Poor Water Quality in Christchurch

Christchurch Water Quality

1.  Introduction and Research Background

The water is harmful to the people if the presence of chlorine is above the 5 mg/ litter because it causes health diseases like kidney failure (Coakley, Bridgen, Bates, & Douwes, 2018). The water chlorination damages the functions of the water heaters. This research incorporatesan investigation to identify the mitigation measures to reduce the chlorine composition. Hence, this research selects a case of Christchurch where they aregetting water supply with the presence of a high percentage of chlorine. Water testing team of theChristchurch government has tested their supplied water, where they found a percentage of chlorine of 0.2 to 1.2 parts per million (CCC, 2020). The high presence ofchlorines damages the water heater pipes that cause the sudden breakdown of those machines. The government of Christchurch has decided that the rainfall is lower in December and January that reduces the underground water level. The absence of rainfall increases the margin of chlorine within the groundwater (CCC, 2020). As per standards of New Zealand drinking water, the H level of the water should be seven and presence of Escherichia coli2 should be less than one in 100 ML samples (Health, 2020). The high pH level addressed as the presence of alkaline composition likechlorine in the water that is harmful for human consumption.

The high presence of chlorine is addressed as the Alkalosis(Rosenblum, Zaffiro, Adams, & Wendelken, 2017). The alkalosis characteristics of water signify the availability of highly chlorine composition, which is principiated presence of heated copper that destroys its function(CCC, 2020). The people of Christchurch using the cooper water heater where the water is wormed presence of copper immersion rod made with the cooper. When the copper materials are heated up in the presence of the chlorine than chlorination chemical reaction happens that precipitates the chlorine from the water (Newsline, 2020). The precipitated chlorine is stored in the water pipes, which damages the functionality of the cooper water heater. This research focuses on the mitigation measures on the poor Christchurch water quality. Christchurch has actively participated in making closely monitor the stream level of banks of the peninsula to the betterment of the quality of water by stabilisingthe pH level (Newsline, 2020). The installation of purifying machinery in the water supply station might be a potential solution to purify the water, eliminating chlorine and deliver pure water to the people Christchurch.

2.  Research problem and Problem Statement

The problem statement is the poor quality of water in Christchurch due to the presence of highlychlorine composition that damage the function of the copper water heater.

Copper is the most efficient elements to heat up the water. The people of Christchurch uses this water heater at a margin of 79.8% to heat up water to purify impurechemicals from the water, and they influenced to use that purified water safely (Health, 2020). The research problem is that the presence of the chlorine composition in the groundwater of Christchurch. The presence of alkaline composition in water that dismantles the functionality of copper water heater by precipitin chlorine. The copper water heater is used for purifying the alkaline chemicals and use the water safely. But the alkaline materials like chlorine is found 61 stations of Christchurch which supplies the people of Christchurch.

The working principle of the copper water cylinder is heated by using the copper immersion rod. The presence of heat like 60 to 70 dree temperature destroys the immunity of impure biological materials which reduces the impurity from the water. The Christchurch city council distributed the water supply in 68 service station, where 53 number of stations areusing the well to supply the water (Newsline, 2020). The usage of well increases the margin of chlorine. The microbiologicalcomposition getsa chance to make a chemical reaction in the water of stored contained that improves the composition of water. that damages the copper water heaters. The copper electrodes are used within the water heater to purify the water. Chlorines are precipitated in the presence of the heated copper electrode due to this reason, approximately 45 number of cylinders have been changed by the Christchurch city council authority (Health, 2020).

The Christchurch city council claimed that the exchange of the copper water heater consumes high financial assets. Therefore, the CCC avoids this solution of replacing the copper cylinders to resolve the poor-quality issues (Newsline, 2020).

As per the standards New Zealand drinking water, it is identified that the small water supply follows 4-9 contain the microbial, chemical and radiological compliance within the drinking water to provide pure water to their people of Christchurch. This characteristicis not present within the drinking water that signifies the violation of the standards of the New Zealand drinking water (Newsline, 2020). The New Zealand government is unable to provide pure drinking water to the citizen, which consists ofa potential risk of health issues like kidney failure. The mitigation strategies are the concern of this research which help Christchurch city council to improve the quality of water and supply to their customers (Stuff, 2020). The revision of the regulatory policy of drinking water is essential that facilitates them to maintain permanent chlorination. Chlorination is the process of reducingthe percentage of chlorine from the water.

3.  Research Aim

The aim of this research is to identify the mitigation measures for poor Christchurch water quality.

