persons who take their services once.

•    Throughout the time, I was there in the restaurant, I observed 200-300 customers sitting at one time having dinner. Their service of offering food is very quick. Their main target is to satisfy the customers and to maintain a long-term relationship with them.

•    The Mezlai is already having a good position in UAE, as it is the first Emirati restaurant providing Emirati foods and cuisines, which provides the customers with savor, taste combining with luxury and tradition in a unique design.


Mezlai. (2017). Mezlai. Retrieved from Visitabudhabi: https://visitabudhabi.ae/en/see.and.do/leisure/dining/mezlai.aspx

Schindler, R. (2011). Pricing Strategies: A Marketing Approach. sage.

Tellis, G. (1988). Advertising and Sales Promotion Strategy. Addison Wesley.

Mezlai: The first Emirates Food Restaurant.

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Supply Chain Management of Hershey’s Chocolate World


Some of the important aspect of business are  operational management and supply chain. Every activity related to delivery of product in the marekting and the funcationality of organisation and supply chain is carried out through operation management. The report carries the detailed analysis related to suppy chain and operations with in Hershey’s Chocolate Company. The company was establised in 1894. Over the ears the compay has evoved in every possible way and aunched many segments and products. Hershey is an American manufacturer of food products mainly chocolate and sugar based items. For 20th century Hershey’s milk chocolate wrapped in brown and silper wrapping was one of the best known product. The company headquaters are in Hershey, Pennsyvania. (Abbady, Hessian, & Alaam, 2017)

In 1960 Hershey collaborated with Reese’s Peanut Butter cups and two pasta businesses. In order to recognise Hershey as food brand it was named as Hershey Foods cooperation in the 1968. The chocolate products are prepared by cocoa beans. As they are rich in carbohydrates they are the instant source of energy also containing small amount of stimulating alkaloids theobromine and caffeine. The chocolate are made from cocoa beans that are roasted and fermented. These kernels is used to create pasty fluid chocolate liquor, which are then transferred to molds to bake chocolate, later pressure is applied to reduce cocoa butter content and pulverized for making cocoa powder, or used as additional cocoa butter for preparing sweet chocolate. (Dubai, 2018)

This report is an elaborated analysis of operation management and supply chain management of the company with regards to its products and services. Part one of the report will cover explanation of the key products of the company. Part two of the report will discuss the competitive abilities of the organisation. Part three shows comparative analysis of the company with the help of dominance frontier and polar chart. Part four is process calculation analyses. Pat five and six will discuss the product supply chain. Last part focusses on various ways of growth of company.

2. Key products/ Services and Input-Output process

Various categories of the products are by Hershey. The company detas with both chocolate  and food products. The products of the company are grouped under various catagories such as “Hershey’s chocolate bars, Hershey’s Symphony, Almond Joy, Mounds, 100 Calorie Bar, Hershey’s Bliss, Hershey’s Drops, Miniatures, Hershey’s Pot of Gold, Kit Kat, Hershey’s, Nuggets, Reese’s Peanut Butter Cups, Whoppers and York Peppermint Pattie”. This section of the report has focused on main products and their input process. The products are of different size and colours (Abbas, 2018). The process of input and output are as follows

Inputs: The process ofchocolate and its related product making are cocoa beans, chocolate, electricity, packaging, labour and machinery.

Process: Some of the processes are listed below.

Output: The resultant of these products are chocolate and waste products.

Key products

3. Competitive Capabilities of Hershey’s Chocolate Company

The products of Hershey’s are in different colour and size. The brand faces a lot of competition in the market. The main factor that strengthens the company are brand recognition, popularity all over the world, its affordability, wide range of variety that catches the customers’ attention. M&M is one of the popular competitors of the company that itself offer wide verity of products in chocolates. The company keeps a keen eye on its competitors and on their business strategies. The catchy taglines attract more consumers “A Little Something For Everyone” it could be said to be a good example of marketing strategy as it tries to connect to its customers thus attracts large number of customers. (Abbady, Hessian, & Alaam, 2017)

4. Comparison of the company with other companies using Polar chart and Dominance Frontier

This section of the report will compare Hershey’s with its strongest competitor M&M. By comparing both companies it has been observed that Hershey according to Knoji rating is 3.9 and M&M is 3.8. This comparative analysis is also shown by polar chart. The recognition Hershey is more in comparison to its other competitors. It is globally popular brand and offers lots of offers and discounts to the customer.  

Hershey’s marketing strategies

Hershey’s marketing strategies in order to target their prospects have always been very proficient due to which it always has a upper hand in the market. The strategies used by it are

  1. Holiday marketing– This type of marketing strategy is used to design and formulate holiday themes which includes Christmas, new year holiday themes, summer holiday themes and advertisements are made accordingly to target the potential customers which helps in bringing fresh and new concepts and creates larger impact in the customers mind. The company makes sure the advertising theme is made related to the particular holiday which helps in adding more value and makes the strategy more impactful.
  2. Micro marketing– This type of marketing strategy targets customers in small number and modifies the products according to the demand and need of the customers. This type of strategy helps in focusing on specific requirements of the customers. It also provides provisions for special events like weddings, parties and various occasions. Such specific marketing strategies helps in creating personal impact on the prospects which makes their strategies much efficient compared to the competitors.

