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Development Of A Fermentation Process In Lab

CASE II (DEVELOPMENT OF A FERMENTATION PROCESS IN LAB)

A company has isolated a new bacteria strain which can produce a novel antibiotic. The company asked your help to develop a fermentation process for the bacteria in shaking flasks. You need:

  • Find the starting medium recipe for better optimization.
  • List the factors requiring optimizations, and explain why the factors have impact on fermentation?
  • Design experiment to optimize the fermentation factors.

Solution:

Certain microorganisms are capable of producing some organic compounds which are directly not involved in their growth and development, known as secondary metabolites. These secondary metabolites (e.g., antibiotics) are produced by plants, bacteria, fungi, etc.  Among all these groups, actinomycetes have a dominant place to produce secondary metabolites such as antibiotics. Actinomycetes are basically prokaryotes and gram positive bacteria, but their morphology has resemblance to fungi due to presence of finger shaped mycelia. Actinomycetes are widely distributed throughout the nature. They are present in natural and as well as in manmade environment. Moreover, they exist in freshwaters, soils, lakes, composts, manure and also in plants and food residues.  These micro-organisms are very prominent due to producing high value commercial products, industrially and as well as medically important compounds such as immunosuppressant, antibiotics and chemotherapeutics (Berdy, 2005, Vijayakumar et al., 2010, Bizuye et al., 2013).

Discovery of Pencillin by AlexandarFlemming has introduced a quite different era of medicine and science. Antibiotics has contributed to increase the life expectancy and also to save a huge numbers of lives. Probably, there is no need to repeat how significantly antibiotics have saved the lives and how they contributed to treat the infections and diseases, to decrease the top causes of mortality and morbidity of human (Aminov, 2010).

Actinomycetes produce antibiotics that have application in treating different human infections. They are also known due to their genetic material, because their DNA is enriched with >55% G+C (Guanine + Cytosine) content (González-Franco and Robles-Hernandez, 2009, Gurung et al., 2009, Ogunmwonyi et al., 2010). It was observed that almost 70% of naturally occurring antibiotics are isolated by different genus of actinomycetes. Among these genus, most important genus is Streptomyces for the production of antibiotics. Certain antibiotics such as erythromycin, penicillin and methicillin, they exhibit only one time potent or effective results against infection. Because bacteria has gained resistance against such antibiotics, that’s why they has become less effective(Raja et al., 2010).Isolation and screening of antibiotic producing psychrophilic actinomycetes and its nature from hill soil against viridians Streptococcus sp. (Raja et al., 2010). Then resistant strains of antibiotics were developed such as vancomycin and methicillin. But they cause certain side effects. Antibiotic resistant strains are increasing, so to prevent such happenings, this is a time to immediately develop novel antibiotics to replace these existing antibiotics by finding new approaches to isolate promising bacteria from soil(Ilić et al., 2005). Therefore, development of new antibiotics or using the combined antibiotics has delayed the climax of microbial resistance. There is new possibility to produce synergetic antibiotics to treat microbial infection. Antibiotic synergism is a novel approach between bioactive extracts and along with known antibiotics. By combining antibiotics, potential of drug to treat microbial infection in upgraded (Adwan and Mhanna, 2008). As discussed earlier, some antibiotics have side effects or expensive, thus, finding of novel antibiotics is an important necessity (Bizuye et al., 2013, Retnowati, 2010).  From actinomycetes, we can produce novel and effective antibiotics. The aim of this study is to isolate actinomycetes from soil samples and then screen them for the production of antibiotics.

Query:1

Isolation and screening of antibiotic producing actinomycetes from soil:

How to isolate and screen actinomycetes?

  • Location of study

We studied different promising areas of India for actinomycetes producing soil and then we just focused on two regions i.e. garbage disposer areas of house kitchen and rhizosphere soil samples of different areas. Microbial community of soil is highly dependent on the status and composition of their soil habitat. Then we took different soil samples with different depths, from these two potent regions for further study.

  • Sampling and isolation of actinomycetes

Samples were taken from two sources, one from garbage disposer and other from rhizosphere soil areas. During this study, 15 sterile samples were taken from 5 sites that have different depth (5, 8 and 11 cm) of the superficial layer from each location. Then soil samples were numbered accordingly and placed them in a sterilized paper sack, thenthese are transferred to Mycology laboratory, after that, homogenization of these samples carried out. Samples were spread out on trays in order to clean them out from leaves, roots and small stems. These samples were sieved in 2mm mesh and air dried them at room temp (i.e. 25°C) for 7 days. Then 5 grams of each sample was taken and poured into the test tubes that already have 10 ml of aseptic physiologic saline (0.9% NaCl) and then mix them for almost 3 minutes. Then incubate them for 15 minutes and then transfer 3 ml of supernatant to another aseptic test tube and then add 1.5 ml of streptomycin and chloramphenicol (0.2mgl/ml) and then stirrer them and  incubate for 30 minutes. This solution was shaken again by using vortex mixer. In next step one drop of sample was added to a Sabouraud’s dextrose agar medium and another drop was added to brain-heart infusion agar. These both media were containing 0.5 g/l of cycloheximide. They were now incubated at 35°C for 2-3 weeks. These colonies were selected and streaked on new plates of prepared culture media. Actinomycetes’ colonies were identified through their color and they were dried, rough with regular and irregular pattern and mentioned as convex colony. These plates were incubated at 35°C and analyzed up to 2-3 weeks for maximum growth. Although several colonies showed their maximum growth in first some days of incubation. In order to purify actinomycetes from other suspicious colonies, streak plate method was used. After that pure colonies were isolated by observing their colonial morphology, color of hyphae and aerial mycelia, and then these colonies were plated on the agar media singly.

Then cellophane tap and cover slip-buried methods were used to analyze morphology of actinomycetes. Light microscopy under oil immersion (1,000 x) was used to analyze the structure of mycelium, color and arrangement of arthrospore on the mycelium. Since a single method could not enough to identify all actinomycete thoroughly; therefore, a combination of different methods were important to identify actinomycetes isolates to the species level. If subdivided and fragile filaments specific of actinomycetes were examined, then they were isolated and inspected for partial acid-fastness by staining with the carbolfuchsin modified acid-fast stain with a weak (0.5-1%) sulfuric acid decolorizing solution. Furthermore, a standard biochemical tests and physiological criteria i.e ability to degrade the different organic compounds like casein, tyrosine, xanthine, hypoxanthine and starch as substrates, the use of urea and different carbon sources as well as growth in 4% gelatin medium were examined in order to get a possible classification to the species level. Gelatin hydrolysis was carried  by stabbing a loopful of organism about 1 cm into a nutrient gelatin tube (BBL), that were incubated at 35°C in air for up to 7 days.

Detection of hydrolysis was done by keeping the tubes at 4°C for 15 min and then tilting each tube at a 45° angle. The test was only viewed positive if the gelatin was liquefied.

For hydrolysis of urea, a heavy loopful of bacteria was suspended in 0.5 ml of a medium containing 1 g urea and 1 ml of a cresol red solution (0.5% [wt/vol]) in 100 ml phosphate buffer (0.005M, pH 6). Tubes were incubated at 35°C and checked after 1 and 2 days for a pink color shift showing a positive reaction.

  • Primary screening

Actinomycetes isolated and analyzed from different soil samples, further samples were screened for the examination of their antimicrobial spectrum. Different test bacteria were used for primary screening, these bacteria were S. aureusATCC2923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27857 (P.aeruginosa),Escherichia coli ATCC25922 (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumonia ATCC7000603 (K. pneumonia) and Salmonella typhi ATCC9289 (S. typhi). To ensure the Anti-fungal activity of actinomycetes, Saccharomyces cerevisiae(S. cerevisiae) was used as test organism. Activities were examined by using nutrient agar for culturing of bacteria and potato dextrose agar for fungi. Each plate was streaked with each isolated colony at the midpoint of a plate and incubated at 37 °C for 7 days. Then, fresh sub-cultured test organisms were perpendicular streaked to the actinomycete isolate. Then the plates were incubated for 24 hours at 37 °C for bacteria and incubated 48 h at 28 °C for fungi.After incubation, the zone of inhibition was measured and recorded.

  • Fermentation and extraction of crude extracts

So, it is proved that solid state fermentation was fitter for the production of pigment by the strain D10 when it compared to submerged fermentation. And in this study, solid state fermentation was used for the production of crude pigment. Solid stat fermentation uses the solid substrates i.e bran, bagasse, and paper pulp. The major benefit of using these solid substrates is that nutrient-rich waste materials can be easily reused and recycled as substrates. In this technique of fermentation, the substrates are used very slowly and immoveable manner, so the same substrate can be utilized for long fermentation periods. Hence, this technique provides controlled release of nutrients.Based on the zone of inhibition in primary screening, actinomycetes isolates ( represented as Ab18, Ab28, Ab43) that have likely antimicrobial activity were selected for solid state fermentation and extraction, and then the crude extracts were analyze through agar well diffusion methods. In these study cultures of actinomycete isolates were grown in starch casein broth (200 mL) at 37 °C for 7days. Finally  10% of cultured broth was inoculated into sterilize Erlenmeyer flask that containing natural media (40 g wheat grain and 20 mL milk) on thermostat water bath at 37 °C for 7days. In order to concentrate the antimicrobial metabolite produced from isolates, equal volume of ethyl acetate (200 mL) was added in each solid state fermented cultures for 1 hour in thermostat water bath shaker at 37 °C. Then the active metabolite containing ethyl acetate was isolated from the solid residue with Whatman No.1 filter paper and extracts were concentrated through the help of rotavapour. The crude extracts collected from each isolates were dissolved in ethyl acetate (76 mg/mL) and utilized as stock concentration and ethyl acetate is used as control for the determination of actinomycetes activity against test pathogens. The wells (6 mm diameter) were cut using a sterile cork

Borer on Muller Hinton agar and potato dextrose agar. Twenty four hours young culture of S. aureus ATCC2923, methicillin resistant S. aureus (clinical isolates), E. coli ATCC25922, S. typhiATCC9289, K. pneumonia ATCC7000603, S. boydi ATCC9289) and 48 h young culture of Candia albicans (C. albicans, clinical isolates) these cultures were swabbed with sterilized cotton swab on the surface of prepared Muller Hinton agar for bacteria and potato dextrose agar for fungi. Sixty micro liters of dissolved crude extract was loaded into each well and left for 30 min unless the metabolite was diffused. Then the plates were incubated for 24 h at 37 °C for bacteria and 48 h at 28 °C for fungi. After incubation, the zone of inhibitions were measured and recorded.