4.  Literature Review

  1. International and National Standards of Water

As per the international standards of drinking water is that the people must get the soft water for drinking. The pH level lies of drinking water must be lies between the 6.5 to 8 that addressed asa smaller presence of alkaline composition like chlorine in the water. This pH level slandered signifies as the soft water that is essential for the drinking water (WHO, 2020). As per the drinking water standard of World Health Organisation (WHO), it is identified that the percentage of chlorine must present at an amount of 0.08mg at 1 to 2-degree temperature water at the presence of the pH level of 7 to 8.5 (WHO, 2020). The presence of the micro chloramine must present in the drinking water at a margin of the 94 mg/ litter water presence in 1 to the 2-degree temperature of the water. Moreover, the percentage of monochloramine is present within the drinking water at the amount of 278 mg/litter at the presence of a pH level 6 to 9 (WHO, 2020).

As per the standards of the WHO it is identified that the Ozon and UV irradiation treatment process is significant to reduce the presence of an excessive margin of alkaline and acidic materials from the drinking water. This chemical and biological characterises must present within the drinking water as per the drinking water standers of WHO. The presence of these characteristics is signifying as the drinkable water for the people.  The presence of low alkaline materials like 0.08mg chlorine and 94mg monochloramine along with the pH level of 6 to 8.5 signifies the pure and drinkable water as per the drinking water guidelines issued by WHO.

According to On, et al. (2019), the microbial determinants including Escherichia coli, pathogenic protozoa arecharacterised that water as adrinking water. Based on section 2.2 of standards of drinking water of New Zealand,it is identified that the presence of Escherichia coli at a range of less than 100 mL of sample (Health, 2020). The presence of a low amount of microorganism is signified aspure water as per the drinking standards of the ministry of health of New Zealand. The total pathogenic protozoa must be present in the water at arange of 00 cysts per 100 L of sample3 that signifies as the pure drinking water (CCC, 2020). As per the health ministry standards of NZ, it is identified that the chlorine level must be present below the range of 5 mg/ litre. Moreover, the presence of chromium and chromium is between the 0.8 and 0.05 mg/ litter that signifies as a drinking water.

  • Issues associated with drinking water

Water pollution is significant in the groundwater level that hampers the percentage of the Escherichia coli, pathogenic protozoa from the drinking water. As stated by Coakley et al. (2018), the excessive margin of chlorine-like above 5 mg/litter signifies as the polluted water, which could be drinkable by the human being. People of Christchurch getting the poor quality of water which hasa high presence of chlorine at a margin of 9.2 to 10 and a pH level of 8.2 (Stuff, 2020). The presence of a high margin of chlorine destroys the functions of the copper water heater functionality. The copper is used in the water heater because its thermal conductivity is 399 W/(m*k). Copper is widely used for heating and purifying the water from the harmful germs present within the water.

Drinking Water

According to Zia et al. (2020),the presence of chlorine is a high percentage precepted in the presence of heated copper. The precepted copper creates a layer on the heater cylinder that destroy its functions. As an example, 75% of people Christchurch is facing this issue with their copper water heater where it destroys the functions due to high precipitation of chlorine (Newsline, 2020). For example, 68 water supply stations are present in Christchurch, where 53 number of water supply stations store and supplied water from the well (Newsline, 2020). Hence, the consumption of water enhances the percentage of chlorine due to the reaction between the microbiological organism. Therefore, the people of Christchurchis getting water with high chlorine that destroyers the function of their water heater.

  • Mitigation measures on poor water quality

The water supply department of the city council must follow the guidelines of international standers for the drinking water. This guideline is important to maintain the purity of the drinking water by reducing the presence of the chlorine (Newsline, 2020). Christchurch city counciltaking initiatives to change the regulatory policy for drinking water as per the international standards of drinking water proposed by the WHO. Moreover, Christchurch city council is seeking to the exception for the Lyttleton harbour basic water supply to maintain permanentchlorination and provide the pure drinking water (Newsline, 2020). According to Batley & Simpson (2020), the Christchurch eliminate the temporary chlorine dosing solution and implement a purifying system to reduce the costing for repairing copper heater cylinder and provide chlorine-free water. Therefore, the puffing system implementation is the potential solution to reduce the chlorineof 5 Mg as per the international standards and reduce the chances of destroying the function of copper water heater function.

5.  Research Significance and Limitation

  1. Research significance:

This research is significant because it incorporates investigation on a social issue of Christchurchwhere people are getting impure water presence of chlorine composition. Due to this reason, the functions of their copper water heater isdestroyeddue to precipitation of chlorine from the water that consumes huge cost to repair or replacement. This research is significant because it investigates the reason behind the presence of a high margin of chlorine withinthe drinking water. This research is alsoinvestigatingthe reasons behind the presence of chlorine in drinking water that destroys the functionality of the copper water heater by precipitating chlorine in the cylinder of the heater. The research is significant to make research on the international and New Zealandstandards of drinking water. This investigation is beneficial for identifying the mitigations measures to implement permanent chlorination to betterment the purity of the water by reducing chlorine composition.

