Tag: Research Paper Topics

Poor Water Quality in Christchurch

1.  Introduction and Research Background

The water is harmful to the people if the presence of chlorine is above the 5 mg/ litter because it causes health diseases like kidney failure (Coakley, Bridgen, Bates, & Douwes, 2018). The water chlorination damages the functions of the water heaters. This research incorporatesan investigation to identify the mitigation measures to reduce the chlorine composition. Hence, this research selects a case of Christchurch where they aregetting water supply with the presence of a high percentage of chlorine. Water testing team of theChristchurch government has tested their supplied water, where they found a percentage of chlorine of 0.2 to 1.2 parts per million (CCC, 2020). The high presence ofchlorines damages the water heater pipes that cause the sudden breakdown of those machines. The government of Christchurch has decided that the rainfall is lower in December and January that reduces the underground water level. The absence of rainfall increases the margin of chlorine within the groundwater (CCC, 2020). As per standards of New Zealand drinking water, the H level of the water should be seven and presence of Escherichia coli2 should be less than one in 100 ML samples (Health, 2020). The high pH level addressed as the presence of alkaline composition likechlorine in the water that is harmful for human consumption.

The high presence of chlorine is addressed as the Alkalosis(Rosenblum, Zaffiro, Adams, & Wendelken, 2017). The alkalosis characteristics of water signify the availability of highly chlorine composition, which is principiated presence of heated copper that destroys its function(CCC, 2020). The people of Christchurch using the cooper water heater where the water is wormed presence of copper immersion rod made with the cooper. When the copper materials are heated up in the presence of the chlorine than chlorination chemical reaction happens that precipitates the chlorine from the water (Newsline, 2020). The precipitated chlorine is stored in the water pipes, which damages the functionality of the cooper water heater. This research focuses on the mitigation measures on the poor Christchurch water quality. Christchurch has actively participated in making closely monitor the stream level of banks of the peninsula to the betterment of the quality of water by stabilisingthe pH level (Newsline, 2020). The installation of purifying machinery in the water supply station might be a potential solution to purify the water, eliminating chlorine and deliver pure water to the people Christchurch.

2.  Research problem and Problem Statement

The problem statement is the poor quality of water in Christchurch due to the presence of highlychlorine composition that damage the function of the copper water heater.

Copper is the most efficient elements to heat up the water. The people of Christchurch uses this water heater at a margin of 79.8% to heat up water to purify impurechemicals from the water, and they influenced to use that purified water safely (Health, 2020). The research problem is that the presence of the chlorine composition in the groundwater of Christchurch. The presence of alkaline composition in water that dismantles the functionality of copper water heater by precipitin chlorine. The copper water heater is used for purifying the alkaline chemicals and use the water safely. But the alkaline materials like chlorine is found 61 stations of Christchurch which supplies the people of Christchurch.

The working principle of the copper water cylinder is heated by using the copper immersion rod. The presence of heat like 60 to 70 dree temperature destroys the immunity of impure biological materials which reduces the impurity from the water. The Christchurch city council distributed the water supply in 68 service station, where 53 number of stations areusing the well to supply the water (Newsline, 2020). The usage of well increases the margin of chlorine. The microbiologicalcomposition getsa chance to make a chemical reaction in the water of stored contained that improves the composition of water. that damages the copper water heaters. The copper electrodes are used within the water heater to purify the water. Chlorines are precipitated in the presence of the heated copper electrode due to this reason, approximately 45 number of cylinders have been changed by the Christchurch city council authority (Health, 2020).

The Christchurch city council claimed that the exchange of the copper water heater consumes high financial assets. Therefore, the CCC avoids this solution of replacing the copper cylinders to resolve the poor-quality issues (Newsline, 2020).

As per the standards New Zealand drinking water, it is identified that the small water supply follows 4-9 contain the microbial, chemical and radiological compliance within the drinking water to provide pure water to their people of Christchurch. This characteristicis not present within the drinking water that signifies the violation of the standards of the New Zealand drinking water (Newsline, 2020). The New Zealand government is unable to provide pure drinking water to the citizen, which consists ofa potential risk of health issues like kidney failure. The mitigation strategies are the concern of this research which help Christchurch city council to improve the quality of water and supply to their customers (Stuff, 2020). The revision of the regulatory policy of drinking water is essential that facilitates them to maintain permanent chlorination. Chlorination is the process of reducingthe percentage of chlorine from the water.

3.  Research Aim

The aim of this research is to identify the mitigation measures for poor Christchurch water quality.

4.  Literature Review

  1. International and National Standards of Water

As per the international standards of drinking water is that the people must get the soft water for drinking. The pH level lies of drinking water must be lies between the 6.5 to 8 that addressed asa smaller presence of alkaline composition like chlorine in the water. This pH level slandered signifies as the soft water that is essential for the drinking water (WHO, 2020). As per the drinking water standard of World Health Organisation (WHO), it is identified that the percentage of chlorine must present at an amount of 0.08mg at 1 to 2-degree temperature water at the presence of the pH level of 7 to 8.5 (WHO, 2020). The presence of the micro chloramine must present in the drinking water at a margin of the 94 mg/ litter water presence in 1 to the 2-degree temperature of the water. Moreover, the percentage of monochloramine is present within the drinking water at the amount of 278 mg/litter at the presence of a pH level 6 to 9 (WHO, 2020).