Query:2

Optimization factors for maximum product output:

As the organisms under consideration are bacterial strains, so following factors must be taken into account during the growth optimization to obtain maximum quantities of the desired antibiotic.

  • Carbon source:

The primary nutrient to run bacterial metabolic machinery is the carbon source and more specifically glucose. Glucose kick starts the process of glycolysis which is the cardinal growth sustaining pathway in all life forms. Normally LB medium used for bacterial culturing and fermentation contains Tryptone and yeast extract, which directly are not source of carbohydrates and only provide scant quantities of glucose. So in order to compensate this, 1-4 g/L of glucose is added to the medium recipe wherever  high metabolic activity is required especially in fermentation processes.

  • pH value:

pH value has been categorized as of major interest for bacterial growth by (Juwarkar et al., 2006). For optimal bacterial growth, a steady pH value of 6-7.4 is recommended by nature protocols. The importance of this factor is of major interest because optimal pH is directly proportional to the growth of bacteria. The enzymes involved in bacterial division for example DNA polymerases work best at the perscribedpH. Any shock to the pH hinders the bacterial cell division or blocks it altogether. The key point to be noted here is that pH value determines the enzyme activity in all life forms. A drift in pH value can cause a serious damage to multiple metabolic processes if not stop them altogether. Therefore it is always advised to check the pH of the medium recipe prior to inoculation so that it can be adjusted.

  • Temperature:

Another key factor is the temperature of incubation of bacterial cultures. The standardized temperature for optimal bacterial growth is 37 degrees celscius. However depending upon the type of bacteria and the environment from where it is isolated can also dictate the optimum temperature standards. For example bacteria that are isolated from dry harsh and warm regions can show optimum growths at even 50 degrees Celsius. The temperature is directly linked to the enzyme activity in bacteria. The more the temperature moves away from the optimal points the lesser the activity of enzymes is observed. However, unlike pH bacteria show increase in growth patterns as temperature is gradually increased up to a certain limit depending upon the type of bacteria after which it gradually declines.

  • Inducers:

Inducers are the natural or synthetic biochemical entities that upregulate the production of a certain metabolite or gene product. These inducers interact with the specific metabolic pathway regulatory elements in such a way that the particular process keeps on producing the desired product without any inhibition at a multiple fold rate. The most common inducer used for protein production in bacteria is T7 RNA polymerase/ RNA promoter system. Among many other advantages, it has a wide variety of hosts and can easily be incorporated in diverse range of bacterial strains. As it is based on the promoter activation principle which entails that over activation of promoter of a metabolic pathway gene sequence will up regulate the expressive gene production which inturn will increase the quantities of the desired protein product.

  • Medium additives:

Media additives vary according to the purpose of bacterial growth and desired product. As mentioned earlier, tryptone, yeast extract andNaCl dissolved in distilled water according to standard protocols is enough for a regular bacterial growth in broth medium. However, when the purpose is the production of a secondary metabolite, the metabolism of bacterial cell is enhanced for that an additional carbon source glucose/ dextrose is added as a supplement. Some studies have also shown that when specifically producing antibiotics, addition of 0.05% K2HPO4 significantly enhances the quantities of antibiotics produced by bacterial isolates(AL-GHAZALI and OMRAN, 2017).

  • Aeration:

Aeration is also an important factor especially when aerobic bacteria are under consideration. It has been observed through various studies that an increase in the oxygen mass transfer coefficient can significantly increase the bacterial growth and the production of desired antibiotic up to 30 percent. The logic behind it is that the major  metabolic processes of an aerobic bacteria are driven by aerobic respiration. An increase in the index of available oxygen means an increase in the rate of aerobic respiration which in turn enhances the metabolism leading to an increased production of secondary metabolites and antibiotics(Wang and Zhang, 2007).

  • Growth time:

Normally bacterial cultures start to show maximum growth within 8 hours which is also termed as growth or log phase. At this point the bacteria attain a maximum number of divided cells and shift towards a growth dormancy state also known as lag phase in which the number of newly grown cells decreases gradually. This behavior is an indicator that now a greater mass of bacterial cells is shifting from primary metabolism to secondary metabolism in which bacteria shift from rapidly growing phase to a survival mode. Once the bacterial cultures have attained the stationary phase, the production of secondary metabolites experiences a boost. This happens because now the bacteria are spending less energy in synthesizing peptidoglycans, primary proteins and nucleic acids. This residual energy and the capacity of bacteria to be less susceptible to the antibiotics in stationary phase are used for the production of secondary metabolites and other antibiotics. Normally this cycle starts after 8 hours of inoculation and attains a maximum productivity in 16-24 hours of initialinoculation.

Query 3

Experimental design for optimization of fermentation factors:

Normally for such experiments, that involve optimization of a process, the output production index dictates that what set of combined conditions must be applied to obtain maximum desired product rather than the standard values of protocols. In our case, we have 7-8 influential factors. Our next step is to determine significant factor/s that may affect the output production by Plackett-Burman method. Optimization of each studied factor is described following:

  1. The first and foremost step is to screen out the factors that have a negligible effect when range is concerned logically. For example using inducers by standard protocols is acceptable as an increased quantity of inducer does not necessarily mean a higher output as mode of action of an inducer follows a qualitative pattern either an inducer induces an effect or it does not.
  2. The second step involves the listing of all primary influential factors that will determine the direction of the experiment. In this case temperature and pH etc are the factors that will determine the optimum response.
  3. The third step involves the determination of ranges. This step requires literature review to determine that what experimental ranges have been used in similar experiments for identical outputs. For example in our case the optimum temperature range can be 32-42 degrees Celsius, pH can be 6.6-7.6, added glucose concentration can be 0.5-4 g/L and growth time can be 16-24 hrs and so on. Once the experimental factors and their range values are established, it becomes easier to narrow down the set of conditions that can give the maximum output.
  4. This step involves the intervention of biostatistical tools based on significant factors determined by PlackettBurman method. The specifications of our experiments are fulfilled by the Response Surface Methodology model (RSM). RSM uses a set of very specific tools which when combined determine the combined ranges of the experimental factors that can possibly give the maximum output i-e maximum quantity of produced antibiotic. RSM also rules out the factors that have a secondary role and do not significantly determine the output. The models which qualify the test of significance that is(P < 0.05) are then put to wet lab experimentation. A rough example for our experiment using RSM can be given as:
RunsTemperature (Celsius)pHGlucose (g/L)Growth time (hrs)O2 mass transfer coefficient (h−1 )Predicted Output
1326.60.516115x
2336.7117116y
3346.81.518117z
  • Finally the results obtained from the statistical analysis will be used as the experimental ranges. Once the experiment is conducted and the quantity of antibiotic produced by each run is determined, a standard can be established by comparing the statistically predicted output and the actual output of the wet lab experiment. Such a technique will standardize the protocols for similar experiments that are to be conducted in the future(Wang et al., 2008).

References:

ADWAN, G. & MHANNA, M. 2008. Synergistic effects of plant extracts and antibiotics on Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from clinical specimens. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 3, 134-139.

AL-GHAZALI, L. H. & OMRAN, R. 2017. OPTIMIZATION OF MEDIUM COMPOSITION FOR ANTIBACTERIAL METABOLITE PRODUCTION FROM STREPTOMYCES SP. OPTIMIZATION, 10.

AMINOV, R. I. 2010. A brief history of the antibiotic era: lessons learned and challenges for the future. Frontiers in microbiology, 1, 134.

BERDY, J. 2005. Bioactive microbial metabolites. The Journal of antibiotics, 58, 1-26.

BIZUYE, A., MOGES, F. & ANDUALEM, B. 2013. Isolation and screening of antibiotic producing actinomycetes from soils in Gondar town, North West Ethiopia. Asian Pacific journal of tropical disease, 3, 375-381.

GONZÁLEZ-FRANCO, A. C. & ROBLES-HERNANDEZ, R. 2009. Actinomycetes as biological control agents of phytopathogenic fungi. Tecnociencia Chihuahua, 3, 64-73.

GURUNG, T. D., SHERPA, C., AGRAWAL, V. P. & LEKHAK, B. 2009. Isolation and characterization of antibacterial actinomycetes from soil samples of Kalapatthar, Mount Everest Region. Nepal Journal of science and Technology, 10, 173-182.

ILIĆ, S. B., KONSTANTINOVIĆ, S. S. & TODOROVIĆ, Z. B. 2005. UV/VIS analysis and antimicrobial activity of Streptomyces isolates. Facta universitatis series: Med Biol, 12, 44-46.

OGUNMWONYI, I. H., MAZOMBA, N., MABINYA, L., NGWENYA, E., GREEN, E., AKINPELU, D. A., OLANIRAN, A. O., BERNARD, K. & OKOH, A. I. 2010. Studies on the culturable marine actinomycetes isolated from the Nahoon beach in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Afr J Microbiol Res, 4, 2223-2230.

RAJA, A., PRABAKARAN, P. & GAJALAKSHMI, P. 2010. Isolation and screening of antibiotic producing psychrophilic actinomycetes and its nature from Rothang hill soil against viridans Streptococcus sp. Res J Microbiol, 5, 44-49.

RETNOWATI, W. 2010. Identification of Streptomyces sp-MWS1 producing antibacterial compounds. Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease, 1, 82-85.

VIJAYAKUMAR, R., MURUGESAN, S. & PANNEERSELVAM, A. 2010. Isolation, characterization and antimicrobial activity of actinobacteria from point calimere coastal region, east coast of India. Int Res J Pharam, 1, 358-365.

WANG, Y.-H. & ZHANG, X. 2007. Influence of agitation and aeration on growth and antibiotic production by Xenorhabdus nematophila. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 23, 221-227.