  • Limitations:

This research willbe investing the water issues on a particular location like Christchurch instead of considering the overall of New Zealand. This research will not consider the primary source of data so that this research will not project the practical experience of the citizen of Christchurch. This research will consider the secondary source of information so that only theoretical and conceptual measures will be highlighted. It reduces the authenticity of the information related to mitigations measures for Christchurch water qualitybecause it collected from the secondary sources.

6.  Project Design

The research methodology is a process of collection of data from the data sources to meet the objectives of this study(Humphries, 2017).

  1. Research design

Research design is a set of method to analyse the variables are associated with the research problem to find out the answer tothe research question(Cuervo‐Cazurra & Mudambi, 2017).  Research design is segmented as a type of exploratory, explanatory and descriptive. This study will be following the exploratory research design to create a link between the two variables named mitigation strategy and poor water quality of Christchurch. During this investigation, the reason behind the poor water quality is identified by reviewing the research paper related to mitigation measures of poor quality of water. The identification of the reason behind the poor water quality will also influence to make research on the variable like mitigation strategy.

  • Research philosophy

Research philosophy identifies a way to accomplish the research to meet the objective(Ledford & Gast, 2018). the positivism philosophy will be suitable for the poor water quality is social issues which require mathematical information like pH level to define it. Hence, positivism philosophy will instruct to the researcher to draw the inference on mathematic information and identify the reason behind the delivery of poor quality of water. It also instructed to collect information related to mitigation measures to implement permanent chlorination that purifies the drinking water supplied to people of Christchurch.

  • Research approach

The research approach is a set of instruction that help to identify the inference of variables associated with the research topic(Quinlan & Babin, 2019). The research approach iscategorised in mainly two types, including inductive and deductive approach. The inductive approach will be adopted by this research to investigate the mitigation strategies of the poor water quality of Christchurch. The inductive approach will provide a scope to generate inference based on the investigation of the reason for the poor quality of water in Christchurch. This mitigation strategy will help to identify the reason behind destroying the functionality ofcopper water heater. The inductive approach helps to identify the inference based on the mitigation techniques like revising the water policy, repairing the copper water cylinder to resolve the issue.

  • Research strategy

The research strategy is a technique to investigate the research problem associated with the topic(Saunders & Bezzina, 2015). Ethnographic, case study, narrative, and grounded theory are the type of strategies are commonly used within the research. Case study methods will be followed in this study because it helps to develop the collect examples of different mitigation measures by reviewing the website of the Christchurch city council. This investigation will help to develop the meet the research objective by delivering appropriate measures to improve the quality of drinking water. The case study approach will help to collect secondary information related to international and domestic water standards. The knowledge gathering regarding water standards will influence to identify the proper solution to establish permanent chlorination.

  • Data collection

Data collection is a process of gathering relevant and authentic information from the data sources(Taylor & Bogdan, 2015). The primary and secondary method is followed by research studies to collect information to meet the objective of the research study. The secondary data collection process will be followed in this study to collect facts, figures and regulations of water pollution rate in New Zealand. Moreover, the secondary data will be collected from the relevant, recent and authentic journal and news article. The collection of secondary information associated in relation to the mitigation measures to provide permanent solution about the colonisation.

  • Data analysis

Data analysis is a process of analysis of the collected statistical and theoretical information to provide an answer to research questions(Flick, 2015). The thematic analysis process will be followed by this research that enables them to prepare code, the theme from the collected secondary information. The analysis of theme helps to identify the measures that help to provide a better quality of water to their people of Christchurch by implementing a permeant solution of the chlorination.

  • Ethical consideration

The ethical consideration is associated with the collection of secondary information from the authentic journal and news articles. This ethical consideration will support to collect authentic information regarding international and New Zealand standards of water and suggest mitigation measures for permanent chlorination. The ethical standardswill include the rules of selection of journal articles above 2015 to implicate authentic information regarding thereason behind the poor water quality of Christchurch. Moreover, the collected information will be used for academic purpose only.