As per the standards of the WHO it is identified that the Ozon and UV irradiation treatment process is significant to reduce the presence of an excessive margin of alkaline and acidic materials from the drinking water. This chemical and biological characterises must present within the drinking water as per the drinking water standers of WHO. The presence of these characteristics is signifying as the drinkable water for the people.  The presence of low alkaline materials like 0.08mg chlorine and 94mg monochloramine along with the pH level of 6 to 8.5 signifies the pure and drinkable water as per the drinking water guidelines issued by WHO.

According to On, et al. (2019), the microbial determinants including Escherichia coli, pathogenic protozoa arecharacterised that water as adrinking water. Based on section 2.2 of standards of drinking water of New Zealand,it is identified that the presence of Escherichia coli at a range of less than 100 mL of sample (Health, 2020). The presence of a low amount of microorganism is signified aspure water as per the drinking standards of the ministry of health of New Zealand. The total pathogenic protozoa must be present in the water at arange of 00 cysts per 100 L of sample3 that signifies as the pure drinking water (CCC, 2020). As per the health ministry standards of NZ, it is identified that the chlorine level must be present below the range of 5 mg/ litre. Moreover, the presence of chromium and chromium is between the 0.8 and 0.05 mg/ litter that signifies as a drinking water.

  • Issues associated with drinking water

Water pollution is significant in the groundwater level that hampers the percentage of the Escherichia coli, pathogenic protozoa from the drinking water. As stated by Coakley et al. (2018), the excessive margin of chlorine-like above 5 mg/litter signifies as the polluted water, which could be drinkable by the human being. People of Christchurch getting the poor quality of water which hasa high presence of chlorine at a margin of 9.2 to 10 and a pH level of 8.2 (Stuff, 2020). The presence of a high margin of chlorine destroys the functions of the copper water heater functionality. The copper is used in the water heater because its thermal conductivity is 399 W/(m*k). Copper is widely used for heating and purifying the water from the harmful germs present within the water.

Drinking Water

According to Zia et al. (2020),the presence of chlorine is a high percentage precepted in the presence of heated copper. The precepted copper creates a layer on the heater cylinder that destroy its functions. As an example, 75% of people Christchurch is facing this issue with their copper water heater where it destroys the functions due to high precipitation of chlorine (Newsline, 2020). For example, 68 water supply stations are present in Christchurch, where 53 number of water supply stations store and supplied water from the well (Newsline, 2020). Hence, the consumption of water enhances the percentage of chlorine due to the reaction between the microbiological organism. Therefore, the people of Christchurchis getting water with high chlorine that destroyers the function of their water heater.

  • Mitigation measures on poor water quality

The water supply department of the city council must follow the guidelines of international standers for the drinking water. This guideline is important to maintain the purity of the drinking water by reducing the presence of the chlorine (Newsline, 2020). Christchurch city counciltaking initiatives to change the regulatory policy for drinking water as per the international standards of drinking water proposed by the WHO. Moreover, Christchurch city council is seeking to the exception for the Lyttleton harbour basic water supply to maintain permanentchlorination and provide the pure drinking water (Newsline, 2020). According to Batley & Simpson (2020), the Christchurch eliminate the temporary chlorine dosing solution and implement a purifying system to reduce the costing for repairing copper heater cylinder and provide chlorine-free water. Therefore, the puffing system implementation is the potential solution to reduce the chlorineof 5 Mg as per the international standards and reduce the chances of destroying the function of copper water heater function.

5.  Research Significance and Limitation

  1. Research significance:

This research is significant because it incorporates investigation on a social issue of Christchurchwhere people are getting impure water presence of chlorine composition. Due to this reason, the functions of their copper water heater isdestroyeddue to precipitation of chlorine from the water that consumes huge cost to repair or replacement. This research is significant because it investigates the reason behind the presence of a high margin of chlorine withinthe drinking water. This research is alsoinvestigatingthe reasons behind the presence of chlorine in drinking water that destroys the functionality of the copper water heater by precipitating chlorine in the cylinder of the heater. The research is significant to make research on the international and New Zealandstandards of drinking water. This investigation is beneficial for identifying the mitigations measures to implement permanent chlorination to betterment the purity of the water by reducing chlorine composition.

  • Limitations:

This research willbe investing the water issues on a particular location like Christchurch instead of considering the overall of New Zealand. This research will not consider the primary source of data so that this research will not project the practical experience of the citizen of Christchurch. This research will consider the secondary source of information so that only theoretical and conceptual measures will be highlighted. It reduces the authenticity of the information related to mitigations measures for Christchurch water qualitybecause it collected from the secondary sources.

6.  Project Design

The research methodology is a process of collection of data from the data sources to meet the objectives of this study(Humphries, 2017).

  1. Research design

Research design is a set of method to analyse the variables are associated with the research problem to find out the answer tothe research question(Cuervo‐Cazurra & Mudambi, 2017).  Research design is segmented as a type of exploratory, explanatory and descriptive. This study will be following the exploratory research design to create a link between the two variables named mitigation strategy and poor water quality of Christchurch. During this investigation, the reason behind the poor water quality is identified by reviewing the research paper related to mitigation measures of poor quality of water. The identification of the reason behind the poor water quality will also influence to make research on the variable like mitigation strategy.

  • Research philosophy

Research philosophy identifies a way to accomplish the research to meet the objective(Ledford & Gast, 2018). the positivism philosophy will be suitable for the poor water quality is social issues which require mathematical information like pH level to define it. Hence, positivism philosophy will instruct to the researcher to draw the inference on mathematic information and identify the reason behind the delivery of poor quality of water. It also instructed to collect information related to mitigation measures to implement permanent chlorination that purifies the drinking water supplied to people of Christchurch.

