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Clinical Uncertainty in Nursing

Introduction:

The main clinical uncertainty discussed here is an inconsistency in the matter of wound dressing, where some nurses have been found to use the sterile dressing method, and some other nurses have used the method of clean dressing for the purpose of wound healing. The sterile dressing consists of covering the wound by a bandage or a tape for stopping any further injury and avoiding contact with the air for healing. On the other hand, clean dressing is washing the wound from time to time, and keeping it in the open for the healing procedure. The main research question that is answered throughout the research is whether clean wound dressing is a safer option for surgical wounds or not. The research question has been formulated by comparing the two options for the treatment of surgical wounds, which is the sterile procedure and the clean dressing procedure. The intent of the research was finding out the better or, the safer option, and hence, the aforementioned question has been formulated.

The research strategy that is used for answering the question is that it is action-based research where the information in relation to the research question has been collected from six specific journal articles, and the specific information related to the surgical wound care has been considered. The research strategy has been developed by searching for those articles, which are within the last seven years, from 2013 till 2020 for the research strategy to focus on the latest information. The paper that has given both qualitative and quantitative evidence has been selected for the research study. The approach of research helps in deriving the inference at the end of the research, and it is of two types, inductive and deductive. In the present research, the only deductive approach has been chosen for the research because it is directly related to the development of understanding about the answer to the question of research, and generates one inference at the end.

The selected studies for the research are:

Clinical Uncertainty in Nursing

The first study is related to the comparison of sterile and clean dressing technique for postoperative surgical wound infection within Chinese Healthcare. It helps in understanding how far wound healing is possible by using both the techniques related to operational wounds.

Clinical Uncertainty in Nursing

The study mainly focuses on the use of clean or sterile dressing technique for wound infection. The study mainly focuses on the subject of infection and helps in understanding which technique is better to stop the infection from spreading.

Clinical Uncertainty in Nursing

This study is based on wound dressing and compares the data concerning its effectiveness. The focus of the article is on whether the wound dressing in a sterile method is more effective or the clean dressing method.

Wound Dressing Procedure

The study focuses on the acute surgical wound dressing procedure, which involves the description that involves validation and development in relation to an observational metric. The study has helped in the creation of an observational metric that is useful for measuring whether the clean dressing or the sterile dressing technique is suitable.

Clinical Uncertainty in Nursing

The study is mainly dependent on the practice and principles of wound dressing, and the way by which the practice and principles of wound dressing are managed. It helps in furthering the answer to the question by understanding whether the clean dressing principle is better than the sterile dressing principle.

Wound Dressing

The study is mainly related to the treatment of wounds and the wound healing process. This study is chosen because it investigates about healing the chronic wound and managing the caring of the wound treatment process.

Main Body:

The paper, (Huang, Zhang, Guan, & Liang, 2016), says that with the increasing antimicrobial resistance, it is always required to have suitable techniques for wound dressing for decreasing the process of infection, and for decreasing the time of healing to consider the factors of patient safety. In order to achieve this, the paper had chosen a population of 130 patients, within which 70 are males, and 60 are females. It has been found to be important for the surgery in the Affiliated Hospital of China, and their wound healing process is observed. It has been observed that 12 patients who had got their wounds treated by the sterile process have got an infection; however, the size of the wounds was larger. On the other hand, for the wounds of smaller size, it has been found that the sterile treatment of wounds is more effective as the covered wound is treated faster than the clean dressing procedure.

In the paper, (Kent, Scardillo, Dale, & Pike, 2018), it is seen that the use of clean dressing technique is an effective medical intervention in the case of chronic wounds for reducing the infection. The search strategy that is used in the research is done by the trained librarian of a university, which had helped in the extraction of information from 473 articles from different sources. However, it is also seen that the research cannot conclude the type of dressing technique that is the best for chronic wounds due to the lack of evidence for the entire process. Hence, it has been inferred from the article that the research shows sterile wound treatment is suitable for chronic wounds, and the clean dressing process is suitable for the smaller wounds.

The paper, (Sood, Granick, & Tomaselli, 2014) is focused on collecting the data about the effectiveness of various wound healing techniques. It has found that the clean wound dressing has been more effective for chronic situations rather than the sterile wound dressing. It has also been found that there are other methods of clinical wound dressing from the journal like hydroconducive dressings, biological dressings and skin substitutes. The journal helps in understanding the methods of clinical dressing processes and helps in understanding that the future direction of clinical wound dressing is mainly related to the clean dressing rather than the sterile dressing process

The paper, (Hegarty, et al., 2019), states that this study was mainly for developing the observational metric, which can be used for understanding the practitioner’s performance for completing the right wound dressing process by using the aseptic non-touch technique (ANTT). The research is conducted by the help of a group of medical practitioners, researchers and academics that came together for developing the observational metric by means of a six-step method that culminated into a Delphi panel. The final metric constitutes three different phases, which has 31 steps, 18 mistakes and 27 errors in the sentinel. It has been shown from the research process that the sterile would treatment procedure is more effective in reducing infection, but it is expensive. On the contrary, it is also found that the clean dressing process is comparatively cheaper for the dressing of wounds.

The paper, (Vowden & Vowden, 2017), focuses on the practice and principles that are related to the cost-effective technique of wound dressing and clinical management. The journal has helped in understanding whether the sterile wound dressing or the clean wound dressing is more cost-effective. The journal has been able to evaluate that it depends on the type of wound that is in process, and the researchers inferred that in the case of smaller wounds, the clean wound dressing method is required to be followed because it has helped in reducing the amount of infection. On the other hand, it has been found that in the case of larger wounds, the sterile method is more suitable because the plaster over the wound gets it healed faster.

The paper, (Powers, Higham, Broussard, & Phillips, 2016), mainly focuses on wounds resulting from the treatment of chronic ulcer operations, and the wounds that take time to heal for the diabetic patients. It always leads to significant morbidity and mortality of the population. In this study, it has been found that a mix of sterile wound healing and the clean wound healing process helps in avoiding infection. It has been found that when the wound is highly infectious, or during the initial stage, the sterile process is followed, which leads to avoiding the infection. However, the clean wound healing is done at regular intervals for the sake of avoiding infection from non-exposure and cleans the wound for another plaster.

Conclusion:

The study concludes that the wound healing process is clinically always applied when the bruises or wounds cannot be healed automatically, and it requires antiseptic for healing and avoiding infection. It has also been found that the sterile wound healing is covering the entire wound by plaster for avoiding infection. On the contrary, the clean wound healing is exposing the wound to air, washing it, and applying antiseptic from time to time. When the research question focuses on which one is safer, it is found that no conclusion can be reached because it depends on the type of wounds. When the wound is large, it is found that the sterile process of wound healing is useful to avoid infection. On the other hand, for treating smaller wounds; the process of clean dressing is useful.

It has also been found in the study of six journals that for a person who is going to stay out of the hospital in relation to the treatment of wounds, the sterile dressing is more effective because it stops the dirt and dust from entering the wound. On the contrary, for long hospital stays in case of chronic wounds, the clean dressing method for wounds is more effective.

References

Hegarty, J., Howson, V., Wills, T., Creedon, S., Mc Cluskey, P., Lane, A., et al. (2019). Acute surgical wound‐dressing procedure: Description of the steps involved in the development and validation of an observational metric. International wound journal , 16 (3), 641-648, DOI: 10.1111/iwj.13072.

Huang, X., Zhang, J., Guan, S., & Liang, W. (2016). Comparison of sterile and clean dressing techniques in postoperative surgical wound infection in a Chinese healthcare facility. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 15 (2), 415-419, DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v15i2.27.

Kent, D., Scardillo, J., Dale, B., & Pike, C. (2018). Does the use of clean or sterile dressing technique affect the incidence of wound infection? Journal of Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nursing, 45 (3), 265-269, DOI: 10.1097/WON.0000000000000425.

Powers, J., Higham, C., Broussard, K., & Phillips, T. (2016). Wound healing and treating wounds: Chronic wound care and management. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 74 (4), 607-625, DOI: 10.1016/j.jaad.2015.08.070.