7.  Conclusion

This research concludes that the chlorine composition is increased in water due to reaction with the microbiological determinants. The drinking water supply with chlorine composition destroys the functionality of copper water heater by precipitated the chlorine in the presence of heated copper immersion rod. The people of Christchurch getting water highly presence of chlorine composition. Whiling heating water the chlorine composition is precipitated in the presence of heated copper rod. The installation of the purification system for establishing permanent chlorination is essential to mitigate the impurity related to chlorine composition and deliver purified water to the people of Christchurch.

8.  References

Batley, G., & Simpson, S. (2020). Short‐term guideline for chlorine in marine waters. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 1(1), 1, DOI: 10.1002/etc.4661.

CCC. (2020). Where we have chlorinated. Retrieved April 29, 2020, from https://ccc.govt.nz/services/water-and-drainage/water-supply/water-chlorination

CCC. (2020). Water quality and monitoring. Retrieved April 29, 2020, from https://ccc.govt.nz/services/water-and-drainage/water-supply/quality-and-monitoring/water-quality-and-monitoring

Coakley, J., Bridgen, P., Bates, M., & Douwes, J. (2018). Chlorinated persistent organic pollutants in the serum of New Zealand adults, 2011–2013. Science of the total environment, 615(1), 624-631, DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.331.

Cuervo‐Cazurra, A., & Mudambi, R. (2017). Research methodology in global strategy research. Global Strategy Journal, 15(6), 233-240, DOI: 10.1002/gsj.1164.

Flick, U. (2015). Introducing research methodology: A beginner’s guide to doing a research project. London: Sage, ISBN: 0792349156.

Health. (2020). Drinking-water Standards for New Zealand 2005 (Revised 2018). Retrieved April 29, 2020, from https://www.health.govt.nz/publication/drinking-water-standards-new-zealand-2005-revised-2018

Health. (2020). Drinking-water Standards for New Zealand 2005 (Revised 2018). Retrieved April 29, 2020, from https://www.health.govt.nz/publication/drinking-water-standards-new-zealand-2005-revised-2018

Humphries, B. (2017). Re-thinking social research: anti-discriminatory approaches in research methodology (Vol. 3). London: Routledge, ISBN: 9781315244280.

Ledford, J., & Gast, D. (2018). Single case research methodology: Applications in special education and behavioural sciences (2 ed.). London: Routledge, ISBN: 9781315150666.

Newsline. (2020). Level 4 water restrictions for parts of Banks Peninsula. Retrieved April 29, 2020, from https://newsline.ccc.govt.nz/news/story/level-4-water-restrictions-for-parts-of-banks-peninsula

Newsline. (2020). The word on water: Latest on chlorination. Retrieved April 29, 2020, from https://newsline.ccc.govt.nz/news/story/the-word-on-water-latest-on-chlorination

On, S., Althaus, D., Miller, W., Lizamore, D., & Wong, S. (2019). Arcobacter cryaeropHilus isolated from New Zealand mussels harbour a putative virulence plasmid. Frontiers in microbiology, 10(1), 1802, DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.01802.

Quinlan, C., & Babin, B. (2019). Business research methods (3 ed.). London: South-Western Cengage, ISBN: 9781473760356.

Rosenblum, L., Zaffiro, A., Adams, W., & Wendelken, S. (2017). Effect of chlorination by-products on the quantitation of microcystins in finished drinking water. Toxicon, 138(1), 138-144, DOI: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2017.08.023.

Saunders, M., & Bezzina, F. (2015). Reflections on conceptions of research methodology among management academics. European management journal, 15(7), 297-304, DOI: 10.1016/j.emj.2015.06.002.

Stuff. (2020). Chlorine levels in some Christchurch water might be enough for swimming pools. Retrieved April 29, 2020, from https://www.stuff.co.nz/the-press/news/103631494/chlorine-levels-in-some-christchurch-water-might-be-enough-for-swimming-pool

Taylor, S., & Bogdan, R. (2015). Introduction to qualitative research methods: A guidebook and resource (2 ed.). London: John Wiley & Sons, ISBN: 1446244776.

WHO. (2020). Drinking-water quality guidelines. Retrieved April 29, 2020, from https://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/water-quality/guidelines/en/

WHO. (2020). Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality. Retrieved April 29, 2020, from https://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/gdwq0506.pdf

WHO. (2020). INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS FOR DRINKING-WATER. Retrieved April 29, 2020, from https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/205104/205104_eng.pdf;jsessionid=4202C0271A1E24AD862C08DB2688CA1D?sequence=2

Zia, Z., Hartland, A., & Mucalo, M. (2020). Wastewater treatment in New Zealand: zeolites as a potential low-cost solution for heavy metal removal. In The International Symposium on Macrocyclic and Supramolecular Chemistry, 1(1), 26, DOI:10.1016/j.desal.2007.02.022.

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