  • Research approach

The research approach is a set of instruction that help to identify the inference of variables associated with the research topic(Quinlan & Babin, 2019). The research approach iscategorised in mainly two types, including inductive and deductive approach. The inductive approach will be adopted by this research to investigate the mitigation strategies of the poor water quality of Christchurch. The inductive approach will provide a scope to generate inference based on the investigation of the reason for the poor quality of water in Christchurch. This mitigation strategy will help to identify the reason behind destroying the functionality ofcopper water heater. The inductive approach helps to identify the inference based on the mitigation techniques like revising the water policy, repairing the copper water cylinder to resolve the issue.

  • Research strategy

The research strategy is a technique to investigate the research problem associated with the topic(Saunders & Bezzina, 2015). Ethnographic, case study, narrative, and grounded theory are the type of strategies are commonly used within the research. Case study methods will be followed in this study because it helps to develop the collect examples of different mitigation measures by reviewing the website of the Christchurch city council. This investigation will help to develop the meet the research objective by delivering appropriate measures to improve the quality of drinking water. The case study approach will help to collect secondary information related to international and domestic water standards. The knowledge gathering regarding water standards will influence to identify the proper solution to establish permanent chlorination.

  • Data collection

Data collection is a process of gathering relevant and authentic information from the data sources(Taylor & Bogdan, 2015). The primary and secondary method is followed by research studies to collect information to meet the objective of the research study. The secondary data collection process will be followed in this study to collect facts, figures and regulations of water pollution rate in New Zealand. Moreover, the secondary data will be collected from the relevant, recent and authentic journal and news article. The collection of secondary information associated in relation to the mitigation measures to provide permanent solution about the colonisation.

  • Data analysis

Data analysis is a process of analysis of the collected statistical and theoretical information to provide an answer to research questions(Flick, 2015). The thematic analysis process will be followed by this research that enables them to prepare code, the theme from the collected secondary information. The analysis of theme helps to identify the measures that help to provide a better quality of water to their people of Christchurch by implementing a permeant solution of the chlorination.

  • Ethical consideration

The ethical consideration is associated with the collection of secondary information from the authentic journal and news articles. This ethical consideration will support to collect authentic information regarding international and New Zealand standards of water and suggest mitigation measures for permanent chlorination. The ethical standardswill include the rules of selection of journal articles above 2015 to implicate authentic information regarding thereason behind the poor water quality of Christchurch. Moreover, the collected information will be used for academic purpose only.

7.  Conclusion

This research concludes that the chlorine composition is increased in water due to reaction with the microbiological determinants. The drinking water supply with chlorine composition destroys the functionality of copper water heater by precipitated the chlorine in the presence of heated copper immersion rod. The people of Christchurch getting water highly presence of chlorine composition. Whiling heating water the chlorine composition is precipitated in the presence of heated copper rod. The installation of the purification system for establishing permanent chlorination is essential to mitigate the impurity related to chlorine composition and deliver purified water to the people of Christchurch.

8.  References

Batley, G., & Simpson, S. (2020). Short‐term guideline for chlorine in marine waters. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 1(1), 1, DOI: 10.1002/etc.4661.

CCC. (2020). Where we have chlorinated. Retrieved April 29, 2020, from https://ccc.govt.nz/services/water-and-drainage/water-supply/water-chlorination

CCC. (2020). Water quality and monitoring. Retrieved April 29, 2020, from https://ccc.govt.nz/services/water-and-drainage/water-supply/quality-and-monitoring/water-quality-and-monitoring

Coakley, J., Bridgen, P., Bates, M., & Douwes, J. (2018). Chlorinated persistent organic pollutants in the serum of New Zealand adults, 2011–2013. Science of the total environment, 615(1), 624-631, DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.331.

Cuervo‐Cazurra, A., & Mudambi, R. (2017). Research methodology in global strategy research. Global Strategy Journal, 15(6), 233-240, DOI: 10.1002/gsj.1164.

Flick, U. (2015). Introducing research methodology: A beginner’s guide to doing a research project. London: Sage, ISBN: 0792349156.

Health. (2020). Drinking-water Standards for New Zealand 2005 (Revised 2018). Retrieved April 29, 2020, from https://www.health.govt.nz/publication/drinking-water-standards-new-zealand-2005-revised-2018

Health. (2020). Drinking-water Standards for New Zealand 2005 (Revised 2018). Retrieved April 29, 2020, from https://www.health.govt.nz/publication/drinking-water-standards-new-zealand-2005-revised-2018

Humphries, B. (2017). Re-thinking social research: anti-discriminatory approaches in research methodology (Vol. 3). London: Routledge, ISBN: 9781315244280.

Ledford, J., & Gast, D. (2018). Single case research methodology: Applications in special education and behavioural sciences (2 ed.). London: Routledge, ISBN: 9781315150666.

Newsline. (2020). Level 4 water restrictions for parts of Banks Peninsula. Retrieved April 29, 2020, from https://newsline.ccc.govt.nz/news/story/level-4-water-restrictions-for-parts-of-banks-peninsula

Newsline. (2020). The word on water: Latest on chlorination. Retrieved April 29, 2020, from https://newsline.ccc.govt.nz/news/story/the-word-on-water-latest-on-chlorination

On, S., Althaus, D., Miller, W., Lizamore, D., & Wong, S. (2019). Arcobacter cryaeropHilus isolated from New Zealand mussels harbour a putative virulence plasmid. Frontiers in microbiology, 10(1), 1802, DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.01802.