WANG, Y. H., FENG, J. T., ZHANG, Q. & ZHANG, X. 2008. Optimization of fermentation condition for antibiotic production by Xenorhabdus nematophila with response surface methodology. Journal of applied microbiology, 104, 735-744.


Assignment on Development of a Fermentation Process in Lab by Subject Academy

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Economic Theory and the 2020 Crisis

A Public Health Emergency was declared on 30 January 2020 which was of international concern. A case of pneumonia with an unknown cause was identified in Wuhan, China and was reported to WHO (World Health Organisation). The outbreak was named as COVID-19 by WHO which took the form of a pandemic (WHO, 2020). This crisis, due to the outbreak of COVI-19 pandemic has led to an economic crisis due to lockdown in the affected countries globally. This study will highlight the macro-economic and micro-economic effects of pandemic COVID-19 on Canada.

Impact of COVID-19 on the four macro-economic factors

Economic Theory and the 2020 Crisis

Figure 1: Current GDP Growth in Canada Source: (Trading Economics, 2020)

Based on the above diagram, it is observed that the country expected to enrich its GDP at 1760 USD billion by the end of 2020 (Trading Economics, 2020). In January, the GDP rate of the country is also raised by 0.1% before coronavirus pandemic hit the country (Global News, 2020). In March 2020, the GDP rate of the country is also decreased by 9% due to the amid COVID-19, and that also affect the country’s overall production line especially in three industries such as manufacturing, financial, transportation and warehouse (Global News, 2020). For example, the contribution of the sectors in the country’s GDP reduced by $174 billion from the manufacturing industry, $142.7 billion from the financial sector (Trading Economics, 2020).

Economic Theory and the 2020 Crisis

Figure 2: Current Inflation Rate in Canada Source: (Trading Economics, 2020)

The expected rate of inflation in Canada is around 2.73% by the end of 2020 (Trading Economics, 2020). Whereas, the inflation rate of the nation faces a downfall of 1.2% due to amid COVID-19 highly affected the economy of the country. The biggest factor of that situation is that the less demand for oil and travel in the country. In addition, the lowest interest rate of the Central bank, which is around 0.5% is another reason for the economic slump of the nation (Global News, 2020). Due to the effect of amid COVID-19, the Government took that initiative to extend lockdown in the whole region of the nation which disrupts the supply chain of the nation.         

Post the outbreak of COVID-19, many sectors in Canada like manufacturing, retail, hospitality, transportation, etc., is at risk. The Business Barometer of Canada has identified that the business index has fallen from 60.5 in Feb 2020 to 30.8 in March 2020 (Hillnotes, 2020). The Labor Force Strategy has declared that the outbreak of the pandemic has reduced the employment ratio has reduced by 5.5% within one month. The employment rate fell by 1 million or 5.3% in March, which has been recorded as the lowest rate since 1997 (CBC, 2020). The figures stated above implies that there has been a significant increase in the rate of unemployment in Canada.

The novel (COVID-19) has affected the operations of Canadian companies. The outbreak of the virus has implied temporary restrictions at the borders, which has affected the developmental activities of the business (Tradecommissioner, 2020). However, Canada is committed to keeping the supply chain open and lower down the excessive strict measures on goods, especially medicines. Hence, the international trade of Canada has also been affected except for the necessities.

Impact of COVID-19 on one microeconomic factor

Economic Theory and the 2020 Crisis

Figure 3: Demand and Supply Trend Source: Author

Based on the above diagram, it is observed that the demand for necessary products in the country is highly decreased. The demand for necessary products such as consumer goods, equipment and furniture are also reduced due to disrupting in the supply chain within the nation. In that context, lower demand for products also decreases the price of products which affecting the economic stability of the nation (Global News, 2020). Moreover, the quality of the supply of products is also reduced due to that pandemic situation for COVID-19. The prices of gasoline in the country is also reduced by 7.8% which is the biggest factor for the slump in the economy of the nation and that also affecting supply chain of the nation (Global News, 2020).    

Identification of remedial measures to preserve and protect the economics from recession

Based on the current economic situation of the country, it will be suggested that the Central bank of the nation requires to finance more money for public debt in order to infuse the collapse. In April 2020, the Central bank is also decided to lower the interest rate by a huge margin for the public debts. In that context, the Central Bank will require to purchase a huge margin of Corporate Bonds to support the Government with financially. The Government will require to take health caution measures to prevent this pandemic situation. The financial support from Central Bank will influence the Government to deal with ongoing recession towards the capital market.              

Conclusion

Based on the above calculation, it is observed that COVID-19 is highly affecting the supply chain of the nation, which made its impact on the inflation and GDP growth rate. Low quality from the suppliers decreases the demand for necessary products within the country, which are the main reason for GDP growth fall down of the nation by 9%.  

References

CBC. (2020). Nova-scotia-employment-numbers-drop-covid. Retrieved from Nova-scotia: https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/nova-scotia/nova-scotia-employment-numbers-drop-covid-19-1.5529444

Global News. (2020). Global News. Retrieved from Canada’s GDP up just 0.1% in January, before coronavirus hit: https://globalnews.ca/news/6755652/canadas-gdp-januray-2020-before-coronavirus/

Global News. (2020). Global News. Retrieved from Canada’s GDP shrank by 9% in March amid COVID-19: StatCan: https://globalnews.ca/news/6820197/canada-gdp-march-covid-19-statscan/

Hillnotes. (2020). Impacts-of-covid-19-on-selected-sectors-of-canadas-economy. Retrieved from Hillnotes.ca: https://hillnotes.ca/2020/04/08/impacts-of-covid-19-on-selected-sectors-of-canadas-economy/

Tradecommissioner. (2020). Commerce-international-COVID-19-international-trade.aspx. Retrieved from Tradecommissioner.gc.ca: https://www.tradecommissioner.gc.ca/campaign-campagne/commerce-international-COVID-19-international-trade.aspx?lang=eng

Trading Economics. (2020). Trading Economics. Retrieved from Canada GDP | 1960-2019 Data | 2020-2022: https://tradingeconomics.com/canada/gdp

Trading Economics. (2020). Trading Economics. Retrieved from Canada Inflation Rate1915-2020 Data | 2021-2022: https://tradingeconomics.com/canada/inflation-cpi

WHO. (2020). Novel-coronavirus-2019/events-as-they-happen. Retrieved from WHO.int: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/events-as-they-happen


Economic Theory and the 2020 Crisis Assignment by Subject Academy

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Mission Impossible

Introduction

This article title of which is “Mission Impossible” is based upon the strategies of reducing the emergence of global climate change due to increment of Greenhouse gas emission. Considering the extreme heat waves as well as flooding and wild fires, in the year of 2017, the Author of this article named Dr. Peter D. Carter and Elizabeth Woodworth has presented the case scenario of climate disruption. Through the writing, this study has compared the global population, mainly the young people as the victims of the “Unprecedented Crime” as they are the key people who will have to experience the consequences of climate change in a broader sense Further, this article has also identified that being increasing Greenhouse gas emission which is the main cause for rapid global climate change, fossil fuel; industry is entirely responsible by being denial and collusion.

Key concept of the study

The key concept of this article is to draw attention of world population towards take global emergency response for reducing the rapid global climate change for safeguarding people from experiencing natural disasters which may hinder the entire population. In order to reduce the rapidity of climate change, this study has firstly suggested that it is needed to lead GHG emission reduction fast as climate gets bitterly hampered due to the existence of CO2, NO2 and methane.

Mission Impossible -Global Climate Change

Main points of the argument

Climate change is leading people to experience an average atmosphere with ever-increased rate of warming. Considering the increasing rate of global warming, this study has stated to introduce “Negative Emissions Technology “which would be able to remove a large number of CO2 from atmosphere. On the other hand, Long term carbon storage is also observed as an alternative strategy which would make the agriculture industry to increase its sustainability through store CO2 in soils for long time trough reducing agriculture waste. In order to turn “Mission possible” of reducing global warming to “Mission possible” this study has statistically presented the increment of fuel usage and its impact on temperature increment in last two years.

Opportunities for initiating the transition process

The section presents the opportunities that exist in the journey of getting transformed into green earth. One of the opportunities is that, since 2014, the CO2 emissions have remained static. The forecast of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions says that the emissions will decline to zero by 2050 (Carter, pp. 201-224). The plan for 100 % conversion of fossil fuel to renewable energy is also a significant opportunity for achieving zero GHD emission goals. Opportunities, thereby include a target for zero combustionand resisting the CO2 emissions.

The agricultural perspective of greenhouse gas emission

The section introduces the engagement of agriculture in GHG emissions. The plan for achieving zero combustion levels includes the transformation of existing agricultural practice from the usage of chemical fertilizer to biodegradable ones. Production of meat leads to deforestation of tropical bushes, which is also a threat to a sustainable earth. The chemical-intensive fertilizer used in fields acquires the prime cause of greenhouse pollution. Heavy CO2 emissions that result in using chemical fertilizers extensively contributed to GHG pollution. Chemical fertilizers, meat production, and emission carbon dioxide during farming are liable for GHG emissions.

Funding for rescuing the earth

The paragraph presents global funding related to controlling greenhouse gas emissions and providing a balanced environment. Expenses for preserving global energy is about USD 2 million annually. Along with such investments for global energy, an additional $ 300 billion is invested for renewable energy building. The American budget or funding for the mission of restoring balanced earth is very high compared to neighboring 8 countries. Public financial bodies such as The European Bank and African Development Bank have remained engaged in developing finds for the global energy mission. The USA has been noted as the highest investor for preserving green earth.

Conclusion

Global Climate change has raised as the world’s largest concern, as the emission of greenhouse gases has reached its height. However, there are still opportunities, as the CO2 emissions have remained constant since 2014.

Works Cited

Carter, D. P. (2018). Unprecedented Crime: Climate Change Denial and Game Changers for Survival. London: Clarity Press ; ISBN:9780998694740.


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Global Food Quality Management Systems

What is personal hygiene?

  • Personal hygiene is the process and practice in which we care for our body.
  • This process includes washing our hands regularly, brushing teeth taking bath and much more.
  • Personal hygiene important especially within food and beverage industry manufacturing process.
  • Food and beverage industries especially involved in the production process are bound to provide products which are safe to eat for the customers by maintaining hygiene and sanitation practices.
  • Hygiene and sanitation practice therefore forms an integral part of workplace hygiene.
  • Here every employee would be encouraged to follow sanitation practice like washing hands before entering the production unit and other process.