Sood, A., Granick, M., & Tomaselli, N. (2014). Wound dressings and comparative effectiveness data. Advances in wound care, 17 (7), 511-529, DOI: 10.1089/wound.2012.0401.

Vowden, K., & Vowden, P. (2017). Wound dressings: principles and practice. Surgery (Oxford) , 35 (9), 489-494, DOI: 10.1016/j.mpsur.2017.06.005.


Clinical Uncertainty in Nursing Assignment by Subject Academy

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Hotel Industry & Tourism Challenges

Introduction

The hotel industry is a combination involving service providers, quality service and customer relations. It aims to serve and satisfy both physiological and psychological needs of the customers. The hotel industry truly encompasses the social, economical and environmental factors in a holistic way and thus faces pressures from all directions. The competitiveness in the hotel sector is drastically shaped by the dynamic internal and external factors. Tourism and its economic impact is one of the major drivers of the hotel industry. World heritage cities and sites are a constant source of tourism-based revenue generation that propels the hotel business in numerous countries. Recently, the investors and hotel management have been increasingly worried about the negative impacts from social and environmental factors affecting the hotel business. There is a huge pressure to integrate the better technology-oriented services to the customers ranging from online booking to better living ambiances. Cost reduction, need to streamline the practices based on sustainable development are other challenges hotel management are dealing with (Borralha, Jesus, Pinto, & Viseu, 2016). The dynamic nature of the hotel business and changing customer preferences is making the hotel business tough and challenging. It is imperative that this easy will be looking for the said challenges and dynamic external factors which are at present leading the change management strategies in hotel industry. The essay will bring forth the challenges at a global level and propose recommendations in light of management theories and frameworks.       

Main body: challenges

Global factors shape the national and local business environment. Tourism, aviation, employment, foreign capital is some of the interrelated factors which get easily impacted by global adversaries. Disasters, pandemics such as COVID 19, war and political instability at the global level are some of the factors which negatively impact the business relying on global customers. Hotel industry is one such sector which is based on the customer’s demand. Customers can be divided into domestic types (those traveling within the native country) and foreign customers (tourist and business purpose travelers going from one country to another) are the primary factor of revenue in the hotel industry.    

Hotel Industry & Tourism Challenges

The hotel industry has certainly come a long way from challenges ranging from human resource shortage to new emerging markets needing expansion of the hotel industry (Chiang, Birtch, & Cai, 2013). Technology and its allied applications such as social media marketing and promotion offer new competitive edges and a dire need for hotel businesses to evolve. Apart from the technical aspect, the basic challenges faced by the hotel industry in the global sector are mainly the demand from the tourist and customers. Low turnout of the tourist in any city or country would mean that hotel business will face concerns of business revenue generation and thus, need to reduce the operating cost and shed the extra employees. A full cycle of dependant sectors such as employment, revenue, and taxation relies on the booming hotel sector, which can result in economic hardships for any city. An economic recession such as of 2008 can also impact the hotel industry is a great deal impacting the financial budget involving the fixed cost, operational expenses, and profit margins. Seasonal fluctuations are also secondary level shocks impacting the hotel industry but a season-related shortage of demand is an internal factor and depends largely on the local tourist and business diversity.

Two of the main challenges impacting the hotel industry in current times as well as going to be the key concern to devise any solution oriented management framework is elaborated below: 

 Environment and climate change

 Environment sustainability has now pitched as a global hallmark of consorting the business. Supply chain stakeholders, service providers, and customers are increasingly aware of the need to conduct business, provide services and prefer the services of only those organizations having a good reputation and creditable ratings in keeping the environmental concerns at the forefront of business management. Currently, environmental sustainability and climate change concerns have become the biggest global factor impacting all and every business. The ripple effect phenomenon of climate change impacts is going to matter in terms of local, national and international levels. The climate change is directly impacting the tourism sector which in turn is closely connected with the profitability and sustained operations of the hotel business (Tsalis & Nikolaou, 2017).  In order to understand the gravity of impact from climate change in the hotel sector, it is equally important to understand the relation of climate change factors and how the hotel business operates.

There are no immediate concerns from climate change which the hotel industry can fight off. Climate change and environmental sustainability is a long term business strategy that is going to be very important in the coming years (Hong, 2018). The current functions of the hotel industry do not pollution which is not controllable and containable. The frontline environmental concerns such as using the non-renewable energy sources for operations creating kitchen waste and wastewater is going to be effectively managed by the current waste management and energy solutions. Also, the important part of the hotel industry is the logistical and supply chain support. In order to address the concerns of environmental sustainability, all the logistical and supply chain stakeholders need to comply with the green business practices. The support system providing the food, paper, water, and other support also runs on energy and produces waste which again can be tackled by effective management strategies. The only problem is the nature of climate change and the preparedness of the hotel industry depending upon the cost and scale of the business (Anansiriprapha & Wu, 2016). Climate change factors are largely causing a rise in temperature, leading to a global rise in sea level. The nature of the global scale is such that the majority of the cities located on the coastal lines will be inundated if the climate change impacts won’t be checked. This has to be with all the business along with the hotel industry. But, the precursor to the global rise in temperature is also contributed by the release of greenhouses gases. The other major pollution caused by the hotel is related to the noise, smoke, chemical pollutants. But, the release of the CFC’s is likely to be the main contributor to the overall climate change implications.

The example of “Flight shaming” which is about the public shame in using the airlines to commute from one place to another because of the increased carbon emission by the airlines has already started showing its impact on major airlines operating between European cities (Aboulafia, 2019). The concept of flight shaming was propelled by young Swedish activists, Greta Thunberg promoting the people to shun the air travel. Major cuts on the airline customer flow will go to impact the travel flows and thus the impact will go on to impact the hotel industry as well (DiScala, 2019).      

Technological challenges for marketing and promotions

There is a major disruption in the hotel industry due to technology implications. Dynamic change in technology is forcing hotelier management to think and redraw the management and marketing strategies more often than any other challenge (Mathews, 2019). The customer demands the advanced technology and the hotel preference in technology matters has forced the hotel management to look into the change in the infrastructure of hotel interiors. The need for change in the hotel industry has made the hotel management frame technology agile, nimble and flexible strategies (Perini, 2011). The rise in social media use of the technology has challenged the hotel industry to work out the human resources hiring and implant the technology gadgets as a primary service demand of customers.     

The hotel management is facing problems in terms of ease of installations and software integrations. The website is the primary information face of the hotels of international and local reputes. The website of hotels holds great capabilities in terms of exciting features in the integration of the software. The property management system for large hotel establishments is primary a communication and integration tool that needs to get enhanced. Any delay in integrating the customer’s preferences and online tools such as hotels CRM, CRS, POS, social media, etc. small hotel business are unable to integrate their PRM with that of technology because of low operational cost (Gonzalez, Gasco, & Llopis, 2019).

Another issue of technology linked issues in the hotel industry is the lack of centralized solution providers. Offering guest-centric services to the customers does require a customized approach of technology which is currently a centralized human-controlled approach. With the use of technology a robust portfolio is required that can offer efficiencies, visibility and control of organizations (Guzzo, Abbott, & Madera, 2019). Marketing and promotion platforms based n the social media is also offering competition for new innovative hotel businesses. The worldwide approach of social media is making the business tough field and marketing options in terms of flexibility offered by competitors such as Airbnb is posing a threat to the hotel business. 

Recommendations/solutions

Climate change strategy requires the hotel management to plan for the effective building management system based on green practices. The management plans need to work on the effective building controls which are creating the temperature rise and can offer green living. The economic benefit of offering the environmental friendly stay in the hotels will be charged from the clients as a green tax (Xie, Zhang, Zhang, Singh, & Lee, 2016). The minimization of the waste materials, enhancing the use of recycled utensils and equipment, using the paperless office working patterns and using the online monitoring systems with sensor-based equipment; the reduction in energy usage will certainly garner more customer likability.   