Quinlan, C., & Babin, B. (2019). Business research methods (3 ed.). London: South-Western Cengage, ISBN: 9781473760356.

Rosenblum, L., Zaffiro, A., Adams, W., & Wendelken, S. (2017). Effect of chlorination by-products on the quantitation of microcystins in finished drinking water. Toxicon, 138(1), 138-144, DOI: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2017.08.023.

Saunders, M., & Bezzina, F. (2015). Reflections on conceptions of research methodology among management academics. European management journal, 15(7), 297-304, DOI: 10.1016/j.emj.2015.06.002.

Stuff. (2020). Chlorine levels in some Christchurch water might be enough for swimming pools. Retrieved April 29, 2020, from https://www.stuff.co.nz/the-press/news/103631494/chlorine-levels-in-some-christchurch-water-might-be-enough-for-swimming-pool

Taylor, S., & Bogdan, R. (2015). Introduction to qualitative research methods: A guidebook and resource (2 ed.). London: John Wiley & Sons, ISBN: 1446244776.

WHO. (2020). Drinking-water quality guidelines. Retrieved April 29, 2020, from https://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/water-quality/guidelines/en/

WHO. (2020). Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality. Retrieved April 29, 2020, from https://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/gdwq0506.pdf

WHO. (2020). INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS FOR DRINKING-WATER. Retrieved April 29, 2020, from https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/205104/205104_eng.pdf;jsessionid=4202C0271A1E24AD862C08DB2688CA1D?sequence=2

Zia, Z., Hartland, A., & Mucalo, M. (2020). Wastewater treatment in New Zealand: zeolites as a potential low-cost solution for heavy metal removal. In The International Symposium on Macrocyclic and Supramolecular Chemistry, 1(1), 26, DOI:10.1016/j.desal.2007.02.022.

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Quality Management in Celsete Medical Center


Total Quality Management (TQM)  refers to management methods used to enhance quality and productivity in business organizations. TQM is a comprehensive management approach that works horizontally across an organization, involving all departments and employees and extending backward and forward to include both suppliers and clients/customers. TQM has five major elements that are essential to successful implication, which are:

  1. Focus on customer satisfaction: TQM focus employees on the importance of fulfilling customers’ expectations.
  2. Continuous improvement: is apolicy or process that helps keep the focus on improving the way things are done through regular incremental improvements or achieving larger process improvements.
  3. Employee involvement: ensure that employees are involved in implementing the TQM concept.
  4. Strategic and systematic approach: in TQM, organizations have a strategic plan in place which integrates quality as its primary component.
  5. Fact based decision making:TQM requires the organization to continually collect and analyze data in order to improve decision making accuracy.

Quality management plays a crucial role in your company’s growth and performance. It is also a key resource in the competition for customer relationships, striving to deliver a superior experience. Total quality management can help the organization by maintain loyal customers, due to the continuing improvements of the products, incorporating changes, and neglecting the defects. Furthermore, quality management provides companies with the specific information they need in order to develop the goods and services that customers want. This will increase the market share and gives the organization a competitive advantage. Also, total quality management can decrease human errors, and this helps to improve the company’s validation. For example, the employees will have a list of guidelines which they have to follow it during their day to day operations. 

Nowadays people demand for better healthcare systems. The importance of total quality management has risen in the health care field as it has become a part of the hospital’s competitive strategy. Using quality management in the health care system will help balance efficiency, equity, and quality which could be very challenging in order to provide a high-quality service. This strategy will improve performance and increase patient satisfaction (Mosadeghrad 2016).  

In healthcare services there are three definitions distinguished; Total Quality Management from other approaches: “it is a comprehensive strategy of organizational and attitude change for enabling personnel to learn and use quality methods, in order to reduce costs and meet the requirements of patients and other customers” (Balasubramanian 2016).

Total Quality Management is also defined as “a management philosophy concerned with people and with the work processes that focuses on customer satisfaction and improves organizational performance” (A.Al-Shdaifat 2015). In other words,we use quality to reflect high value service. With this concept we can see that the importance of total quality management has increased in the health care system as it has become part of the hospitals competitive strategy.This will provide the hospital or clinic to offer potential cost saving while quality is maintained and improved. As a result of undertaking all these measures would insure the satisfaction of the patient and will reduce the risk of consequences regarding human health. Alongside using and implementing quality management this system will establishpolicies to fulfil the healthcare service providing in the market. Quality management has several principles to guide the achievement of the system. These principles were mentioned in Greame Knowles, a book on quality management, which includes the following:  (Knowles 2011)

  • Customer Focus
  • Strategic Focus
  • Leadership Focus
  • Process Focus
  • People Focus
  • Scientific Focus
  • Continual Improvement, Innovation and Learning
  • System Thinking

As said above the most important focus is the customer, we must understand the customer’s needs and expectation to create the value wished. Moreover, to insure getting the most out of the system, it needs to have a committed leader who can actively drive the strategy and spread positive vibes to have better engagement with the clients. All these aspects contribute to attain a recognizable quality management system.

Research objective

The research objective of this report is to understand and to identify the use of total quality management in Celeste Medical Center.


Our research follows a qualitative design. We conducted an interview that was based on a set of qualitative questions which were directed to the manager of Celeste Medical Center to identify what type of quality tools they use.