Global Food Quality Management Systems

Bringing the change and improvement

  • To start with regular training sessions would be created in order to provide insight of personal hygiene under Quality planning approach.
  • The hygienic policies which would be formulated would also be demonstrated to the employees.
  • Ever new hiring will have the training process mandatory and hygiene week would be followed to improve the quality of hygiene.
  • Proper monitoring compliance and regulations check would be provided by the management as a part of quality control.

Parameter for measuring the effectiveness

  • The effectiveness would be measured with three fold monitoring process.
  • The supervisors and the line managers would provide monthly report to the higher department regarding the safety measures which are followed.
  • They would also report the employees who have filled to abide with the compliance.

Conclusion

  • Personal hygiene within workplace is an important element for food and beverage production unit.
  • The current scenario resulted in non-maintenance of proper hygiene factors.
  • Hand swab test resulted into satisfactory outcomes and need to improve the hygienic policies were seen.
  • The new hygienic policy would ensure washing hands, using protective equipment’s, and regular medical check-up of employees.
  • Proper monitoring process for the overall hygienic policy would also be implemented which includes the supervisors.
  • Trainings would be provided to the employees.
  • Rewarding policies and penalties are to be introduced in order to maintain the motivation among the employees.
  • The parameter for measuring the effectiveness would be the rate of response from the customers, the supervisors and from the employees themselves.
  • Further improvements would be ascertained based on the response received.

Reference

  • Nwudu, V., Fletcher, A.M. and Bauer, M., 2018. Patterns and predictors of personal protection compliance and workplace hygiene behaviors among workers with elevated blood lead levels in New York State. Journal of occupational and environmental hygiene15(9), pp.654-663.
  • Trafialek, J., Drosinos, E.H. and Kolanowski, W., 2017. Evaluation of street food vendors’ hygienic practices using fast observation questionnaire. Food Control80, pp.350-359.
  • Moerman, F., 2017. Personal Hygiene and Good Maintenance Practices for the Servicing of Food Processing Equipment. In Food Protection and Security (pp. 267-327). Woodhead Publishing.
  • Gamble, J.R., Brennan, M. and McAdam, R., 2017. A rewarding experience? Exploring how crowdfunding is affecting music industry business models. Journal of business research70, pp.25-36.
  • Borggaard, G.A., Google LLC, 2019. System and method for rewarding customers who invite other customers to a business. U.S. Patent 10,318,977.

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The Impact of FinTech on Firm Performance in the UAE

Introduction

As one of the most competitive financial centers in the Middle East Africa and Southeast Asia (MEASA) region, the Dubai International Financial Centre is transforming the forthcoming era of monetary services and corporate performance in the UAE and beyond. Recent work in the financial industry has revealed that Fintech is an important element in the present revolution. We have chosen this company as it is a fast emerging as has innovative means of achieving greater financial inclusion. They also have proven goals of inclusive growth by improving speed, efficiency, and convenience of the financial services (Lukonga, 2018).

Financial technology has opened up a world of vast opportunities for the financial industry and the business world by supporting the delivery of more innovative services, transforming the traditional business models, and generation of better profits. Fintech has brought forth a major impact on the current and future of the corporate world, which implies that businesses need to explore in their Fintech investmentsto provide users with greater value, yield higher revenues, lower funding costs, increased efficiency, risk evaluation, which ultimately improve the firms’ performance.

Across the UAE, Fintech is rapidly coming of age with the UAE government and regulators examining about the impact on firm’s performance and the economy. Today, the company is ranked as number 1 in the region and top 10 Fintech hubs globally, therefore, this literature review considers how Fintech is well positioned to drive higher growth and act as a platform for accessing vast opportunities, which, enhances theperformance. Majority of the firms are still facing challenges in the acceptance and adoption of Fintech, but the most recent progresses have radically transformed various activities by offering viable solutions to the age-old problems, which have a profound impact on businesses.

FinTech

The theoretical framework of this review will be based on the theory of unified acceptance. We will look at how the company has adopted newer information systems and how it has impacted their business (Howard, Restrepo, & Chang, 2017). In addition, this review focuseson three business areas that have been transformed by the use of Fintech: payment processes, low funding costs, and the customer engagement. 

Application of Fintech in the UAE Companies

2.1. Smart Payment Processes

In the recent past, the payment industry has experienced several great modifications largely due to the Fintech revolution by combining financial services, online-based transactions and pioneering analysis capabilities. The financial technology solutions prevent firms and consumers undergoing the cumbersome and time-consuming processes of cash and card payments. These transactions are easily completed online using the mobile banking applications,alternative payment methods such as digital wallets, blockchain technology (Arslanian& Fischer, 2019). 

Smart Payment Processes

At present, Fintech wholly modifies the manner in which consumers and businesses engage in managing and operating payments. Though, while majority Business-2-Business (B2B) consumers appear to know the designation of the term, the private consumers in the UAE still do not haveform of general knowledge. Therefore, this study is unique in the sense that it delves further by investigating how UAE firms can increase their performance by increasing the uptake of the Business-to-Consumer (B2C) Fintech enterprises that target the wider audience, public consumers.

Various studies have examined the impact of the Fintech on transforming the payment processes used by companies and customers. Kang (2018) looked at the inclinations of mobile-based Fintech payment services and categorized them based on their service types to aid in delivering better and securer payment services in the future. The author postulated that as the market for mobile payments is activated and payment frequency by users rises, there is a need to develop simplified payment processes for all users. Overall, the study has laid down information that is applicable to UAE firms as they have laid down the requirements that Fintech payment services must provide. It has also detailed the security challenges that these services will face in the view of mutual authentications, availability, authorizations, integrity, and data privacy. Overall, Kang puts forward the notion thatthis platform when provided on mobile will develop into much safer services in the long run.

Broom (2015) discusses that by examining the developing capabilities of Fintech in both wholesale-corporate and consumer-retail payments processes and discussing the Fintech’s monumental role – as well as solutions it offers – will play in influencing the course of the UAE’s payments industry. Similarly, several studies have also discussed how Fintech can create value for firms in the UAE. Leong & Sung (2018) argue convincingly that numerous Fintech applications are based on payment, advisory, financing and compliance services that generate value for businesses. In the study, it was found that in terms of payment processes, the cashless payments are one of the biggest development trends in Fintech because companies have devised payment processes for customers. In summary, from a business viewpoint, the latest developments of financial technologies, expand business progression, like improving sales, automating of services, as well as customer retention. In the future, propose further planssuch as data transmission technology, safety measures, better customer experiences, and data analysissystems (Leong & Sung, 2018). Some of the issues faced by older payment systems is signature-based receipts, paper receipts, checks and the security threats to our credit cards (Wile, 2014).

Thus, based on preceding literature the first hypothesis (H1) states: The current Fintech revolution will resolve the age-old payment problems faced by firms in the UAE.

Ease of access and sourcing of funds

Budding entrepreneurs experiencenumerous impediments such as access to funding in establishing new business once they identify opportunities or expansion of existing businesses to increase their capacity and firm’s performance. One of the most key challenges is raising funds to launch new venture or grow existing businesses. Traditionally, firmssought capital from banks, angel investors, friends’ contributions and venture capitalists. Freedman & Nutting (2015) postulated thatone of the key solutions provided by Fintech is crowdfunding, which allows entrepreneurs to appeal to the public using online platforms tosupport innovative ideas and grow businesses.

A study by Wati&Winarno (2018) was conducted to analyze the functioning of the crowdfunding model as one of the differentfinancingsources for SMEs in various countries. They found that themostfunding was attained by the equity crowdfunding model, where the funding targets, total of backers as well as minimum investment sum has a positive impact on the realization of crowdfunding.This shows that due to the use of FinTech, the crowdfunding model was successful in raising the required amount of money for the venture. This could be used by budding entrepreneurs to source the required funds for setting up their company.

Li, Spigt&Swinkels(2017) aimed at clarifying the importance of FinTech digital firms throughout the financial industry by examining the impact of the start-ups funding on stock returns of retail banks. The study shows that the financing of the new businesses that are in the digital banking sector has a positive impact on the stock returns which is a signal of higher firm performance.

Therefore, based on previous literature the second hypothesis (H2) states: The ability to source funds through the use of FinTechis much easier and efficient compared to other platforms.

2. 3. Interactive Consumer Engagement

In the last few years, Fintech has disrupted conventional financial services by focusing on the customers first to deliver a seamless consumer experience through increased automation and individualization. Most older technologies make use of a lot of effort to engage with customers personally. This has been resolved by Fintech as it uses SMS as well as other communication tools aimed at reducing the costs and efforts of engaging with consumers. The tools have contributed towards the achievement of an interactive customer engagements by resolving complaint, gathering feedback, and disseminating information, which fosters greater sales andcustomer loyalty.

Tonder&Beer (2018) presented the new views on the relevance of customer satisfaction as well as obligation in promotion of consumer citizenship behaviors. One of the findings of their study is that banks are well aware of the different kinds of developments in the fintech environment,but they need to emphasize on beneficial partnerships in order to deliver the digital deal. Banks are making hefty investments in IT systems in a bid to meet customer expectations and guarantee a hassle free transaction banking and other digital solutions.

Larsson (2017) has studied Swedish bank management perceptions of FinTech’s impacts on digitalization and consumer e-loyalty. The study shows that Fintech has altered the classical interactions between thefirms and their consumers using computers or smartphones. In the study, they also explored the challenges that FinTech companies have posed to Swedish banks with regard to securing higher customer loyalty by conducting interviews with managers of different banks. The study has found that the FinTech expansion has encouraged the traditional banks to accelerate digital transformation to generate a distinctive profile of customers and meet their expectations.

Along with the fast development of Fintech, it has been observed that information technology can be applied to financial services by focusing on extensive application methods including influencing mechanisms behind the implementation of Fintech services. Hu et al. (2019) proposed a better technology acceptance model, which incorporates innovation, governmental support, image of the brand, as well assupposed risks as the core trust determinants by investigating how consumershave adopted Fintech. With respect to the consumer, thestudyreveals that the perceived ease of use does not have an impact on the attitudes towards adopting Fintech services. The ease of use is used to refer to the extent to which customers feel relaxed and their efforts in learning how to use the Fintech services that provide better services and improved customer experiences for customers, by firm’s personalization of customers’ needs.