Technology is a great source of marketing and business integration. The hotel business is a customer-oriented business where technology can impact very positively. Technology and sensor-based monitoring equipment will also help the building management system to work more energy-friendly and as per the needs of the customers (Viglia, Minazzi, & Buhalis, 2016). Social media sites are a great source to revamp management strategies as per customer feedback and likability. It is an excellent customer relations application where frequent travelers and guests can be offered a high-value service enhancing business loyalty and retaining the clients. Managing the roosters, working shifts of the teams working in a hotel can also be effectively created and shared and managed by integrating the technology into operation management. 

Strategy in Various Stages

The first strategy is to control the contribution of carbon emission and GHG’s. The strategy includes following stages:

  • Assessment: Current practices of business in hotel industry as well as any individual hotel premises needs to be put on assessment regarding the use and type of resources involved.
  • Identify: Once the assessment of energy intensive products and process is done, correct identification is to be made on the various level of danger and priority of changing or alternatives.
  • Alterative: Once, the identified process or gadget is noted, the alternative process and gadget is to be put to use replacing the original energy consuming process.

The second strategy will also follow various stages of software integration involving:

  • Identifying the current needs and customer base as well as an assessment of the current service is to be done along with the trend in customer preferences.
  • Social media platforms need to be created by creating a separate team of one or two person under a manager tasking to work on a social media marketing strategy.
  • Integrate the CRM and test it before operating.

Conclusion

The hotel industry is going through a drastic change. Technology innovation and disruption is a constant agent that seeks to impact the hotel business. Changing customer preferences and technological changes have been a constant cost investment for the hotel business. The small hotel business is dealing with the pressure of technological-based customer demands but also using the cost-effective website and online booking solutions to reutilize the operation cost. Climate change and environmental concerns are not an immediate threat that would usher the change in daily operations of the hotel industry, but it is a clarion call for the entire business line and allied activities to reassess the current business trends to a minute level of detailing and refocus to contribute to the fight against climate change and environmental challenges.  Technology is a challenge only for that hotel having low budget investment and reducing profit margins whereas the hotel chains focusing on the larger customer service and operational strengths can still use technology to its own benefit.  

References

Aboulafia, R. (2019). Flight Shaming Threatens To Take Air Travel Industry Down Tobacco Road. Retrieved April 17, 2020, from Forbes website: https://www.forbes.com/sites/richardaboulafia/2019/07/11/are-air-travelers-fated-to-join-smokers-as-social-pariahs/#497207aa325c

Anansiriprapha, P., & Wu, X. (2016). Economic Factors on the Tourism Industry in Thailand. SSRN Electronic Journal. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2858937

Borralha, S., Jesus, S. N. de, Pinto, P., & Viseu, J. (2016). Hotel employees: A systematic literature review. Tourism & Management Studies12(1), 120–126. https://doi.org/10.18089/tms.2016.12112

Chiang, F. F. T., Birtch, T. A., & Cai, Z. (2013). Front-line Service Employees’ Job Satisfaction in the Hospitality Industry. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly55(4), 398–407. https://doi.org/10.1177/1938965513514628

DiScala, J. (2019, October 11). The Flight Shaming Phenomenon Is Here: Business Travelers Should First Consider These 4 Factors Before Flying. Retrieved from Inc.com website: https://www.inc.com/john-discala/the-flight-shaming-phenomenon-is-here-business-travelers-should-first-consider-these-4-factors-before-flying.html

Gonzalez, R., Gasco, J., & Llopis, J. (2019). ICTs in hotel management: a research review. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management31(9), 3583–3609. https://doi.org/10.1108/ijchm-07-2017-0470  

Hong, J. (2018). Rise of the Sharing Economy and the Future of Travel and Tourism Industry. Journal of Business and Hotel Management07(02). https://doi.org/10.4172/2169-0286.1000180

Mathews, B. (2019). The Unique Technology Challenges Faced by Large Hotel Chains (Part 1 of 2 Part Series) | By Binu Mathews. Retrieved April 17, 2020, from Hospitality Net website: https://www.hospitalitynet.org/opinion/4095059.html

Perini, V. (2011). What are the three big technology issues for the hotel industry? Retrieved from www.phocuswire.com website: https://www.phocuswire.com/What-are-the-three-big-technology-issues-for-the-hotel-industry  

Tsalis, T. A., & Nikolaou, I. E. (2017). Assessing the Effects of Climate Change Regulations on the Business Community: A System Dynamic Approach. Business Strategy and the Environment26(6), 826–843. https://doi.org/10.1002/bse.1953

Xie, K. L., Zhang, Z., Zhang, Z., Singh, A., & Lee, S. K. (2016). Effects of managerial response on consumer eWOM and hotel performance. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management28(9), 2013–2034. https://doi.org/10.1108/ijchm-06-2015-0290

Viglia, G., Minazzi, R., & Buhalis, D. (2016). The influence of e-word-of-mouth on hotel occupancy rate. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management28(9), 2035–2051. https://doi.org/10.1108/ijchm-05-2015-0238


Hotel Industry & Tourism Challenges Assignment By Subject Academy

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Why Should Emirati Female Students Study Abroad?

Introduction:

Every individual is unique and comes with a set of talents which are their very own. While the concept of traveling overseas for studies is not new, it has become a trend recently, with parents expecting their wards to travel far to gain an education. The question here is, should this trend be allowed or should the female students in Emirates go overseas to gain enough knowledge in their area or should they stick with the local universities?  There are many who argue that going overseas might bring more exposure and opportunities. However, there are some other sections which are against this trend and suggest that the preferences should be based upon individual interests and also upon the caliber of the student. The debate here is not about giving equal opportunities, but about what are the challenges she will be facing when traveling abroad and is it necessary to face them when she can study in Emirates itself.

Thesis Statement:

Although many Emirati women want to study abroad, they have to overcome many challenges before they can go ahead with their plans

Argumentative Essay

Support Section – 1 Parental and Guardian Approvals

While the world has advanced considerably and moved forward, there are some very big challenges faced by Emirati female students when it comes to studying abroad. One of the most challenging aspects is getting the parental or guardian permission for traveling abroad to study (Coker, M. 2018). Here, one needs to understand that it is not only the overseas studies which require permission from the guardians but even local travels away from home is controlled depending upon whether a parent or a guardian offers acceptance for it. So, despite winning a scholarship or a seat in a prestigious college abroad, parental controls act as a mandatory factor before they can travel.

Also, many female students are controlled by societal constraints when it comes to higher studies. Many times, even when they get the opportunities, the lack of male guardianship to accompany them abroad or their permission has made them leave opportunities (Steph, 2015). Parents, with close-mindedness about women traveling, stop them from grabbing opportunities which have come their way. Researchers are of the opinion that this trend be because, the parents are still scared of their daughters being made victims of hateful rumors and other societal pressures (Saeed, A., 2016). This challenge is something that many individual female students have to face before they can fulfill their dreams.

Support Section – 2 Religious and Cultural Divide

Another very serious challenge that the students face in a foreign soil is the religious and cultural divide. Although the globalization has brought many changes in the values and traditions held by people around the world, some of the most stringent norms still stick together. That is why; several Emirati women who travel for studying find it hard to get accustomed to the cultural divide faced by them outside their country. In order to cope up with this, people opt for countries which are more traditional in their norms and do not outrightly neglect traditions. Ireland, for examples, is a country where many Emirati feel at home, due to their calm and quiet surroundings and traditional values. One of the female students who is studying in Ireland has been quoted by the reporter as saying: “People are more conservative than other western countries or other European nations’’ (Gokulan, D., 2013). This attitude is seen in many female students who feel that their parents would be more forthcoming if they choose such universities.

Argumentative Essay

Even though, it is not always possible to choose such countries or institutes based upon the traditional values or equivalent family orientation alone. Students living abroad say in the US and the UK feel the one thing they miss the most is their celebrations. ‘Eid and other festive occasions mark a matter of highest importance in the life of Emirates and this is what they lack when they live abroad. There is also the fact about living independently when they are so much used to having a house help of some sort of person accompanying them everywhere (Mehari, A.D). Again here, the opinions vary. Many girl students are happy living overseas, even though there are challenges to be faced, such as discriminations or stereotyping of being from Arab countries.