Literature Review

Quality management is defined as the act of managing all the actions and responsibilities required to keep a desired level of quality. This includes the aim of a quality policy, which is making and applying quality arrangement and guarantee, as well as quality control and quality development. It is also known as total quality management (TQM). Overall, quality management emphasizes on the long-term goals of the application of immediate initiatives.

At its center, quality management (TQM) is a business philosophy that holds the impression that the long-term success of a business originates from client satisfaction. TQM requires all shareholders in a firm to work together in order to advance developments, products, services and the values of the business itself.

A famous example of quality management is the Toyota’s application of the Kanban system. A Kanban is defined as a physical sign that generates a chain response, resulting in a precise act. Toyota used this knowledge to apply its just-in-time inventory method. To make its assembly line more effective, the firm decided to just keep enough inventory available to fill client’s requests as they were produced.

Thus, all pieces of Toyota’s assembly line are allocated a physical card which has a related inventory number. Before a part is fit in a car, the card is detached and moved up in the supply chain, successfully demanding one more of the same part. This permits the firm to keep its inventory lean and not overstock needless assets.(Quality Managemnet , 2018)

Quality Management in Service Industry

Overseeing the quality of products and services is essential to assure that the company excels at meeting their consumers requirements and accomplishes their organizational goals. Whether it’s an industrial company producing hardware or a software firm delivering services to customers, quality management is the very core of constant development and business advancement.

Quality Management

The process of handling the quality of services brought to a client according to his expectations is named Service Quality Management. It essentially measures how good a service has been delivered, to progress its quality in the future, recognize issues and fix them to increase client satisfaction. Service quality management includes the monitoring and preservation of the diverse services that are accessible to customers.

Whether it is a software company delivering services to customers or working in hospitality or travel business, service quality management is essential to handling customer’s expectations and company development.

Quality Management in the UAE and GCC Service Industry

Many contemporary organizations across the UAE, GCC and the globe are implementing total quality management (TQM)systems to please and satisfy their clients. The necessities of today’s modern world require us to deliver quality products and open services in order to increase the competitive advantage and to improve client time value. TQM involves making a client‐centered principle in the service business. Starting and implementing a TQM system in most of the service organizations is a key task. It requires a full and organized analysis of client expectations, system procedures, functions, detailing and quality restrictions. TQM has a huge effect on various service industries performance. (Talib, 2010)

Companies in the UAE are facing problems in attaining high level of client satisfaction and constant progress. Lately, quality divisions such as center of quality have been added to many firms in the United Arab Emirates whether to the government, private, or semi-government firms. This is because good quality management is anessential field that should be combined in such firms.

There is a requirement to study Total Quality Management and barriers of application of TQM in UAE firms. TQM arena is a new management style that came in 1980s in US and therefore, UAE firms have been influenced by the novel management style; though, no information or evidence is given in journals or documents concerning the affects or achievement aspects in UAE. The culture in UAE still requests experimental evidence and actual case successes to simplify the new style built on results.

Total Quality Management is a novel philosophy of management that was recognized in United Arab Emirates and the Gulf region quite recently. Total Quality Management in UAE nevertheless, received slight care and studies from researchers and experts concerning the critical success aspects and constant development. (AbdulAziz & Al Ali, 2012).

Research Methodology

Our research is qualitative research. Qualitative research is a scientific, exploratory method used to gather non-numerical data. We used this method to enquire and gain more understanding regarding quality management. As a team, we prepared a questionnaire and conducted an interview with the Manager of a small medical centre in Al Ain.

Questionnaire development

We first drafted 8 questions which covered areas including; quality management, quality control, performance standards and customer satisfaction. Then we continued to edit the questions until we came up with the final 10 questions.

Data collection

A member of our team Miss ReemKheir had contacted an aesthetic clinic known as Celeste Medical Center to schedule an appointment with the top manager.

On the day of the meeting, which was on 7th October 2018, all the team members were prepared for the interview with their set of questions. After arriving at the clinic, we were taken to the manager’s office, and with permission we started to record the interview. The interview session lasted for 30 min to answer all our questions.

The interview was conducted in English. It was a two-way conversation where we were supported even by their monthly quality checklist towards the end of the session. After leaving the clinic, the team members discussed their experience of the session. It was not surprising when we all agreed that the there wasn’t any formality involved in getting to choose a flexible time for an interview with the manger, which is unlikely for many other companies. Since our objective of this research is Quality Management, it was imperative that we also analysed the clinic’s conditions and equipment’s. We were given a friendly tour to look around the clinic to better understand their services conditions and hygiene standards. Finally, we took away a lot of information from the interview, which will be further discussed in the analysis of this research paper.


Strategies in measuring customer satisfaction

The clinic has high quality services because of the type of machines uses. The origins of machines are from the best countries in the market to satisfy their customers. This results eventually in a very good service given to their customers. As a part of measuring their satisfaction, they have not implemented any such strategy to measure service after its completion or after visiting the clinic. Leaders establish a comprehensive plan for their business to manage the daily operations. Failing to contribute towards strategic customer management plan could risk the business its survival. The clinic could initiate by creating a plan for managing the customer satisfaction that outline the initiatives, and milestones. They should figure what they want to achieve and how do they want to record its feedback technically. To measure the satisfaction dimensions that they want to measure, the clinic must have its objectives set and their standards which should be in compliance with the HAAD standards.Finally, an approach to collect the data, analyse the customer response, and address major issues for continual progress. (Duggan, 2018)

Measuring customer feedback

The clinic has feedback forms always placed in the reception. There are also suggestion boxes, and the employees of the clinic accept complaints in person. However, the manager at the clinic is the one who reviews these feedbacks forms and evaluates them in his own perspective. There is no software, or anytactics implemented for measuring customer satisfaction. The Manager could consider liable approaches best suitable for measuring customer satisfaction from techniques such asmeasuring customer growth orthrough the referral rate.(Olsen, 2011)

Future planning to develop the approach of receiving customer feedback & incorporating or using technology

The clinic does not receive many complaints. Therefore, we understand that our customers are satisfied. However, when these complaints are made, they are only recorded through the feedback form or left in the suggestion box. Management is later approached to resolve those issues face-to face with responsible persons.