Therefore, based on literature the third hypothesis (H3) states: The Fintech revolution has improved customer engagement in the companies that have adopted this system.

References

Arslanian, H., & Fischer, F. (2019). The future of finance: The impact of FinTech, AI, and crypto on financial services. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Broom, D. (2015). Innovation in Payments: The Future is Fintech. The Bank of New York Mellon Corporation.

Freedman, D. M. & Nutting, M. R. (2015). Equity crowdfunding for investors: A guide to risks, returns, regulations, funding portals, due diligence, and deal terms. Wiley publications.

Hu, Z., Ding, S., Li, S., Yang, S., Hu, Z., Ding, S., Li, S., … Chen, L. (March 01, 2019). Adoption intention of fintech services for bank users: An empirical examination with an extended technology acceptance model. Symmetry, 11, 3.

Leong, K. &Sung, A. (2018). FinTech (Financial Technology): What is It and How to Use Technologies to Create Business Value in Fintech Way? International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology, 9, 2, 74-78.

Li, Y., Spigt, R., &Swinkels, L. (2017). The impact of FinTech start-ups on incumbent retail banks’ share prices. Financial Innovation, 3, 1.

Lukonga, I. (2018). Fintech, Inclusive Growth and Cyber Risks: Focus on the MENAP and CCA Regions. Imf Working Papers, 18, 201, 1.

Howard, R., Restrepo, L., & Chang, C.-Y. (2017). Addressing individual perceptions: An application of the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology to building information modelling. International Journal of Project Management, 35, 2, 107-120.

Kang, J. (January 01, 2018). Mobile payment in Fintech environment: trends, security challenges, and services. Human-centric Computing and Information Sciences, 8, 1.

Teigland, R., In Siri, S., In Larsson, A., In Puertas, A. M., & In Bogusz, C. I. (2017). The rise and development of FinTech: Accounts of disruption from Sweden and beyond. Abingdon, Oxon; New York, N.Y.: Routledge.

Tonder, V. E., & Beer, D. L. T. (March 28, 2018). New perspectives on the role of customer satisfaction and commitment in promoting customer citizenship behaviours. South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences, 21, 1.

Wati, C. R., &Winarno, A. (April 23, 2018). The Performance of Crowdfunding Model as an Alternative Funding Source for Micro, Small, and Medium-Scale Businesses in Various Countries. KNE Social Sciences, 3, 3, 16.

Wile, R. (2014, May 7). The way we buy stuff is totally ridiculous-Here’s what needs to be fixed. Retrieved from https://www.businessinsider.in/tech/the-way-we-buy-stuff-is-totally-ridiculous-heres-what-needs-to-be-fixed/articleshow/34792576.cms


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Analysis of Demand Forecasting

Enforcement methods used and forecasting the demands

The enforcement method used is the Trend Project method. This method is the most classical business forecasting method that considers the movement of variables about time. It is the quantitative method that requires secondary data. The data should be long-time serial data that can help in predicting the demand for a product. This is only applied to long term series data.

Forecasting the demand

As discussed the Trend Perfect method uses the data that is in series, so to forecast the demand sales data of the previous year and current year is used to predict or forecast the upcoming demands.

The sales report of a current and previous session can help to identify the market demands in the past and the demands in the current year. With the predictive analysis, it can be observed hat would the demands in future. To conduct the predictive analysis, secondary data would be used and various techniques of analysis can be applied for future prediction.

Forecasting Accuracy

As the prediction is based on market trend the accuracy is expected to be high. The sales reports from the previous year’s give the idea about the market trends and the sales report from current year reflects the ongoing trend. On comparing both present and past trends it becomes easier to forecast the upcoming trend. This in turns results in maximum accuracy.

 It is essential studies the past demand and ongoing demands to get the accurate forecasting rate. This plays a vital role in predictive analyses as it affects decision making. 

Analysis on Demand Forecasting

Overcoming and Improving Challenges

Although this analysis is considerate to be highly accurate there are still gaps in the analysis which can cause a major loss to the company. Incorrect data collection, wrong application of analysis tools could be some of the challenges. These challenges could be overcome by understanding the market and its changing patterns. This could be done by continuous monitoring of the ups and downs of the market.

The technological method used for forecasting

Exploration techniques are used for forecasting. It is mainly the process of searching for economical depth. This is conducted over a wide area and on prolonged duration to predict the upcoming trend.


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Social Media Related Challenge

Introduction

It is believed that online media communication is the trending topic among practitioners handling public relations for various organisations(David Phillips, 2009).The digital media mainly focuses on mobile phones, satellite, television and the internet used as means for Internet marketing. In recent years Social Media Analytics have become a booming topic. This is mainly associated with the operational challenges, managerial issues and advantages which increases the implementation and uses of social media for promotional activities, entertainment, communication etc. Social Media is a platform for communication. It has reduced the distance between two individuals. Social media has brought down the world to just one click away. A student wanting to learn a particular subject can do the same from any teacher in the world through online tutoring. A farmer can get the information about the weather in order to sow seeds or to reap the field just by a click.

Social Media Related Challenge

Mostly companies these days make use of various social media platforms so as to build customer base and to earn profit. The report contains the description of social media and how it is different from concepts that are related i.e. web 2.0 etc. On the bases of the definition social media is further classified into various categories like blog, content communities, networking sites etc.(Andreas M. Kaplan, 2010)This report focuses on examining the impact of social media, exploring the new approach and the challenges. To study the importance of social media and its effects with the help of various literatures studied. Empirical observation explained the perception about social media and challenges associated with them.

Literature Review

(Shintaro Okazaki, 2013)Studded thetheoretical concept that is useful in research on social media with reference to international advertising research and they aimed to find further scope with relation to theory building in social media research. The paper derived three key features from the previous work. These features were in regards to theatrical concepts in research that can be used in advertising media for promotional purpose. These three concepts perspectives (networking capability, image transferability, and personal extensibility) is an advantage in case of understanding and acts as a disadvantage for publicity. The gap in the studies is that the international content is still in its beginning, which need the attention. A framework is practically none existing for the gap. 

(John Carlo Bertot, 2012)Proposes theincreased use of social media by government agencies in order to build the connection with those whom the serve. The use of social media involves exchange of crucial information which if leaked may result to greater damage to a nation. These media have provided the advantage of exchanging the information but on the other hand it is also becoming a threat. The paper suggest various challenges with respect to privacy, weak security, data management, governance, accessibility and various other policy issues in regards to information. The continuous adoption of the social media has overtook the supervised framework in regards to information, though the guideline rules behind the framework are still necessary. The paper discusses the regulations of the existing framework and the methods in which they are applicable to social media.

(Andreas M. Kaplan, 2010)Suggests the trends of social media and their adoption in various businesses. Discussed how consultancies and business makers can use these technique for their benefits. YouTube, Wikipedia, twitter and Facebook has become few of the trending platforms of social media. With their bulky content there comes the issue of privacy, security and data management. These are few challenges that are being faced by social media today. It appears that the word social media is partially understood the exact definition and meaning is explained in the paper. Basic concept of social media is explained and difference between them in relation to relative concepts such as Web 2.0. On the bases of the definition provided in the paper classification of social media is done.

(Kristian Tørning, 2015)Suggests social media to be an upcoming field in the academic research and organisation practices. The paper discusses the operational issues, management challenges and advantages of adopting social media platform for the functioning of the organisation. To conduct this study multiple case study were studies and interview were conducted. The empirical finding explains the perception of social media among managers and the managerial challenges directly associated with media production, what’s more, vulnerability about the arrival of venture via web-based networking media exercises.

(José van Dijck, 2014) The paperinvestigates the social media rise in European public service broadcast mainly in the reason of UK and Netherland. The author explores the encounter of “social” and “public” with regards to three levels: professional, institute and content. After deep analysis of these three levels some questions of general like the way general public is coping up with challenges of social media, the way public television earn from social media without adjusting public values are answered. The paper also discusses the challenges regarding the social media content, violation of public values and privacy.

Main body

Generate Multiple Ideas

  1. The uncensored or violent content in social media tends to bring aggressive behaviour in people which affects the mental health of the viewer.
  2. The unnecessary content present on social media engages students and they tend to waste lot of productive time.
  3. There a lot of dependency on social media that student prefers this platform more than books.
  4.  Spending more time on virtual word affect their social life and reduce their public involvement.

Justify why this option was chosen

This topic is chosen because various research shows that in youth of today spend more time on social media which involves high risk of depression, stress and anxiety in them. As they are not physically socialising, these problem are increasing day by day which results in higher rate of suicides amongst youth. 

Research Question: To study the impact of social media and its content on youth.

Hypothesis:

H0:There is no significant impact of social media and its content on youth.

H1 :There is asignificant impact of social media and its content on youth.

Draw a Journey Map

Journey Map of the interviewed students

The interviews shows that students often tend to waste their time on social media and the reason is its catchy content. The journey map of their problem is as follows:

Journey Map

Empathy Map

Said   It is difficult to censor the content on social media.   There is no option.    Think   This has become an addiction and student think spending more time in real world is waste of time and that’s why they prefer virtual world.
Do   Content censoring is a struggle on social media.Feel   They feel virtual world is making them more advance.

Conclusion

Due to this addiction the students have lost the ability of creativity and decision making and the uncensored content has violated all boundaries. Thus they need to realise to control this addiction. Although this problem cannot be overcome on a large scale but if these social media platform censor their content so that they don’t turn out to be more harmful.

The solution to this problem is strict laws to be implemented to control and censor the content on social media. In case of youth and student there should be a limit on their social media usage. Collages and university should promote book learnings, outer door games, events of interest and gathering in order to socialise more.

References

Andreas M. Kaplan, M. H. (2010). Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media. Elsevier Business Horizons.

Link: www.sciencedirect.com

David Phillips, P. Y. (2009). Online public relations : a practical guide to developing an online strategy in the world of social media. Philadelphia : London ; Philadelphia : Kogan Page, 2009.