Support Section – 3 Language and a Higher level of Education

It is true that the Universities in the UAE are catching up with the world in their educational reforms and modifications to match up with their contemporaries. However, there are still certain difficulties faced by the students when they travel abroad. Language barriers are one of them seen amongst not only the female Emirati students but also the male ones too. English, the primary language in all institutions across the world, save for a few countries, has posted a great challenge for the Emirati female students. Although Universities in Emirates have their medium of instruction as English, the society as a whole and the household itself has found to become bigger issues for the students traveling abroad. Many feel that this language issue has restricted their communication with fellow students and have hampered their writing skills too (Abu Rabia, H.M., 2017). Not only the writing skills or communication is affected, but the overall grades also very much decreased, making it challenging for the female students to cope up with the pressure.

The same is also true for the higher level of education in the universities abroad. While there has been constant change in the Emirati Universities to match up with the concepts and quality of education, female students traveling overseas have found the levels of education and expectations much higher in case of those universities than they were used to at home. Many take it up as a challenge to rise to the occasion and come up with several ways to tackle it, while several find it extremely difficult to cope up. The female students are more so, with their lack of communication levels and cultural shocks they face in such societies (McClusky, B., 2017). With male and female students placed in the same classrooms, it becomes difficult for many to even adjust to the norms and adapt to cultural shocks. There is also the issue of male professors in the overseas universities, which makes it difficult for the students to even get up to ask queries regarding their subjects (McLean, M & Higgins, S. B). All this and much more makes it difficult for them to cope up with a higher level of education, thereby reducing their grades.

Counterargument: 1

There is a debate in many sections and even in the media that both male and female students have similar issues when it comes to cultural and language issues. The male students are also stereotyped as the female.

Rebuttal: 1

The point of contention here is that although the issues may be the same, there are certain facts such as Arab women not used to mixing with the male at home that poses a challenge for them. Also, the clothing makes a huge difference when it comes to men and women. While most women are used to Hijab at home, the same is not true for the male students. The same is true for sitting in the same class as the male students too. One of the female students felt it a sin to sit with a male counterpart in her class overseas, or even taught by a male teacher because she is not used to it back home (Abu Rabia, H.M., 2017).

Language is also a problem more so with the female student because with male going out and communicating with more people, the language barrier seems to decrease. This is not the case with the female student, because they are confined at home, with only their siblings and family members to talk to and communicate, which is mostly in their local tongue.

Counterargument: 2

There is also a debate in different sections of the society that several Emirati female students travel abroad today and have moved to different counties for education. If there is a challenge, where is it? Parents are not restrictive anymore.

Rebuttal: 2

While it is all true on paper, there are still many challenges faced by Arab women, when they want to travel abroad for higher studies. One of the issues is that many parents believe in getting them married young, and not wanting their daughters to travel to places and bring a bad name to their households (Raghavan, S., 2017). Similarly, the researchers have found that the social and parental pressures are still very much there are and the female students cannot move to another country without someone accompanying them. There is also this conservative attitude about the ‘biological role’ played by the female students in a society, and why they should not pursue higher education, such as in Medicinal field (McLean, M & Higgins, S. B.). These girls, when they aspire to become something or want to go abroad are married off earlier to avoid such conflict of opinion. Hence, even though there are changes, and many female students are going abroad, there are still many challenges that the female students face, more than the male counterparts.

Conclusion:

The female Emirati students face a whole lot of challenges when they plan to go abroad to study further. Apart from the societal pressures, such as parental pressures, and cultural issues, they also find it difficult to cope up with the sudden changes they face in the other country. Being brought up in a confined environment and with limited interaction with the male of the society; it becomes difficult for them to face changes in the new place. The same is true with cultural shocks and other barriers such as speaking in a different language too. With most of them not very conversant in English, their communication becomes limited and they try to struggle to cope up with the problems. However, one positive aspect is that things are changing, and there are many more female Emirati students going abroad to study further. With Universities in the UAE making it easier for female students to study further than their high school, it has become easier for them to interact even with the male students in such universities. Even the parents are relenting, when they see what is happening in society. It is only up to the female students now to come out of the societal norms to make a mark in the world, in their own field.

References:

McClusky, B. (2017). Investigating the relationships between education and culture for female students in tertiary settings in the UAE. Edith Cowan University. Retrieved November 30, 2018, from https://ro.ecu.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2976&context=theses.

Ahmad, A. S., Dr, & AlDarmaki, F., Dr. (2017). Uncovering Educational Barriers to Female Leadership in the United Arab Emirates. Zayed University. Retrieved November 30, 2018, from https://www.zu.ac.ae/main/en/research/publications/_documents/Educational Barriers to Female Leadership in UAE.pdf.

Coker, M. (2018, June 22). How Guardianship Laws Still Control Saudi Women. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2018/06/22/world/middleeast/saudi-women-guardianship.html

Gokulan, D. (2013) Studying abroad: Emirati students adjust to Ireland life. Retrieved from <https://www.khaleejtimes.com/nation/education/studying-abroad-emirati-students-adjust-to-ireland-life

Mehairi, D. A. (2013). Emirati students abroad face a variety of challenges. Retrieved from http://zajelzu.ae/2013/01/24/emirati-students-abroad-face-a-variety-of-challenges/

Steph (2015) Help! I want to study abroad but my parents won’t let me! Retrieved from <https://whywaittoseetheworld.com/i-want-to-study-abroad-parents-wont-let-me/>

Raghavan, S (2017) Saudi women need permission from male guardians for life choices. Will new reforms help end this? Retrieved from <https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2017/05/12/saudi-women-need-permission-from-male-guardians-for-life-choices-will-new-reforms-help-end-this/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.a3ada632079a>

Abu Rabia, H. M. (2017). Undergraduate Arab International Students’ Adjustment to U.S. Universities. International Journal of Higher Education,6(1). Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1123643.pdf.

McLean, M., & Higgins, S. B. (2017). Male and female Emirati medical clerks ’ perceptions of the impact of gender and mobility on their professional careers. Bond University Faculty of Health Sciences & Medicine Publications. Retrieved December 1, 2018, from https://epublications.bond.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2528&context=hsm_pubs.


Essay on Why Should Emirati Female Students Study Abroad?

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Organization Behaviour Essay

Introduction:

Mr Simon is a line manager in a retail organization. He has been serving the organization at the same post for the past 12 years. During this period, he has twice been considered for promotion, and rejected in favour of other candidates due to better formal qualifications, despite having considerably more experience. Recently, he was rejected for promotion for the third time. This has completely wrecked his morale and lost all desire to work for the organization any more. He was overheard discussing with his colleague by his team leader that his career has become completely stagnant in this organization and its time to move on for the sake of his career(Erdem & Ozen, 2014). The team leader, as well as the whole team[l1] , are worried about the potential loss of Mr Simon as he is an integral part of the team. He is highly regarded by the members of the staff as well.

In this essay, we will understand and address the case of Mr Simon in the most effective way possible. The major issues arising here, such as negative perception and hurting the spirit of teamwork, will be addressed(Chong & Wolf, 2010).

Perception:

Perception is defined as the process of experiencing the world surrounding us and all the elements in it via our sensory organs. The unlimited sources of information around us emit unlimited amounts of information that we can interact with, with the help of our sensory organs. These sensory organs supply us with ‘sense’(Homberg, McCarthy, & Tabvuma, 2015).

Featuresof Perception:

Perception is a complex psychological as well as physiological process that mainly possesses the following features:

  • It is a process of intellectual form that via which a person chooses and selects the information from its sources, organizes and extracts sense out of it.
  • It is a cognitive process that indicates that the actions, thoughts, and emotions of people are directly influenced by their perception of subjects.
  • It is a subjective process. It may slightly or greatly vary from person to person(Badubi, 2017).
Organization Behaviour Essay

The process of Perception:

  1. Inputs of Perception – The first stage where a person comes across various types of data and information around him. The process of perception starts as soon as the person starts interacting with this information. These informational objects can be objects, ideas or people.
    1. Implementation of Perception – It is the second stage where the selection, organization, and interpretation of stimuli take place. The selection of stimuli is selecting the one particular stimulus to respond to, out of an infinite number of it. The organization of stimuli is the categorization and prioritization of information on the base of perceptual grouping(Hsieh, 2016).
    1. The output of Perception – After the observation, organization, and processing of stimuli, the final output comes out, it can be in the form of an action such as the formation of an attitude, belief, opinion, etc. about the stimuli(Morteza, Abbas, & Salahshour, 2013).