The dominance frontier above explains the easy process that can be fooled by supply chain and operation management for smooth functioning. With this process company can be aware of specialization skill and this will result in productivity. It is observed that there are in delivery of product the model ill help in overcoming it.

5. Process Analyses Calculation

The performance measure for every organization is flow rate and time which is associated to workers and productivity within the organization. To understand and study the process analysis tabulation organization uses flow unit. This term represent every activity that occurs within the organization.(Landry, 1998). Flow unit represents the chocolate products. Flow rate is the term calculated by number of products manufactured per unit. It also represent the speed of delivery from various stages (operation department to supply chain department and to delivery).

Average flow rate is the term given to the time utilised from supply chain department to customers.

The normal rate is the term given to the streaming pace of administrations which is passed to the clients. The complete time of preparing comprises of the average some of time that is spent by the streaming units in a particular business procedure. In case of a recurrence the stream time is ascertained by the longest way (Wu & Pagell, 2011).  The excess stream units are taken care by a process ibn business termed as Stock. In an organisation the stock is ascertained by parting the rate of streaming which is isolated by the streaming time. In order to determine the utilization of conveyance of speed o administrations for the clients and the number of client handle which is undertaken by an office at a particular period of time. In order to increase the profits for their client organization, the streaming units are expanded throughout, which in turns reduces the costs and enhances the conveyance speed of the products of the client. (Zuckerman, 2002).

The client which are identified by the administrations of the organisations are consulted and asked to provide their inputs and feedback in order to uplift and improve the administrations eventually in future. Getting a boost from this the organisation is motivated to increase the conveyance speed of the administrations provided to the client. This is done with the help of the inputs and feedbacks provided by the clients who clearly state and provide their feedback from time to time about their conveyance speed requirements, in turn leading to better conveyance speed performance.

6. The supply chain of a product and risks related to supply chain

This section of the report discusses the process of supply chain adopted by Hershey’s. Hershey’s supply chain process has different components in order to provide mobility to the different products which the company produces. Hershey’s abides by the phrase, “Customer is the King” as their supply chain process begins with its customers’ requirements and ends with fulfilling all the demands made by these customers.

Customer: A customer may be termed as an individual/ organisation which may purchase a particular product for consumption or further selling. The process starts once the customer likes a product at a retail store or on online portal and places an order for one or more items. The sales department of the organization receives the order and further the supply chain process comes into play in order to deliver the product to the customer in the consumable condition. (Stephenson, 2014)

Planning: After the order is received by the customer the next step in the supply chain management process is to start the planning. Planning process includes making decisions like purchase of raw material, time consumption in manufacturing and delivering of the product as committed. Planning regarding these steps are of utmost priority for the organisation.

Purchase: Once the planning for purchase of raw material is done a decision is made in order to procure it on time. The list is forwarded to the purchase department in order to make purchases according to the requirement. Purchase department then contacts the various suppliers and makes a purchase from the supplier who is offering the best deal in the market. (Zuckerman, 2002)

Inventory: A quality and accuracy check is a must, once the raw material is procured from the suppliers and is further sent to the company’s warehouse after the checking process. A proper list is prepared before and after the issuance of the raw material, so that a proper record is maintained and there occurs no clash while clearing the payments. (Sarkis, 2006)

Production: Once all the material required is received and inventory department gives a clearance, the most important process starts which is the production of the product ordered by the client. The production depends on the customer’s specifications. Some clients want a customized product whereas some of them just want the product in bulk. Thus the product may be produced in a batch or individually. Once the product is prepared the production departments sends the product to the transportation department to ship it further to the client.     

Transportation: After the department receives the final product it decides upon the method of shipping it. It could be shipped through sea route, roads or by air; depends upon the nature of the product. Along with the product an invoice is also sent which bears the list of items, the amount and the address.

Supply Chain Risks: As easy as it may sound the supply chain management process is not that easy. It involves various risks which may start at the first step such as the supplier may provide low quality raw material, or they may fail to deliver on time which leads to delay in product production. Other risks may be logistics delays, poor communication, external risks related to political conditions in the region, natural disasters or economic condition in the particular region. These risks may lead to huge losses to the organisation, moreover impacting its goodwill. (Joshi & Rathore, 2013)

7. New Location for the warehouse or service center of the firm through the Center of Gravity method

Center of gravity helps in locating new place thus resulting in productivity increase. By this method the company can locate the regions close to the distributer. Less distance will add a benefit to the company.  This method helps in reducing transportation thus reduces cost. This method used by companies for finding new facility resulting in minimizing the cost. Input in this approach is volume of service provided by organization (Wu & Pagell, 2011). Location is one time investment for the company (Stephenson, 2014). Once invested the decision can’t be reversed. Cost pattern is also decided on this factor. This has a direct impact on the sales of the company. Distance from raw material affects the decision making for the plant. This method is studied as it helps the companies so that best methods and low cost for delivery could be decided. Fast delivery results in customer satisfaction and affects their preference.