Motivating team to achieve quality performance standards

The management team of the clinic believes that it is a must for their employees to match the standards of service that is expected of them in the line of service where demand is very high, and it is believed that this is very sensitive because the customers are directly impacted through it. The technicians and doctors are informed from the phase of their selection and orientation about what is expected from them in this regard. The management team provides its employees with greater monetary rewards than what is given in their local industry market. This is one of their motivational approaches. For their overtime after the completed shift for the employees, the manager applies the minimum wages as per labour laws and multiplies it by 2 times its amount,  as a motivational technique for working extra hours in the clinic.

Enforcing Quality

Celeste Medical Centre has a contract with another quality company who regularly check their machines. However, it seems that they are not reliable enough as the manager informed us that he must be there in person when an inspection takes place. This is because he has seen some sort of neglecting of ethics from their behalf in the form of putting tags on machines which haven’t been checked.

Overall satisfaction with the outcome of quality at the clinic

The current manager is satisfied with the quality of the existing machines but mentioned that when he was first hired as a manager, he was not satisfied with all the operations running in the clinic. The previous manager didn’t have any contracts with health insurance companies and wasn’t following the health authority standards. He acknowledged that as a manager, it was the first crucial thing he had to do. To ensure that quality controls were enforced.

Although the manager didn’t mention using any tools to measure patient’s satisfaction regarding quality, one could suggest that using patient satisfaction surveys could be beneficial. Studies have shown that patient satisfaction surveys have gained increasing attention as meaningful and essential sources of information for identifying gaps and developing an effective action plan for quality improvement in healthcare organizations. In the western world, specifically in Germany, measuring satisfaction has been required since 2005 as an element of quality management reports. Furthermore, since 2002, the Department of Health (DOH) has launched a national survey program in which all NHS trusts in England have to survey patient satisfaction on an annual basis and report the results to their regulators. Therefore, measurement of patient satisfaction is a legitimate indicator for improving the services and strategic goals for all healthcare organizations ( Al-Abri& Al-Balushi, 2014).

HAAD standards

The company started following HAAD standards in August 2017 with the help of an insurance coordinator because they had more knowledge about them.

HAAD is responsible for licensing, quality control, and regulating all of the health care facilities and health professionals in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi.HAAD standards are consistent with JCI standards but focus on the fundamentals of patient and facility safety. All health care facilities in Abu Dhabi must achieve the authorized or compulsory standards during an inspection to be licensed in the Emirate. Each new version of the standards, which is conducted approximately every three years, reflects the dynamic changes occurring around the globe in health care. As a general principle, licensed providers are expected to meet the following professional obligations:

  • Ensure the clinical and other professional qualifications of all staff according to HAAD licensing policies; in turn licensed clinical staff is expected to act in a manner that is consistent with international good practice in the management of patients to maintain safety and provide such benefit as they are able.
  • Ensure their facilities and equipment are enough to deliver safe, high-quality care in accordance with international good practice.
  • Ensure there are healthy clinical and management processes for the tracking of patient safety and the effectiveness of treatment, including the keeping of accurate, fit-for purpose clinical records.
  • Report any occurring incidences that result in a risk to patient safety or compromises the
  • delivery of high-quality care. ( Health Policy & Regulation, Health Authority Abu Dhabi, 2008)
  • The importance of HAAD standards are very clear. It was also very noticeable that the quality of service in the centre improved after adopting the HAAD standards.

Software that measure quality management

The company doesn’t have any special software directly related to quality, but they have an employee system that shows the duties of each doctor, and a patient schedule to manage bookings.

It would be extremely beneficial and in fact necessary that the company invests in a QMS. One could be ENCOR, which is an award-winning software platform, that provides comprehensive quality reporting solutions for hospitals and clinicians.

Standards at a clinic that differ from the department of health standards in UAE

The company do also have their own set of slightly different standards that they apply. They have a check list in every room which is collected at the end of the day to measure and observe how many patients have visited the clinic, and how many patients have cancelled the appointment.

One of the checklists they could use in the  future is a Patient Safety and Quality Improvement (PCQ) scoring requirement, which is one of the measurements of HAAD Standards. PCQ will be very valuable to the centre because quality and safety will be rooted in the daily work of the health care professionals and other staff. Doctors and nurses will assess patient needs and provide care. PCQ can help them understand how to make real improvements to help their patients and reduce risks (Health Policy & Regulation, Health Authority Abu Dhabi, 2008).


From our research, we come to conclude that Celeste Medical Center uses some techniques in order to enhance its quality. However, we observed that it’s mostly manual based and they haven’t installed any special software, nor do they have any strategies to enforce quality management. TQM is an important aspect of any business because it will help the organization in eliminating human errors, increasing customer’s satisfaction, and improving the company’s performance.


A.Al-Shdaifat, Emad. 2015. “Implementation of total quality management in hospitals.” Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences 10 (4): 461-466. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtumed.2015.05.004.