Perception in the case of Mr. Simon:

The situation of Mr. Simon clearly highlights a change of perception from productive, motivating and positive to the exact opposite. He started out and carried on his job diligently for over a decade. This clearly highlights his positive perception of his job. He clearly felt he deserves a promotion which a rightful expectation for an employee of his quality. But then his promotion was rejected for the first time, on the basis of comparatively lesser formal qualifications. This must-have affected his perception, although not by much but to a limited extent. Then he carries on his job diligently and in the next few years, applies for promotion again(Seejeen, 2020). This time his promotion is rejected as well, based on the same reasoning. Now, this was bound to have hurt his positive perception and demotivated him as well. A hint of negativity also spread among his team members. He still kept himself together and carried on doing his job carefully. Now, for the third time, his promotion has been rejected for the same cause, despite him serving for over 12 years with a clean and commendable record. This has clearly created a perception of negativity, depreciation, and stagnation of his career(Im & J. W., 2013). He is completely demotivated and even discussing his departure from the organization. He won’t be able to carry on his job with the same determination and industry, naturally. His team members, who acknowledge his skills and specialization, are also worried about the same treatment in their careers. This has hurt the morale of all the members of the team. This could lead to a lack of teamwork and ultimately, a loss for the organization. But what is teamwork? How it affects the performance of an organization? Let us find out(Andersen J. A., 2010). [l2] 

Motivation and Atitude

Motivation and attitude are two key points that go hand in hand. Motivation comes when there is apprication of work which in return changes the attitude of the person. If the work of an employee is not appreciated his attitude gets affected. In the case an employee who was rejected thrice his attitude changed from positive to negative and after surving the company for 10 years he considered leaving the job which agin reflects negative attitude, demotivation and  dissatisfaction(Andersen & Kjeldsen, 2013). [l3] 

Types of attitudes:

1) Explicit attitude – These are the attitudes that you are fully aware of and influence your behaviour towards the subjects. You are consciously aware of these factors that directly affect our beliefs. For example, you meet a new person through your friends, and they are wearing a jersey of your favourite football team, you automatically form a likeable opinion about the person since you both support the same team. This attitude is explicit in nature i.e. this formation of a likeable opinion was deliberate (Beier, C., &amp; Kanfer, 2018) . Now relating the same to the case as Mr Simon dedicated his 10 in the company he had fored a likeness towards the company this was reflected from the behavior that we applied three time for the promotion.

2) Implicit attitude – These are the attitudes that you are not consciously aware of but still greatly influence your behaviour towards the subjects. You have no conscious awareness of your actions and behaviour but they still influence your beliefs(Kang, 2014). For example, you are walking down the street on a Saturday night. You see a person wearing a mask advancing towards you. You automatically form a feeling of danger from that person. The person could be wearing the mask to keep the cold out, but you will still unconsciously develop an opinion about that person. This attitude is implicit in nature as this was not a deliberate action, but an unconscious opinion you formed (Coile&amp; Levine, 2011). In the case  Mr Simon discussed the issue with other employee and this might have affected perception of that another employee the attitude changed and it might have made him feel that this could happen to him as well.

The theory states about the what employee expect from the organization and what he receives can bring dissatisfaction in the employee. Mr. Simon epected a promotion based on experience which as his expectation but was denied on the base of qualification and here the theory was violated and affected the employess satisfaction(Caillier, Satisfaction With Work-Life Benefits and Organizational Commitment/Job Involvement: Is There a Connection?, 2012).

The theory states that the employee inputs his effort and expects a positive response in the form of rewars that brings satisfaction in them. In the case of Mr. Simon’s he was not rewared for his work.

[l4] 

Teamwork:

Teamwork can be defined as the collective effort put forth by a group of coordinated members. In the world of business, almost nothing can be achieved without collective efforts of a team, or simply, teamwork. Organizations employ hundreds, thousands, and even millions of employees that work in groups to achieve the goals of the organization. The members of such teams are required to possess some specific skills and qualities to able to work efficiently in a group(Caillier, Does public service motivation mediate the relationship between goal clarity and both organizational commitment and extra-role behaviours? , 2014). Let us understand the importance of teamwork in a more elaborated manner:

Teamwork

Importance of Teamwork:

Targets are achieved faster – This is the primary benefit of teamwork. It is naturally apparent that a group of skilled members will complete a task at a much higher pace than an individual. The responsibilities get delegated and workload gets distributed accordingly to relieve the pressure and improve working accuracy. When the workload gets shared and individual targets highlighted, the overall work gets done in a much quicker manner. This is the reason behind such a serious implementation of teamwork throughout the world of business(Cantarelli, Belardinelli, & Belle, 2015).

Efficiency and effectiveness – No business organization can run successfully without sufficient profits. And pending work is not going to generate profits. It is instrumental to deploy teams specializing in different fields to get as much work done as possible on time. The approaches to the accomplishment of goals can be discussed before and through the process to minimize doubts and delays.

Work is always the priority – For example, John is an accounting assistant in his organization, but he fell prey to serious illness and will be unable to attend office for four weeks. Now the work John was supposed to be doing will be delayed for as long as he is out. This is where teamwork rescues the day. Another member of his team will step up and share his workload to continue the work. This is a crucial aspect for any business organization, letting such incidents hurt the performance of the organization is not an option. Teamwork is the way to go(Chordiya, Sabharwal, & Goodman, 2017).

Professional development of staff – Teamwork leads to sharing and learning of various skills, abilities, and qualities among the members of the group. This works in favour of all by cultivating positive characteristics among the team members, improving the quality of staff for the organization, ultimately leading to better performance and profits.

Development of competitive spirit – A healthy competition is a positive sign for any group as it drives the members to better than one another, ultimately elevating the overall quality of the team.

Development of team spirit – When a group of people works together for some time, sharing their authority and abilities, leads to the formation of a strong bond that is based upon trust and reliance. This results in the formation of team spirit which often leads to long-term retention of staff for the organization.

Self-assessment of members – Teams do not require any specialist eye of supervision as members of the team act as supervisors to one another. This is a total benefit situation for the organization(Chu & Lai, 2011).

Theory of Teamwork:

Teamwork isn’t a modern concept. In fact, it’s not even a medieval concept, it’s been around for centuries. Alexander the great, the Macedonian king who conquered every place he marched to, relied heavily upon the teamwork of his army. A further peak into this will clear up the doubts further–

  1. Scientific management theory – This theory was put forward by Frederick Winslow Taylor. He was an engineer for a firm called Bethlehem Steel in 1889. He started observing his workers who were tasked with the unloading of iron off rail cars and loading steel. He found out that they were deliberately working under capacity. He approached this observation scientifically and found out that the workers were currently loading 12.5 tonnes of metal in a day, while they were easily capable of loading 47.5 tonnes of metal per day(Fernandez & Moldogaziev, Employee empowerment and job satisfaction in the U.S. federal bureaucracy., 2013). He decided to motivate his workers by motivating them with the help of substantial incentives. He announced increased wages in return for higher metal loading goals. This scheme worked successfully. His research provided these crucial observations-
  2. Work should be scientifically analyzed to find out the best method to perform it.
  3. Staff selection should be carefully conducted in order to get the best employees.
  4. There should be co-operation among the managers and sub-ordinates. This promotes understanding and clearer communication among the employees.
  5. Management should focus on preparing plans and approaches for the workers to execute them efficiently.

This theory shows us the significance of having hard-working employees in an organization to maximize the outputs with minimum inputs ultimately resulting in greater profits(Fernandez, Resh, Moldogaziev, & Oberfield, 2015).