Link: https://trove.nla.gov.au/version/44762970

John Carlo Bertot, P. T. (2012). The impact of polices on government social media usage: Issues, challenges,and recommendations. Elsevier, 30-40.

Link: www.elsevier.com/locate/govinf

Kristian Tørning, Z. J. (2015). Current Challenges in Social Media Management. Research gate.

Link:https://www.researchgate.net/publication/283105178

Shintaro Okazaki, C. R. (2013). Social media and international advertising: theoretical challenges and future directions. emerald.

Link:www.emeraldinsight.com/0265-1335.htm

Van Dijck, J., &Poell, T. (2015). Making public television social? Public service broadcasting and the challenges of social media. Television & New Media16(2), 148-164.

Link: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1527476414527136


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Business Proposal of ISUZU

1. Introduction

Every business model is established by the firms to create value for the customers and to generate maximum value from that return.  Thus the main components of business models are value proposition of firms for customers, stakeholders and partners of the business and requirement of processes and resources to deliver this value to the customers. A good business proposal reflects how the business plan will solve the problem of the customers. This business proposal details about the new business proposal for ISUZU which is a Japanese company, manufacturing commercial vehicles and diesel engines. This report contains detailed analyses of business proposal by throwing light on the business model description, value proposition development, business operation development, supply chain development, competitive advantage, financial value capture, strategic fit and solution to the uncertainties related to customer desirability, technical feasibility and financial viability.

2. Business model description

From the detailed study of reports of the company, it has been observed that the customers of the company are facing issues related to long term protection of vehicles. Especially, they are facing issues related to road side assistance (Candace & Ronald, 2018). Thus the main idea of this business proposal is that the company can provide this road side assistance facility for life time. The customers will have to pay a small amount of charges at the time of purchase of vehicle. The company can use that money to contact with the third party dealers for this road side assistance in every city (Osterwalder, Pigneur, Bernarda, & Smith, 2014). It will create value for the customers. The following components describes about the business model in detail.

  • Key Partners: The main partners of this business model will be the consumers, all internal and external stakeholders and third party dealers who will provide the services. Partnership with third party dealers will help the company to provide easy road side assistance to the customers in every city (Pastor, Santana, & Sierra, 2010).
Business Proposal of ISUZU
  • Key activities: The main activities as per this business proposal will be to provide long term protection of vehicles to the customers. The company would contact with third party dealers to provide life time road side assistance to the customers in case of any emergency.
  • Key resources: The key resources for this new idea will be the customers who will pay a onetime small amount at the time of purchase and the third party dealers who will provide services to the customers in case of emergency (Schnellbächer, Heidenreich, & Wald, 2019).
  • Value proposition: The main value proposition of this idea is to provide protection of vehicles in case of emergency, especially to focus on providing long term road side assistance to the customers.
  • Customer relationship: This idea will help the company to maintain a long term relationship with the customers because most of the customers complain about the problem of road side assistance (Sreenivasan & Tripathy, 2014).
  • Channels: The customers will have to register their request with the company. The company will immediately contact the third party dealer and they will provide the quick services to the customers as and when required.
  • Customer segment: The targeted customer segment for this business proposal will be all the customers using the vehicles of the company.
  • Cost Structure: All the cost of this life time road side assistance will be covered through a small amount of extra charges at the time of purchase of product. The company will charge this amount from every customer but all the customers will not demand for road side assistance at the same time (Tang, Tang, & Su, 2019). Thus the company will be able to use that money for hiring third party dealers to solve the problem of the customers.
  • Revenue stream: This idea will increase the sales of the vehicles of company and the revenue of the company will also increase with every sale of vehicle.

3. Value proposition development

Through value proposition, the company can maintain long term relations with the customers and can attract new customers. The development of value proposition consists of requirement of new resources and capabilities for the innovation of new services. Customers, stakeholders and third party dealers will be the main resources of ISUZU for creating this new value proposition. The main idea is to provide life time road side assistance to the customers without charging any cost (Tellis, MacInnis, Tirunillai, & Zhang, 2019). The company can charge a small amount at the time of purchase of product and can make a budget to contact with third party dealers in every city. It is obvious that all the customers will not ask for road side assistance. But this service provided by the company will help in creating value for all the customers.

4. Business operations development

For this new business operation, the company needs to measure the scalability of the business. The company can follow the step by step procedure to measure the scale of the business and to know about the requirement of resources and capabilities to complete the business operations. The first step to measure the scale of the business is to evaluate and plan. The company should evaluate the existing sales and revenue of the company so that total expenditure and total revenue with the introduction of this new business operation can be estimated. The second step is to explore the resources to finance this business operation. The company will not have to bear any extra cost (Wadstrom, 2019).

Business Operations Development

The company can easily provide these services to the customer by collecting an extra small amount at the time of purchase of product. The third step is to market for this new value proposition. The company will have to plan for proper marketing process to attract the customers. The company can use technology to make people aware about this new business operation (Osterwalder & Pigneur, Business model generation, 2010). Online advertisements can help a lot in the development of this business operation. The last step of measuring the scalability of the business is to strategically outsourcing the business operations. The employees of the company can help a lot in outsourcing of the business operations.

5. Supply chain development

The company can create an efficient supply chain development model with the help of its existing business partners. For this new business operation, the company needs support from customers, stakeholders and employees of the company. Thus the company will have to make an overview of the company before taking decision regarding this new operational development (Aulet, 2017). The company can have estimate about annual total revenue and total expenditure by analyzing the data of the previous years. The research background of the company will be helpful to identify the determinants of varying revenue and expenditure. The company also needs to analyse the social, economic, cultural and political aspects of this business venture before creating this new supply chain model.

Supply Chain Development

6. Financial value capture

The main resource of making money as per this supply chain model will be the customers. The company will charge some extra amount from the customers at the time of the purchase of the product. The company will provide them assistance whenever required with that amount through third party dealers (Erkutlu & Chafra, 2018). But it is obvious that all the customers will not demand for such services at the same time. It may be possible that the customers do not need this service at all. Thus it will increase the benefits of the company. Thus the extra cost bear by the company will be covered from the amount paid by the customers (Goldman, Schlumpf, & Scott, 2017).

7. Competitive advantage

The major competitors of the company are Volvo, Ford, Daimler and Volkswagen. All these companies are providing emergency protection as well as road side assistance to the customers but their services are for limited period. Later on the customers need to pay for it again (Kryger, 2019). Thus the customers remain dissatisfied in case of requirement of emergency protection. That is why this business proposal is based on the core capability of providing life-time road side assistance through third party dealers in every city. It will help the company to be favorite choice of customers among all competitors by providing this unique benefit of life-time road side assistance.

8. Strategic fit

ISUZU has won the award of “Best of the Best” in 2018 for high customer satisfaction in case of product quality.  Customer satisfaction is the key factor which is continuously promoting the sales of the company. It reflects that in case of product quality and durability, the company has already won the hearts of the customers (Lamb, Butler, & Roundy, 2017). By adding this new business venture, the company can become a top name among the list of its competitors. Thus we can say that this idea is compatible with the parent organization.

9. Uncertainty related to customer desirability, technical feasibility and financial viability

In every innovation process, desirability, feasibility and viability play an important role. These three factors assure for the successful completion of this business venture and satisfaction of customers. Feasibility refers to reduction in cost and maximum revenue. Technical feasibility refers to provision of on the time road time assistance to the customers in effective and efficient manner and desirability refers to provision of services as per desire of customers. Financial viability refers to increased profit of the company by introducing this new business venture (Palumbo & Manna, 2018).

Argumentation to support the use of tools and techniques

The main target of the company behind every new innovation is the satisfaction of the customers. Thus it becomes essential for the company to use appropriate tools and techniques to measure customer satisfaction (Mendes & Machado, 2015).

Various companies use SAAS platform to appoint third party to get their work done (Rumbles & Rees, 2013). Social media platform can help the companies to get the accurate data regarding satisfaction of the customers (Sinha, 2019). Through business agile tools companies can measure the intelligence level of customers (Wang, Noble, Dahl, & Park, 2019). Mobile apps can also help to assess the customer intelligence for estimating the success of the project of the company (Durica & Svabova, 2015).

Application of tools and techniques

  • ISUZU can use CRM tool to maintain effective relationship with the customers.
  • The company can assess the traffic on the website of the company through click cracking tools.
  •  Through text analyses, the company can provide facility of filing complaints and suggestions to the customers.
  • Mobile applications can make the process of customer feedback easy.
  • SAAS can help to get the work done through third party.
  • Through business agile tools, the company can have access to real time customer intelligence.
  • The company can convert the voice messages of the customers into text through speech analytic tool.
  • Social media platform can also play an important role in getting the feedback of the customers.

Reflection

This business proposal has helped me to assess the knowledge about practical application of marketing tools and techniques. Previously I studied everything theoretically. I was very weak in practical implementation of these tools and techniques. But this task has increased my knowledge regarding business models and its components. Now I am strong enough to create business proposal for any company. The problem identification part has increased my knowledge about various companies, their business models and their working process. In short, this business proposal has improved my practical knowledge about marketing concepts.

10. Conclusion

To conclude, this innovative idea can help the company in attaining the top position in the market. The company has already won the award of “Best of the Best” in 2018 in terms of customer satisfaction for product quality. The only need is to focus on the service quality aspect. This business venture will help the company to be at top among all competitors.

11. References

Aulet, B. (2017). Disciplined entrepreneurship workbook. New Jersey: Hoboken, Wiley.