AbdulAziz, E., & Al Ali, A. S. (2012). Total Quality Management Implementation. A Study to Critical Success Factors and Continuous Improvement to UAE organizations, 122.

Al-Abri, R., & Al-Balushi, A. (2014). Patient satisfaction survey as a tool towards quality improvement. Oman medical journal, 29(1), 3-7.   https://www.haad.ae/HAAD/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=dI0JyhF3pDc%3D

Balasubramanian, M. 2016. “Total Quality Management [TQM] in the Healthcare Industry.” Science Journal of Public Health 4. doi:10.11648/j.sjph.20160404.11.

Focusing on Continuous Improvement in the Workplace. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.creativesafetysupply.com/articles/continuous-improvement/

Knowles, Graeme. 2011. Quality Management. http://www.znrfak.ni.ac.rs/SERBIAN/010-STUDIJE/OAS-3-2/PREDMETI/III%20GODINA/316-KOMUNALNI%20SISTEMI%20I%20ZIVOTNA%20SREDINA/SEMINARSKI%20RADOVI/2014/S175%20-%20S200.pdf

LEARN ABOUT QUALITY. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://asq.org/learn-about-quality/total-quality-management/overview/overview.html

Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad. 2016. “Total Quality Management in Healthcare.” In Tehran University of Medical Sciences, by Ali Mohammad Mosadeghrad. Routledge.

Picincu, A. (n.d.). The Importance of Quality Management. Retrieved from https://bizfluent.com/about-5377881-importance-quality-management.html

QualityManagemnet.(2018).Retrieved from investopedia: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/q/quality-management.asp#ixzz5XTkYnz4F

Richa. (2014, May 15). Service Quality Management: How to Measure and Manage It. Retrieved from Udemy: https://blog.udemy.com/service-quality-management/

Talib, F. (2010). Studying the impact of total quality management in service industries. Int. J. Productivity and Quality Management,, 6, 249.

Total Quality Management. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.inc.com/encyclopedia/total-quality-management-tqm.html

TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://tqmgroups.blogspot.com/p/customer-satisfaction-is-key-component.html

Duggan, T. (2018, November 24). How to Measure Customer Satisfaction for Strategic Management. Retrieved from Small Business: https://smallbusiness.chron.com/measure-customer-satisfaction-strategic-management-51164.html

Olsen, E. (2011, November). STRATEGIC PLANNING: MEASURE CUSTOMER SATISFACTION. Retrieved from dummies: https://www.dummies.com/business/business-strategy/strategic-planning-measure-customer-satisfaction/

Research report on quality management by Subject Academy

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Mezlai: The first Emirates Food Restaurant

1. Introduction

Having a dinner outside, especially with family or with loved ones is really a great experience. On 5 November 2017 my parents made a plan for dinner outside. After so much discussion, we decide to go to the Mezlai restaurant, first Emirati restaurant in Dubai. We reached them at 10 pm. After a long time, my father came from abroad and to have a celebration, we wanted to have a dinner outside. Thus we went to Mezlai restaurant.

Mezlai first Emirates Food Restaurant

2. Product Strategy

•    The menu was there on the table, I started analyzing the menu. It was very attractive from outlook. They are having different sections for main course, appetizers, chicken, salad and sweet dish. Their special product is Arabic coffee they offers. Then we ordered our dinner.

•    The services they provide while offering food are really different from any other restaurant I have ever visited in Dubai. Quality of food was also great. They were having special types of Arabic salads.

•    The restaurant is having playing area for children as well, so that parents can have important discussion while having dinner. One side of restaurant is peaceful for important discussions and another side of restaurant is for youngsters who want to celebrate their occasions. Proper DJ system is there.

•    I visited the restaurant on Zomato.com as well. Mostly the customers have given five star rating to the services and quality of products offered by the restaurant.

•    According to my experience about Mezlai restaurant, this is providing quality services to its customers.

3. Pricing Strategy

•    For any company, restaurant or café, pricing is an important part of strategy, which helps in increasing sale of company’s product in the market (Schindler, 2011). Mezlai is also having its own pricing mix strategy. The restaurant has designed different combination of prices for products which are demanded in combination as soups with meals.

•    Price adjustment strategy is when a company is changing its a price rapidly as according to the customers. But as I have observed that Mezlai is not having any price adjustment strategy. No doubt price has been increased and has been varied as compared to last time when I visited, it was approximate six months ago, I visited there, prices have been increased. But that change in price is due to rises in general price. As such company is not adopting any price adjustment strategy.

4. Promotion strategy

•    Web page of the restaurant is having all the information regarding, hotel rooms, Rooms and suites, Restaurants and bar, Meetings and events, Luxury and spa and also having a corner for reviews by customers. (Tellis, 1988) If we visit the website of the restaurant, we will automatically come to know its features and we will be willing to visit it at least one time. For promotion purpose, the restaurant is having specialized features in its websites, describing all about its products and policies. (Mezlai, 2017)

•    Mezlai is also having its own Facebook page for social media presence. The restaurant time to time update all its products and pricing structure on the page. Whatever the new feature restaurant is going to provide gets published at the page.

•    The restaurant is also involved in advertisements in local magazines and newspaper for its promotions. It is also offering free services to celebrities and time to time inviting them for promotion of their acts or movies. This thing automatically attracts a large number of customers.