Teamwork in the case of Mr Simon:

As discussed earlier, the potential departure of Mr Simon from the organization has already caused a strong wave of discomfort among the members of his team. This is certainly going to hurt the individual as well as collective performances of the members, ultimately hurting the performance of the organization. Mr Simon, who is held in high regard by his team members, is seriously considering his future at the organization and even has discussed his intention to leave the firm as he feels his denial of promotion has halted his career progress. Every member of the team is bound to empathize with him, and hypothetically imagine the same scenario for themselves, leading to a strong feeling of insecurity for their future. The morale of the team will be down the hill and you can not expect unhappy employees to perform well. This is going to be a disaster for the organization(Frampton, 2014). [l5] 

Solution suggested:

Diligent, loyal and determined employees are a precious commodity to any organization. Mr Simon definitely fits the description of such an employee. His third successive rejection of promotion is forcing him to make the ultimate decision of leaving the organization for his own good. There is no doubt that Mr Simon deserves the promotion to the next level. The organization themselves will greatly benefit by having such a high-quality staff member at a higher post with greater responsibilities. This is will further motivate him to work harder. The doubts among his team members will also be addressed leading to better performances and higher profit for the organization. So, the top management should discuss the issue with Mr Simon, and duly promote him. They should also fix their promotion policy to prevent any future incidents of this nature(George & Pandey, 2017).

Conclusion:

The case of Mr Simon has shown us a common scenario in the corporate world. He served as a trusty workhorse for the organization and expected a promotion as any other employee in his shoes would. But due to a faulty promotion policy,he wasn’t promoted. The theories discussed have helped in highlighting the issues as well as provided the ways to remedy it. One should always remember, a happy employee will always perform better than an unhappy employee.[l6] 

References

Andersen, J. A. (2010, Dec 24). Public versus private managers: How public and private managers differ in leadership behavior. . Public Administration Review, 70(1), 131–141. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6210.2009.02117.x

Andersen, L. B., & Kjeldsen, A. M. (2013, Aug 15). Public service motivation, user orientation, and job satisfaction: A question of employment sector? International Public Management Journal, 16 (2), 252–274. doi:10.1080/10967494.2013.817253

Baba, V. V. (2012, May 25). Toward a theory of evidence-based decision making. Management Decision, 50(5), 832–867. doi:10.1007/s10551-018-3955-6

Badubi, M. R. (2017, Aug 3). Theories of Motivation and Their Application in Organizations: A Risk Analysis. International Journal of Innovation and Economic Development, 3(3), 44-51. doi:10.18775/ijied.1849-7551-7020.2015.33.2004

Caillier, J. G. (2012, May 8). Satisfaction With Work-Life Benefits and Organizational Commitment/Job Involvement: Is There a Connection? Sage Journal, 33(4), 340-364. doi:10.1177/0734371X12443266

Caillier, J. G. (2014, Nov 26). Does public service motivation mediate the relationship between goal clarity and both organizational commitment and extra-role behaviours? . Public Management Review, 18(2), 300–318. doi:10.1080/14719037.2014.984625

Cantarelli, P., Belardinelli, P., & Belle, N. (2015, March 31). A meta-analysis of job satisfaction correlates in the public administration literature. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 36(2), 115–144. doi:10.1177/0734371X15578534

Chong, E., & Wolf, H. (2010). Factors influencing followers’ perception of organisational leaders. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 402-419. doi:10.1108/01437731011056434

Chordiya, R., Sabharwal, M., & Goodman, D. (2017, Feb 27). Affective organizational commitment and job satisfaction: A cross-national comparative study. Public Administration, 95(1), 178–195. doi:doi/abs/10.1111/padm.12306

Chu, L.-C., & Lai, C.-C. (2011, jan 1). A research on the influence of leadership style and job characteristics on job performance among accountants of county and city government in Taiwan. Public Personnel Management, 101–118. doi:10.1177/009102601104000202

Emirza, S., & Katrinli, A. (2019, Nov 4). The relationship between leader construal level and leader-member exchange relationship: The role of relational demography. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 845-859. . doi:10.1108/LODJ-02-2019-0084

Erdem, F., & Ozen, J. ( 2014, Nov 14). Cognitive and affective dimensions of trust in developing team performance. Team Performance Management, 9 (5/6 ), 131 – 135. doi:10.1108/13527590310493846

Fernandez, S., & Moldogaziev, T. (2013, Nov 6). Employee empowerment and job satisfaction in the U.S. federal bureaucracy. The American Review of Public Administration, 45(4), 375–401. doi:10.1177/0275074013507478

Fernandez, S., Resh, W. G., Moldogaziev, T., & Oberfield, Z. W. (2015, March 31). Assessing the past and promise of the federal employee viewpoint survey for public management research: A research synthesis. . Public Administration Review, 75(3), 382–394. doi:10.1111/puar.12368

Frampton, J. S. (2014, Jan 31). Commentary: Public sector job satisfaction: A conversation with impact. . Public Administration Review, 74(3), 396–397. doi:10.1007/s11115-020-00465-6

Frank, J. d. (2018, July 2). Ethics and Behavioural Theory: How Do Professionals Assess Their Mental Models? Journal of Business Ethics volume, 2(19), 933–947. doi:10.1007/s10551-018-3955-6

George, B., & Pandey, S. K. (2017, March 15). We know the yin—But where is the Yang? Toward a balanced approach on common source bias in public administration scholarship. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 37(2), 245–270. doi:10.1177/0734371X17698189

Homberg, F., McCarthy, D., & Tabvuma, V. (2015, July 31). A meta-analysis of the relationship between public service motivation and job satisfaction. Public Administration Review, 75(5). doi:10.1111/puar.12423

Hsieh, J. Y. (2016, Jan 11). Spurious or true? An exploration of antecedents and simultaneity of job performance and job satisfaction across the sectors. Public Personnel Management, 45(1), 90–118. doi:10.1177/0091026015624714

Im, T. C., & J. W., &. C. (2013, Sep 18). Revisiting confucian bureaucracy: Roots of the korean government’s culture and competitiveness. Public Administration and Development, 33(4), 286–296. doi:10.1002/pad.1656

Kang, H. J. (2014, Oct 23). The impact of supervisory support on organizational commitment, career satisfaction, and turnover intention for hospitality frontline employees. Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism,, 14(1), 68–89. doi:10.1080/15332845.2014.904176

Morteza, R. D., Abbas, R., & Salahshour, S. (2013, June 21). Effects of Motivational Factors on Job Satisfaction: An Empirical Study on Islamic Azad University’s Faculty Members . World Applied Sciences Journal, 21(6), 894-901. doi: 10.5829/idosi.wasj.2013.21.6.2034

Seejeen, P. (2020, Jan 20). Determinants of the Job Satisfaction of Public Officials: Testing the Mediation Effect of Organizational Commitment. Public Organization Review, 1-20. doi:10.1007/s11115-020-00465-6


Organization Behaviour Essay by Subject Academy

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Role of Elephants in Ecosystem

Elephants are important to Ecosystem but there are many threats associated with them and we should start taking measures to protect them.

 Significance

As we are aware that all species play a vital role in our ecosystem same is the case with elephants. They are the most intelligent species with a very strong emotional consciousness. They are also the keystone to maintain the biodiversity of the ecosystem.

 It is belied the huge animal provides water for various other species, during the dry season they use their trunk to dig for water and this not only helps the elephants to survive in dry seasons but the water source is also used by other spices as well.

The animal is feared due to its huge size but this species has its own way to contribute towards the environment. Its major role is not mass destruction but their action eventually leads to some benefits as well. Likewise when they eat they create huge gaps in the vegetation which people might think is the destruction of plantation but these processes allow new plants to grow. These gaps also create pathway for small animals. They also help in seed dispersion helping other species to grow.

As the animal feed on fruits and vegetables, so where it leaves its dung that is full of seeds it helps in seed dispersion. Later the seeds are sown and grown into new grasses, bushes, and trees.

Owning an elephant?

This huge animal can also be used for business purposes like tourism etc. In some places, they are used for safaris. Some people use them to lift heavy logs. In India where people worship these animals, the elephant owners take a huge amount of money from worshipers just to touch the huge beast. Though the animal is really huge it is really cool-headed and it will not harm you until it senses danger around. In the southern part of India, they are the source of amusement as these animals are used for transportation. People who visit these parts enjoy animal safaris. Not only has this elephant also been an attraction of various circuses.