Candace, F., & Ronald, L. (2018). The relationship between participation in differenttypes of ms and gainful employment for formerly incarcerated individuals. Human resource development quarterly , 29 (3), 263-286. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrdq.21325

Durica, M., & Svabova, L. (2015). Improvement of Company Marketing Strategy Based on Google Search

Results Analysis. Procedia Economics and finance, 26, 454-460. https://doi.org/10.1109/EBR-09-2015-0088

Erkutlu, H., & Chafra, J. (2018). Despotic leadership and organizational deviance. Journal of Strategic Management, 11 (2), 150-165. https://doi.org/10.1108/JSMA-04-2017-0029

Goldman, E. F., Schlumpf, K. S., & Scott, A. R. (2017). Combining practise and theory to assess strategic thinking. Journal of Strategic Management, 10 (4), 488-504. https://doi.org/10.1108/JSMA-02-2017-0012

Kryger, A. (2019). Iterative prototyping of strategy implementation workshop design. Journal of Strategy and Management, 11 (2), 166-183. https://doi.org/10.1108/JSMA-07-2017-0051

Lamb, N. H., Butler, F., & Roundy, P. (2017). Family firms and corporate social responsibility: exploring “concerns”. Journal of Strategy and Management, 10 (4), 469-487. https://doi.org/10.1108/JSMA-02-2016-0010

Mendes, & Machado. (2015). Employees’ skills, manufacturing flexibility and performance: a structural equation modelling applied to the automotive industry. International Journal of Production Research, 53 (13), 4087-4101. https://doi.org 10.3233/WOR-2012-0735-4389

Osterwalder, A., & Pigneur, Y. (2010). Business model generation. Hoboken: New Jersey: Wiley.

Osterwalder, A., Pigneur, Y., Bernarda, G., & Smith, A. (2014). Value proposition design. Hoboken: New Jersey: Wiley. https://www.wiley.com/enus/Value+Proposition+Design%3A+How+to+Create+Products+and+Services+Customers+Want-p-9781118968055

Palumbo, R., & Manna, R. (2018). The need for requisite variety to support growth: an organizational life cycle perspective. Journal of Strategy and Management, 11 (2), 241-256. https://doi.org/10.1108/JSMA-10-2016-0072

Pastor, Santana, & Sierra. (2010). Managing knowledge through human resource practices: an empirical examination of the Spanish automotive industry. The International Journal of Human Resource (Schnellbächer, Heidenreich, & Wald, 2019)Management, 21 (13), 2452-2467. https://doi.org/10.1108/EBR-11-2015-0142

Rumbles, S., & Rees, G. (2013). Continuous changes, organizational burnout and the implications for HRD. Industrial and Commercial Training, 45 (4), 236-242. https://cquprimo.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/permalink/f/1rb43gr/TN_emerald_s10.1108/00197851311323538

Schnellbächer, B., Heidenreich, S., & Wald, A. (2019). Antecedents and effects of individual

ambidexterity – A cross-level investigation of exploration and exploitation activities at the employee level. European Management Journal, 37 (4), 442-454. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2019.02.002

Sinha, S. (2019). The emergent-strategy process of initiating organizational ambidexterity. Journal of Strategy and Management, 12 (3), 382-36. https://doi.org/10.1108/JSMA-12-2018-0140

Sreenivasan, & Tripathy. (2014). Employment Relations in the Automotive Industry. The Indian journal of industrial relations, 49 (3), 499-512. https://doi.org/10.3233/WOR-2014-0735-4389

Tang, C., Tang, Y., & Su, S. (2019). R&D internationalization, product diversification and international performance for emerging market enterprises: An empirical study on Chinese enterprises. European Journal Management, 37 (4), 529-539. https://doi.org 10.3233/WOR-2012-0735-4389

Tellis, G. J., MacInnis, D. J., Tirunillai, S., & Zhang, Y. (2019). What Drives Virality (Sharing) of Online Digital Content? The Critical Role of Information, Emotion, and Brand Prominence. Journal of Marketing, 83 (4), 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2019.02.002

Wadstrom, P. (2019). Aligning corporate and business strategy: managing the balance. Journal of Business Strategy, 40 (4), 44-52. https://doi.org/10.1108/JBS-06-2018-0099

Wang, H. S., Noble, C. H., Dahl, D. W., & Park, S. (2019). Successfully Communicating Cocreated Innovation. Journal of Marketing, 83 (4), 38-57. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0022242919841039


Business proposal of ISUZU for students by Subject Academy

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Process of Strategic Management

Part 1

Strategic management refers to understanding the strategic position of an organization. The process of strategic management involves the methods to explore corporate strategies of organizations.  Strategic management helps the organizations to examine the activities of top executives (Ketchen & Short, 2012). The concept of strategic management used in the organizations these days has borrowed various ideas from the strategic management of ancient times. In the classical military, all the major decisions were considered as strategic while the minor decisions were considered as tactical. In 1491 BC, a hierarchical delegation of authorities by Moses is the best example of ancient strategic management. Moses implemented their strategies by dividing all people into small structures for better implementation of strategies (Kreutzer & Rueede, 2019). Sun Tzu in his book “The Art of War” described the business such as Gap inc. used the “win without fighting strategy”. With the use of this strategy, their main motive was to open their stores and to create their own space in the market as compared to other traditional brands in the market.

Traditional strategic management is based on three strategic approaches: design, planning and positioning approach. Although these approaches of strategic management are simple, yet these cannot be applied to every type of business. Managers need to understand the strategic aspects of these approaches to apply it to their business. The design approach in traditional strategic management is based on a top-bottom strategy (Mendes & Machado, 2015). All the major decisions under this approach are taken by higher authorities. Under the planning approach, all the strategic decisions are taken by a specialized team. This approach makes problem-solving and decision-making process easy for the organizations.  Positioning approach is based on the strategy implementation by considering the overall position of the firm in the market. Various companies such as Walmart, IKEA and Southwest airlines have replaced their traditional approach with the modern approach of strategic management (Schnellbächer, Heidenreich, & Wald, 2019).

In modern times, strategic management in the organizations is based on the strategy implementation based on five Ps. These five Ps includes plan, ploy, position, pattern and perspective. The modern definition of strategic management includes the art of taking decisions regarding multiple activities in the organizations through scanning of the environment, formulation of the strategy, implementation of strategy, proper evaluation and control. The organizations focus on simplifying the dynamic and complex processes through strategic management. For example, BHEL uses strategic management techniques to reduce the complexity of long term plans (Jurksiene & Pundziene, 2016).

Part 2

The process of consolidation of classes will impact both internal and external stakeholders of the school. Stakeholders of the school are directly associated with the welfare and success of the school. Every stakeholder, through its crucial role, impacts the development of the overall educational empire (Breen & Jonsson, 2010). The main stakeholders of school are students, parents, educators, professionals and members of the administration. All these stakeholders play a significant role in the success of a school. If the school administration has planned to consolidate the classes, then there will be a high impact on all of the internal stakeholders. But the form of impact will depend upon the type of stakeholders (Campbell, Sinclair, & Browne, 2019). These stakeholders can be categorized into two categories: internal and external stakeholders.

  • Students and their parents are considered as the external stakeholders of a school because they are consuming the services offered by the school.
  • Educators, professions and members of the administration are known as internal stakeholders. 
Strategic Management

The plan of consolidation of classes by the school will impact both the stakeholders. Thus internal and external stakeholders both committees will be a part of the strategic management process of this school. It will cut the cost of the school that is paid in the form of wages to the teachers because some of the teachers will be shunted and on the other hand, it will impact the internal stakeholders (students) because it will lead to a large number of students in the classes which will further affect their study. The students will not be able to have one to one interaction with their teachers (Buchmann & Hannum, 2011). There will be less clarity of concept in the class and they will have to look for another option to make their concepts clear.

For this strategic management process of the consolidation of classrooms in the school, students, parents, educators, and members of the administration will act as partners. The major cost of this project will be bear by the external stakeholders. Consolidation of classrooms will impact the wages of teachers but it will not impact the cost bear by external stakeholders (Gorondutse & Hilman, 2019). They will pay the same amount as they were previously paying for the education of their children. This process will further impact the services offered to them.

School administrators, who are responsible for planning the overall curriculum, work as per the direction of teachers and professionals. The idea of consolidation of classrooms will hardly impact their performance. But external stakeholders can be the main victim of this consolidation of classes (Jabbour, 2019). The school needs to adopt strategic management approach before adopting this idea of consolidation so that the interests of both internal and external stakeholders can be kept. The school administration should inform the students as well as their parents before taking this action. Another victim of this act will be the teachers because the school would cut the wages of the teachers to cut the overall costs. On the other hand, it will be an opportunity for the school to merge the classes and to save from wages.

Optimal solution

The school management has come to this decision after environment scanning and strategy formulation process. They have observed the existing number of students in the classroom. Thus, while deciding the consolidation of classes, they should target only those classes which have less number of students. Consolidation of such classes will not impact the external stakeholders. They will not have any issue with this decision of the school. On the other hand, the school administration should also inform the teachers regarding this consolidation of classrooms. In spite of cutting wages of the existing teachers, they should shunt some extra teachers and should pay the same wage to the existing teachers.

References

Breen, R., & Jonsson, J. O. (2010). Inequality of Opportunity in Comparative Perspective: Recent Research on Educational Attainment and Social Mobility. Annual Review of Sociology, 31 (1), 223-243. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.31.041304.122232

Buchmann, C., & Hannum, E. (2011). Education and Stratification in Developing Countries: A Review of Theories and Research. Annual Review of Sociology, 27 (1), 77-102.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.27.1.77

Campbell, N., Sinclair, G., & Browne, S. (2019). Preparing for a world without markets: legitimising strategies of preppers. Journal of Marketing Management, 35 (9), 798-813. https://doi.org/10.1108/EBR-09-2015-0088

Gorondutse, A., & Hilman, H. (2019). Does organizational culture matter in the relationship between trust and SMEs performance? Management Decision, 57 (7), 1638-1658. https://doi.org/10.1108/MD-05-2018-0557

Jabbour, A. L. (2019). Going in circles: new business models for efficiency and value.

Journal of Business Strategy, 40 (4), 26-43. https://doi.org/10.1108/JBS-05-2018-0092

Jurksiene, L., & Pundziene, A. (2016). The relationship between dynamic capabilities and firm competitive advantage. European Business Review, 28 (4), 431-448. https://doi.org/10.1108/EBR-09-2015-0088

Ketchen, D & Short, J. (2012) Strategic Management: Evaluation and Execution.