5. Place Strategy

•    The restaurant is located at West Corniche Road – Abu Dhabi – United Arab Emirates. It is one of the famous road for visitors and tourists of Dubai. The restaurant is also providing smooth parking facility to customers. The area the restaurant is located is full of crowd. All types of markets are the neighbor to this restaurant.

•    I have visited many other cafés and restaurants of Dubai. They are also providing best to the customers but as much as I have analyzed, Mezlai is at its best in providing best services to the customers. Other restaurants have adopted different price adjustment strategies to attract customers but Mezlai, without following any strict strategy is a center of attraction to customers.

mezlai restaurant

6. Targeting and Positioning

•    The Mezlai has created such kind of position in the market that its market is continuously expanding. Whether the customer is visiting one time or a regular customer, the restaurant maintains a long-term relationship with them through social media.

Targets of the company is to expand its services at global level. Through offering services like luxury hotels, spa and special facilities to tourists, their services are expanding by word of mouth by the persons who take their services once.

•    Throughout the time, I was there in the restaurant, I observed 200-300 customers sitting at one time having dinner. Their service of offering food is very quick. Their main target is to satisfy the customers and to maintain a long-term relationship with them.

•    The Mezlai is already having a good position in UAE, as it is the first Emirati restaurant providing Emirati foods and cuisines, which provides the customers with savor, taste combining with luxury and tradition in a unique design.


Mezlai. (2017). Mezlai. Retrieved from Visitabudhabi: https://visitabudhabi.ae/en/see.and.do/leisure/dining/mezlai.aspx

Schindler, R. (2011). Pricing Strategies: A Marketing Approach. sage.

Tellis, G. (1988). Advertising and Sales Promotion Strategy. Addison Wesley.

Mezlai: The first Emirates Food Restaurant.

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Engaging biology research paper topics for students- 2020.

Biology research paper topic: As students, we all agree that writing a biology research paper is not a child’s play. Doing in-depth research, backing every statement with proper facts and then curating a clear and well-organized paper is not as easy as it sounds. Albeit, you can get assignment help in Australia with a click of a button. But still, you need to find an interesting and fascinating topic. Not to mention, Fortunately, Finding an engaging biology research paper topic is half the battle of writing a fascinating research paper.

For that reason, I have done the donkey work of compiling an organized list of interesting topics. Moreover, topics are organized in different categories. Then, what should be your next step? All in all, Explore different categories, Find relevant information on them and find the most suitable and interesting topic from the list. After that? after choosing the right topic, you just need to message us your topic and our writers will start writing a research paper for you. Given these points, Let’s begin the holy deed.

Genetics research paper topics

To point out, your biology research paper topic should always be interesting enough to find fascinating information on it. I mean, If the topic is not interesting to you, then how in the world will you research about it? right? Not to mention, What is more, interesting then genetics? Probably nothing! At least to me, it’s one of the best categories to find amusing information on. For that reason, I have put together a list of some Fascinating genetics research paper topics. On the whole, I hope you find something in the list to ace the research paper game.

  • What role does genetics play in homosexuality?
  • Is there any link between genetics and depression.
  • Genetic analysis of cloning and how can it be utilized in the future.
  • Recent advances in mutagenesis.
  • The principles of gene editing. 
  • Recent advances in gene editing.

Environmental biology research paper topics.

As a matter of fact, Our environment is diverse enough to give us a diverse list of interesting environmental research paper topics. *wink*-*wink*. In the final analysis, Do rains, oceans, lava, rocks, and mushrooms fascinate you? Does global warming, air pollution, trash in the oceans concerns you? If yes! then you should definitely choose this category for your biology research paper topic. let’s dig into some of the best environmental biology topics to write a paper on.

  • Paleoecology
  • Why national parks are important?
  • Why does humanity try to prevent the extinction of endangered species?
  • Is it possible to reinforce the ozone layer?
  • Why tropical forests are important for our environment?
  • Chernobyl and Fukushima Disasters.
  • What will happen to ecosystems in 10,000 years?
  • How do people manage to survive in extreme climatic conditions?
  • Enumerate the impact of the ice age on climate.
  • What is Gulfstream?

Biotechnology Research paper topics.

Markedly, Writing and reading a biology research paper should not be boring. To put it another way, It should feel like you are writing or reading a story. Moreover, A good research paper should be able to convey the intended message to the right audience without making them sleepy. To point out, Biotechnology with its big buzz words can never make anybody sleepy. Choose any topic from the list and I can promise you that your Biology research paper will not be boring or as a matter of fact, boring.

Principles of Pharmacogenomics.

What are Drug Transporters?

What is DNA isolation? Nanotechnology methods for DNA isolation.

Ancestry study of admixed communities in southern Africa.

The relation between nanotechnology and biotechnology.

Recent advances in biotechnology. Future of biotechnology.

How Biotechnology is impacting humanity.

Identification of biomarkers associated with ovarian cancer.

Biotechnology based therapeutic approaches to treat HIV.

Cell biology research paper topics

Another huge part of research paper topics deals with cell biology. When you enter the realm of cell biology, you will get zillions of topics to choose from. For that reason, I am compiling a list from where you can choose the right topic for yourself.

Cell biology of Denitrification.

Recent advances in cell biology.

Viruses of plants, humans, and animals.

Anaerobic Glycolysis and oxidative Phosphorylation.

Principles of cell structure.

Endocytosis and exocytosis.

Biopolymers synthesis and Transfer system.

Principles of DNA structure and DNA packaging.

Proteins. Histone and nonhistone proteins.

The system of Genetic information storage, Reproduction, and transmission.

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