Role of Elephants in Ecosystem

 Impact of their existence

As already discussed earlier this animal has also been an essential element of our ecosystem. They have played a very vital role in the environment’s balance.  History has been quite evident of the fact that these animals have played a very vital role in construction work whether it was carrying the heavy logs and stones or changing the route of rivers. We have also learned that these animals have also been the part of wars in ancient history. This beast is also hunted for its ivory tusk which has led to decrease in population of this animal.

Savanna Elephants

They are known as largest subspaces of elephants and they are easy to distinguish as this beast has very large ears which radiate excessive heat and their front legs are comparatively larger than their hind legs. They are found in Africa. In Savanna, these species are further grouped in which there are 10 females and their cub the males associated with the group only during the mating timing. Sometimes in order to form a clam, the members of other group or herd mingle with other groups or herds. As the Savanna’s are grassland these animals are found gazing the grass but they also feed on wide variety of plants and fruits.  They feed more on grass during the rainy season than during the dry season. (T.R Mc Clanahan, 1996)

Threats for them

Though the animal is facing many threats the biggest threat is the human race. Due to the increasing population, most of the forest area or green lands are being converted into widely populated areas thus leading to deforestation and pollution which means encroaching their habitat and disturbing their lifestyle. There is a huge conflict between the humans and elephants as the human has encroached their grassland these beast move into the populated area or they sometimes enter the fields and destroy the crops due to which sometimes they get shot for raiding crops.

Sometimes these animals are hunted for their ivory tusk. Though the elephant tusk selling is prohibited it has a huge value in the black market and that is the most frequent hunting of these animals.

Not only this they are also hunted for their meat. It is quite evident that the threat is not just to this huge beast but human population is becoming a threat to every species. We are disturbing the balance of the ecosystem. (K.N. Ninan, 2007)

Conservation Acts

National park and Reserves

Though the national park and reserves are there to protect these wild animals the space is not enough and is too isolated for these wild beasts. These are the reason why these animals wander in the populated area and destroy the vegetative land.

Tourism

African government has taken strong steps to protect the species due to rising significance of the tourist trade to their economies. Every year Kenya alone receives 50 million dollars from tourism alone. (Kasnoff, 1996)

Prohibition of Trade

The decline of the species has been a big concern and due to this, there was a complete ban on ivory in 1990. All trade of elephant species was prohibited, some countries have built up strong laws to stop poachers but still in some parts illegal trade is still done. (T.R Mc Clanahan, 1996)

Conclusion

The only threat to these wild species is the human population. We humans have grown so greedy that we are ready to scarify the entire species in order to fulfill our greed, unnecessary needs and demands. Though the elephants are huge they are very emotional and friendly animals. As they are already aware of their huge size they are very gentle towards their surroundings. Whenever we think of an elephant we image a huge animal that moves slowly and is cool and calm most of the time.

It is believed the elephants were tamed in the Indus valley around 4000BC. They play a very important role in both Hindu and Buddhist religion. In Hindus lord Ganesha has an elephant head, he is believed to remove all the obstructions from your life. In Buddhism lord has spoken a lot about the elephants in his teachings.

Bibliography

K.N. Ninan, S. (2007). The econony of biodiversity Conservation. earthscan in the UK and USA.

Kasnoff, C. (1996). Bagheera. http://www.endangeredspeciesjournalist.com/ .

T.R Mc Clanahan, T. Y. (1996). East African Ecosystem and their conservation. Oxford university press.

K.N. Ninan, S. (2007). The econony of biodiversity Conservation. earthscan in the UK and USA.

Kasnoff, C. (1996). Bagheera. http://www.endangeredspeciesjournalist.com/ .

T.R Mc Clanahan, T. Y. (1996). East African Ecosystem and their conservation. Oxford university press.


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Compensation and Benefits in an Organization

Assessment of the compensation system of Simply Literature Production

The compensation system of Simply Literature Production is unsystematic. There is no official system for compensation and benefits of the employees of the firm. There is no regular record-keeping for the performances of the employees. There is no performance analysis and no systematic arrangement of employees. Despite employing 120 people, there is a complete lack of methodical and structured employment as most of them are made to work in production. A small number of supervisors who are puzzled about their job are often contradicting each other. How are they supposed to “supervise” their subordinates if they are themselves disorganized and ill-informed about their jobs? The employment of relatives despite their inability to perform well shows bias, appointment of only one book-keeper for over a hundred employees is bound to result in confusions and conflicts, the dearth of specialists in any field shows a complete deficiency of specialization in the firm, the lackadaisical distribution of leaves shows no ambition for the organizational goals and, lastly, the jumbled bonus system will sure to hurt the morale of the employees. In short, there’s a total lack of a systematic approach throughout the management of the firm which is bound to failure.(Long, Strategic Compensation in Canada: Evaluating Individuals, 2018)

Compensation and Benefits

The reason behind the high turnover of new employees

Considering the highly unorganized nature of the management of the firm, it is not a surprise that most of the employees end up resigning in a short passage of time and are replaced by the new ones. The major reasons behind this are:

  • The supervisors have to work in the management as well as the production. They have confused about their job profile. How can one expect them to control and supervise their subordinates? This leads to poor management and creates chaos among the employees. Ultimately, they leave and the vacancies are filled by recruits.
  • There is no proper program for employee compensation and benefits. They are given bonuses based on the owner’s memory of them every Christmas. This will demotivate the employees and ultimately force them out of the firm. The basic concept of motivation by monetary incentives is absent.
  • The lack of organizational goals and objectives has led to a mix-up of employees in various tasks. Supervisors are working in production, only one bookkeeper is handling the books of 120 employees and most of the recruitments are biased in favour of the owner’s relatives. There are no organizational or personal goals outlined.
  • There is no performance review and analysis, no salary and compensation audit and no appraisal program on a timely basis. The new employees are on the mercy of the owner’s memory. The older ones are always well-paid since the owner considers them loyal no regards to their performance whatsoever. This will alienate the new employees instead of welcoming them, ultimately forcing their hand to pen the resignation.
  • There is no delegation of decision making power, authority and responsibility throughout the firm. Everyone is clueless about their powers and ultimately come to the owner for the solution. This will unnecessarily prolong a simple decision and also create a sense of low self-esteem among the employees since they hold no authority to make even a simple decision.
  • The noticeably larger difference among the bonuses distributed among the employees is bound to create discontent among them. This will spread disharmony among the employees resulting in their resignations one after another.
  • Lastly, the complete lack of a systematic operation of the firm will fail in the retention of the employees in the long term.(Long, Strategic Compensation in Canada : A Behavioural Framework for Compensation, 2018)
  • Concepts of Compensation and Benefits that are violated here are:
  • A positive and natural reward system – Completely absent in this case. Irregular rewards harm than good.
  • Alignment of organizational goals with individual goals – There are no organizational objectives outlined and no relevance of individual interests.
  • Integrated reward system – The employees are rewards only on Christmas with no relation to their actual performances.
  • Faulty recruitment – The recruitment is biased towards the relatives of the owner with no regard to their actual suitability for the organization.
  • Performance review – There is no performance analysis and review system. No appraisals for well-performing staff and no periodic audit for salary compensations.
  • Staff retention – The owner is least bothered about staff satisfaction and the fact that there is a high of new employees.
  • Fairness and Effectiveness of the compensation system:

The compensation system applied here is neither effective nor fair. The bonus is distributed once a year based on the owner’s memory and personal opinion with no regard to their actual performances. The absence of a formal compensation system further deteriorates the situation.

  • Changes that should be introduced:
  • Proper and systematic recruitment of the staff. The bias towards the relatives of the owners despite their unsuitability for the job should be stopped.
  • Clear job descriptions and work-allotment. All fields should be given equal attention, from production to supervision to book-keeping.
  • A systematic performance analysis and review program.
  • A systematic approach to the compensation and benefits offered.