Kreutzer, K., & Rueede, D. (2019). Organizational identity consistency in a discontinuous corporate volunteering program. European Management Journal, 37 (4), 455-467. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2018.12.003

Mendes, & Machado. (2015). Employees’ skills, manufacturing flexibility and performance: a structural equation modelling applied to the automotive industry. International Journal of Production Research, 53 (13), 4087-4101. https://doi.org 10.3233/WOR-2012-0735-4389

Schnellbächer, B., Heidenreich, S., & Wald, A. (2019). Antecedents and effects of individual ambidexterity – A cross-level investigation of exploration and exploitation activities at the employee level. European Management Journal, 37 (4), 442-454. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2019.02.002


Assignment on Strategic Management by Subject Academy

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Retail Shopping Customer Service Survey

1. “Detail the store you went to and the product you were shopping for”.

Furniture shopping can be one of those experience. Looking at a piece of furniture and imagining how it would feel in the living room is something that cannot be experienced online. Afterall, furniture is nothing like a garment. It will be a part of your house for the years to come.(Jasmand, 2012).

For customer delight, Leon’s furniture stores are the perfect stop for shopping. The store was founded in 1909, the store has kept up well with time. The store is located in Medicine Hat, AB, Canada. I had been one of the delightful customers who happened to acquire the first-hand experience. I went to buy a television.

Leon’s Furniture Stores

2. “Prepare a report listing and describing your initial thoughts/impressions upon entering the store. This may include, though not limited to”:

Offering a wide variety of products that turn a house into a home.From furniture to electronic devices such as televisions to appliances etc. the brand brings them all together(Management, 2012). The store has it all on display. Giving you the perfect canvas to paint your imagination. The store is big but the well placed department signs help you along the way. But if you still are lacking in a sense of direction. A smiling helpful face would always be at your service to help you navigate the store.(Güneş, 2010).

The store itself offers a lot of variety and surprisingly for a place so big it was very well maintained. The overall arrangement of the departments was good but could have been better considering the number of efforts they put into the customer experience. But overall it did not look that anything was out of place and was not too hard to navigate.(Kamakura, 2012.)The well-dressed staff added the professional effect. The smiling faces and polite language made the experience more delightful. The staff looked really happy and delightful.(Hoyle, 2010). The store provided parking space as well. Staff was persuasive as well.

3. “Describe and analyse how the transaction transpired. Your comments should include but are not limited to the following:

Were you served promptly”?

The staff of the store was customer friendly and willing to answer any questions a customer might have or possibly think of. No matter how silly the questions might be. The friendly demeanour and the uniforms were the perfect embodiment of the store itself.

Retail Shopping Customer Service Survey

4. “List and describe other elements of good customer service that were present”.

As a customer, from the movement, I stepped in the store I knew I was looking for a television. I knew the popular brands and my budget but not the current scenario of the television market. So when I entered I was dazzled by the commodities on display. I was like a kid in a toy store. I liked everything and wanted to buy it all. But after all, I had to make a decision and I don’t have the budget to buy a 100-year-old retail store. So after a bit of wondering, I finally reached the department. I was amazed by the sheer variety of televisions they had. Quite honestly I felt the task would be much easier. I thought there would be only two or maybe three brands and I would choose the most popular one. Unfortunately, for me, I was ill-prepared to what befell me. Looking at the giant screens flashing lights on my face. I was bewildered and could not make up my mind about what to buy. When suddenly a friendly toned voice pulled me out of my trance.(Kursunluoglu E. , 2012)

A helper staff was there to help me. I asked him all sorts of questions ranging from important to super stupid as to how to plug in the power source. To my surprise, he was very patient with me. The talk was very informative and even if I was not there for the television I could have paid the man to speak about televisions. Yes, he was that well informed about the products he was selling. He told me all the options I had on my limited budget. Then offered me a better-equipped option, at a discounted price that would cost me slightly more than my budget. Quite a good salesman. I accepted the offer and asked the man to seal the deal. My response brought a delight on his face and he was happy to bring the television to the counter, packed and ready to take home.(Black, 2014)

He offered me to look around and see if I would need anything else. If not then the product would be at the counter ready for check out. I accepted the offer because I was considering to buy a couch as well to go with the new television.

5. “List and describe what elements of customer service were missing from your expectations.”

But I found myself wandering around looking at products I did not need. By the time I reached the couch. The entire will to buy was gone. I had a lot of time to reconsider.

At the checkout counter, things went smoothly but I noticed that the person on the counter lacked a similar flair as the fellow staff member. She did not try to make conversation and was only concerned with getting the payment.(Kondasani, 2015)

Well, could not blame her it is her job. The transaction went smoothly and I proceeded to take the product home in my car. Thankfully I did not have to carry it the trunk as they have carts that go all the way to the parking. The only hassle I faced was to fit the television in the car in such a way that it did not break by the time I reached home.God the accidental insurance they offered would be helpful now.(Izogo, 2015)

6.” Describe your overall impression of the store and salesperson. Would you recommend others to go there”?

My overall experience with the store was good. They treated me with courtesy and to be honest I had no complaints. It was plain and simple business. They handed over the business card with the smile, we shook hands and they thanked me for visiting the store. I was assured after-sales services which reflected their care and willingness to help the customer even after-sales.(Dölarslan, 2014)

They were able to provide me with the kind of shopping experience you only get in a retail store and not online. The only issue I had was if I saw the couch right next to the television department. I would have been inclined to buying it. Overall the experience was very delightful their ability to enquire more about its customer need and providing the apt suggestion was their overall intention. (Savelli, 2017)

The company still holds its name and fame in all respects which may be the reason for consumer preference. The professional and friendly staff made it clear that customer is king for them and no matter what their focus is on customer requirement and their delight. While I was walking through the store I also observed the staffs’ behaviour with other customers was no different than the treatment given to me. I would also suggest others to have this delightful experience.

Retail Shopping Customer Service Survey

7. “If you had a chance to present the results of your mystery shop to the store manager—describe THREE constructive suggestions or comments you would make.”

Suggestion

  1. The store can bring in some new and latest designs in the store.
  2. If there would have been proper labels to each section it would have been easier for the customers to buy the product.
  3. It would have been more delightful if the cash counter staff also greeted the customer with the same enthusiasm.(Ali, 2016)

8. “Considering your experience, and the knowledge gained both from this class and your previous experiences, provide an overview of your own personal philosophy on customer service. What is important to you, why is it important, and how would you demonstrate these elements of customer service”?

Customer service should be such that the customer comes backs to the store or the service provider. This is only possible when a customer leaves with delightful past experiences and with a happy face. (Skačkauskienė, 2016).The delightful experience is based on a few key skills:

Attentive: The staff should be attentive and handle their floor with total attentiveness. They should also be very careful to listen to the customers’ requirements and demands. This will help in understanding the needs of the customer.

Patience: The sales attendant need to understand that their patience is the key to successful sales. The customer comes with many quarries and doubts, sometimes these doubts are really silly but it is expected from the staff to handle these doubts patiently and try to resolve them.

Knowledge of Product:If the sales executive is well aware of the products and has full knowledge he will be able to handle more quarries of the customer. Knowledge reflects confidence which leads to easy pitching of the product to the customer. Sometimes it’s the confidence of the sales person that leads to purchase of the product.

Polite behaviour: The behaviour also helps in attracting customers. It adds a personal touch to customer handling. The customer feels wanted and being listen to. Not only it improves customer handling but also spreads good word of mouth.

Convincing power: Convening power is an art that leads to buying of the product, the sales person should the ways to convince the customer.

The above-mentioned points are important as they reflect that the brand cares for its customers. These points can be reflected through sales person’s behaviour and attitude towards its customer.(Giovanis, 2017)

References

Ali, F. A. (2016). An Integrated Model of Service Experience, Emotions, Satisfaction, and Price Acceptance: An Empirical Analysis in the Chinese Hospitality Industry. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, https://doi.org/10.1080/19368623.2015.1019172.

Black, H. G. (2014). Service characteristics’ impact on key service quality relationships: a meta-analysis. Journal of Services Marketing., doi/10.1108/JSM-12-2012-0261/.

Dölarslan, E. S. (2014). Assessing the effects of satisfaction and value on customer loyalty behaviors in service environments: High-speed railway in Turkey as a case study. Emerald Group Publishing Limited, https://doi.org/10.1108/MRR-06-2013-0152.

Giovanis, A. &. (2017). An integrated model of the effects of service evaluation, corporate image, and switching barriers on customer loyalty. Journal of Transnational Management, , https://doi.org/10.1080/15475778.2017.1274612.

Güneş, E. D. (2010). Modeling customer reactions to sales attempts: if cross-selling backfires. . Journal of Service Research, 13(2), 168-183., https://doi.org/10.1177/1094670509352677.

Hoyle, R. H. (2010). Personality and self-regulation. . Handbook of personality and self-regulation, doi/abs/10.1002/9781444318111.

Izogo, E. a. (2015). Service quality, customer satisfaction and loyalty in automobile repair services sector. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, https://doi.org/10.1108/IJQRM-05-2013-0075.

Jasmand, C. B. (2012). Generating Sales While Providing Service: A Study of Customer Service Representatives’ Ambidextrous Behavior. Journal of Marketing, , 76(1)(https://doi.org/10.1509/jm.10.0448), 20-37.

Kamakura, W. A. (2012.). Cross-selling: Offering the right product to the right customer at the right time. Journal of Relationship Marketing,, 6(3-4), 41-58. https://doi.org/10.1300/J366v06n03_03.

Kondasani, R. K. (2015). Customer perceived service quality, satisfaction and loyalty in Indian private healthcare. International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, https://doi.org/10.1108/IJHCQA-01-2015-0008.

Kursunluoglu, E. (2011). Shopping centre customer service: creating customer satisfaction and loyalty. Emerald Group Publishing Limited, https://doi.org/10.1108/MIP-11-2012-0134.

Kursunluoglu, E. (2012). Customer service effects on customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. International Journal of business and social science, doi/10.1108/08876041311330807/.

Management, L. (2012). leons. Retrieved from https://www.leons.ca/: https://www.leons.ca/

Savelli, E. C. (2017). Web atmospherics as drivers of shopping centres’ customer loyalty. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, https://doi.org/10.1108/IJRDM-07-2016-0120.

Skačkauskienė, I. V.-V. (2016). A model for measuring passenger loyalty. Transport,. JOURNAL OF ISLAMIC MANAGEMENT STUDIES, https://doi.org/10.3846/16484142.2015.1094748.


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