8. Application of Mass customization to the product

The term mass customization is the manufacturing of unique products on a large scale. This technique helps to serve various requirements of the customer. The challenges are easily overcome by the company, these challenges are mainly related to delivery. This technique helps to identify the needs of the customer and helps in production of goods as per customers’ requirement and demand. Due to its quick solution to product delivery this process is also known as postponement tactic thus results in attracting large customer (Joshi & Rathore, 2013).

9. Conclusion and Recommendations

The study conducted concluded that Hershey is a famous chocolate and food brand which is known world wide. It has a great market share as it has introduced a many features of food and chocolates in the market. In comparison to it competitor M&M Hershey has a large market cover and share and they offer wide range of products to its customers. The report is detailed analysis of the company with regards to it competitor companies, their products and strategies. A deep comparative analysis is conducted through this report. The polar chart gives the detailed description of the products and the comparison with various companies. It also explain the supply chain system and the risks associated with them. A detailed description is also give to make the company customer centric or customer oriented. The various strategies studied gives the insight to improve the products and services of the company. The cost cutting or cos saving methods are also discussed. Not only are this companies productivity improvement methods also suggested. Report also suggests various techniques to improve customer services and various techniques to improve dispatch facility. The market survey reflects that the company hold as good reputation in the market and this reflects ion the revenue generation. Finding the location near to warehouse also add a bonus. As location is one time investment the company has to analysis process and then conclude. All these points affect the  organisational growth.


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Engaging biology research paper topics for students- 2020.

Biology research paper topic: As students, we all agree that writing a biology research paper is not a child’s play. Doing in-depth research, backing every statement with proper facts and then curating a clear and well-organized paper is not as easy as it sounds. Albeit, you can get assignment help in Australia with a click of a button. But still, you need to find an interesting and fascinating topic. Not to mention, Fortunately, Finding an engaging biology research paper topic is half the battle of writing a fascinating research paper.

For that reason, I have done the donkey work of compiling an organized list of interesting topics. Moreover, topics are organized in different categories. Then, what should be your next step? All in all, Explore different categories, Find relevant information on them and find the most suitable and interesting topic from the list. After that? after choosing the right topic, you just need to message us your topic and our writers will start writing a research paper for you. Given these points, Let’s begin the holy deed.

Genetics research paper topics

To point out, your biology research paper topic should always be interesting enough to find fascinating information on it. I mean, If the topic is not interesting to you, then how in the world will you research about it? right? Not to mention, What is more, interesting then genetics? Probably nothing! At least to me, it’s one of the best categories to find amusing information on. For that reason, I have put together a list of some Fascinating genetics research paper topics. On the whole, I hope you find something in the list to ace the research paper game.

  • What role does genetics play in homosexuality?
  • Is there any link between genetics and depression.
  • Genetic analysis of cloning and how can it be utilized in the future.
  • Recent advances in mutagenesis.
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Environmental biology research paper topics.

As a matter of fact, Our environment is diverse enough to give us a diverse list of interesting environmental research paper topics. *wink*-*wink*. In the final analysis, Do rains, oceans, lava, rocks, and mushrooms fascinate you? Does global warming, air pollution, trash in the oceans concerns you? If yes! then you should definitely choose this category for your biology research paper topic. let’s dig into some of the best environmental biology topics to write a paper on.

  • Paleoecology
  • Why national parks are important?
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  • Chernobyl and Fukushima Disasters.
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  • What is Gulfstream?

Biotechnology Research paper topics.

Markedly, Writing and reading a biology research paper should not be boring. To put it another way, It should feel like you are writing or reading a story. Moreover, A good research paper should be able to convey the intended message to the right audience without making them sleepy. To point out, Biotechnology with its big buzz words can never make anybody sleepy. Choose any topic from the list and I can promise you that your Biology research paper will not be boring or as a matter of fact, boring.

Principles of Pharmacogenomics.

What are Drug Transporters?

What is DNA isolation? Nanotechnology methods for DNA isolation.

Ancestry study of admixed communities in southern Africa.

The relation between nanotechnology and biotechnology.

Recent advances in biotechnology. Future of biotechnology.

How Biotechnology is impacting humanity.

Identification of biomarkers associated with ovarian cancer.

Biotechnology based therapeutic approaches to treat HIV.

Cell biology research paper topics

Another huge part of research paper topics deals with cell biology. When you enter the realm of cell biology, you will get zillions of topics to choose from. For that reason, I am compiling a list from where you can choose the right topic for yourself.

Cell biology of Denitrification.

Recent advances in cell biology.

Viruses of plants, humans, and animals.

Anaerobic Glycolysis and oxidative Phosphorylation.

Principles of cell structure.

Endocytosis and exocytosis.

Biopolymers synthesis and Transfer system.

Principles of DNA structure and DNA packaging.

Proteins. Histone and nonhistone proteins.

The system of Genetic information storage, Reproduction, and transmission.

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