Establishment of a link between the personal goals of employees to the goals of the organization.(Long, Strategic Compensation in Canada :A Road Map to Effective Compensation, 2018)

Compensation and Benefits

Recommendations:

The company should carefully consult a Human Resource consultancy to create an effective compensation and benefit system. The recruitment process also needs help from professional hiring agencies. The job profiles and the corresponding compensation packages must be highlighted in the job descriptions. The appointment and work-allocation of the employees must be based on their qualities. There must be a balanced focus on all the necessary fields of the firm instead of focusing only on the production. The compensation and benefits provided to the employees must be linked with the organizational goals of the firm to create a sense of accomplishment among the employees. A fair, just and satisfactory compensation system goes a long way in securing the best employees for the long term future of the firm.A happy employee will always contribute in the growth of the company.

References

Long, S. (2018). Strategic Compensation in Canada : A Behavioural Framework for Compensation. Nelson.

Long, S. (2018). Strategic Compensation in Canada :A Road Map to Effective Compensation. Nelson.

Long, S. (2018). Strategic Compensation in Canada: Evaluating Individuals. Nelson.


Essay on Compensation and Benefits in an Organization by Subject Academy

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ADNOC Abu Dhabi National Oil Company

1. Introduction:

ADNOC is considered as one of the largest energy company of the world both in case of reserves and production. Ruwais and Umm Al Nar are two oil refineries operated by the company. These two oil refineries are having 18 subsidiary companies at upper level and under it at down level stage of production. The company gas fields at both onshore and offshore level. To increase the supply of local electricity and water utilities, the company export Liquid natural gas. The company provide electricity and water services to petrochemical plants.

Headquarter of ADNOC is located in Abu Dhabi. The building of the company contains sustainable technologies. There are more than 65 floors with an office tower in overall building complex which consists ofcrisis management center, a heritage museum, and other support facilities.

1.2 Objectives of the company:

The primary focus of the company is on strategic areas:

  • Investing in the people
  • Enhancing the company’s performance
  • Increasing profitability
  •  Optimizingefficiencies

1.3 Services of the company:

  • Exploration and production of oil and gas

Abu Dhabi Company for Onshore Petroleum Operations (ADCO)

In Abu Dhabi, ADCO works onshore and in shallow coastal water. The original name of the company was Petroleum Development. The first concession was given to the company on 11 January 1939 but its geological operations did not begin until after World War II. The first oil discovery of oil was made at Bab in 1960. In 1962, the company was renamed the Abu Dhabi Petroleum Company. Then the company started its exports on 14 December 1963. Then in 1973, 25% equity was acquired by government.And it was increased to 60% in 1974. This name Abu Dhabi Company for Onshore Petroleum Operations was adopted by the company in 1978.

Generating new job opportunities:

The company has clear motive of generating new job opportunities working towards the research and development and contributing towards growth in employment rate. Since 1971 they have created thousands of job for the people of Abu Dhabi and they have driven the growth of a diverse knowledge-based economy they also play a key role in the county’s global emergence. Not only this have they also contributed in education sector as well like an engineering education and energy industry Research College and a K-12 school.

Enhancing the company’s performance

The company strives towards success and continuous growth. It has been notice that over the years the company has become one of the leading industries. From past 45 years the company has played a major role in Abu Dhabi’s economic growth and development and also keeping on mind the preservation of hydrocarbons reserves of   the Emirate’s. They also provide operation and management of seaport and also offer oil and gas technical training services in order to enhance services. They are the leading energy producers in the world and the main reason behind Abu Dhabi’s development, growth and diversification. The work has had a positive and lasting impact on the quality of millions of lives. As for the contribution towards society is concerned so since 1971 they have created thousands of job for the people of Abu Dhabi and they have driven the growth of a diverse knowledge-based economy they also play a key role in the county’s global emergence. (OGJ, July 10)

Increasing profitability

They are the leading energy producers in the world and the main reason behind Abu Dhabi’s development, growth and diversification. The company across the entire natural oil chain creating huge network of businesses which is only possible by  including  exploration, distribution, storage ,production and refining to the development of a wide-range of petrochemical products in the industry.

As we all are aware that the company strives for excellence and is continuously working on the growth and development of the country as well as the company itself. (Anon., Oct. 16)

ADNOC

Energy Management Systems structure of ADNOC

As mentioned above the company focuses on overall growth. As stated by the Director Energy Manage Sponsor as large suppliers and consumer of energy the EnMS enables to deliver long-term gas plans under effective and cost effective way. The company has gained benefits of 6% from ENMs. So far the improvement has gone to 6% from the baseline since 2014

Optimizing efficiencies

The cumulative cost savings of US $150 million has been observed and reduction in emission of 3.1 million metric tons of carbon dioxide. The company’s midterm target is to reach to an improvement level of 10% by 2020 almost making the saving of about US $1 billion.

Now they strive for new and innovative ways to maximize the value of pioneering those approaches, the resources and technologies that will make sure that the company is able to meet the demands of every business market and will work towards the contribution of Abu Dhabi’s economy for coming future.

ADNOC

Services

  • Oil

Crude oil production

  • Gas

Gas oil, kerosene, fuel gas, LPG

  • Sulphur and marine transportation
  • Manufacture of petrochemicals

Polypropylene, ethylene, and polyethylene

  • Distribute petroleum products

Marine fuel, gasoline, jet fuel and lubricants.

  • Other services

Oilfield services and oil shipping

Convenience stores

The ownership and operation of gas stations

ADNOC

They provide services like drilling, crude oil production, natural gas, sour gas and liquefied natural gas, refined petroleum products like gasoline, gas oil, kerosene, fuel gas, LPG, liquid and granulated sulphur. Not only this the company also worked in the manufacture of petrochemicals which including polypropylene, ethylene, and polyethylene. Moving on to intermediate chemicals it including liquid and gaseous oxygen and nitrogen, xenon and krypton, some agriculture products include granular urea and ammonia.

They also distribute petroleum products that include marine fuel, gasoline, jet fuel and lubricants. The other services provided are oilfield services and oil shipping, convenience stores, the ownership and operation of gas stations, not only this they also have contributed in education sector as well like an engineering education and energy industry research college and a K-12 school, they also provide operation and management of seaport and also offers oil and gas technical training services in order to enhance services. (Oxford Business Group, 2015)

2. Contribution

2.1 Responsibilities Creation

They also have contributed in education sector as well like an engineering education and energy industry Research College and a K-12 school, they also provide operation and management of seaport and also offers oil and gas technical training services in order to enhance services.

They are the leading energy producers in the world and the main reason behind Abu Dhabi’s development, growth and diversification. The company across the entire natural oil chain creating huge network of businesses which is only possible by  including  exploration, distribution, storage ,production and refining to the development of a wide-range of petrochemical products in the industry.

Responsibilities Modification

As the company works towards its growth and achievements it also understands its responsibilities towards society and these are the reasons why the company is working on providing employment, education and research opportunities. The company looks for its betterment but it also works for the betterment of the society. They are the leading energy producers in the world and the main reason behind Abu Dhabi’s development, growth and diversification. (Molina, 2014)

The company across the entire natural oil chain creating huge network of businesses which is only possible by  including  exploration, distribution, storage ,production and refining to the development of a wide-range of petrochemical products in the industry.

ADNOC Abu Dhabi National Oil Company

Preconceived view of assignment

The six week internship provided a huge amount of knowledge and experience. According to my view this was the best way gain practical knowledge. I feel privileged to be a part of ADNOC internship team.

The internship was a golden opportunity to learn new thing from one of the biggest company.

Learning of the Internship

  • Introduction to Finance support manager function structure and role of responsibilities.
  • Checking the invoice uploaded by supplier at the end of the month.
  • Month end closing activities.
  • Contract review process.
  • Handling General ledgers
  • Cash Management
  • Providing cash forecast budget

The company’s contribution:

  • The company is making its strategy related to a Human resource by having in view the development and formation of mission, vision, and strategy of the business.
  • The company also ensure that there should be proper implementation of plans so that business targets can be achieved.
  • The company also motivate the employees time to time by providing those bonuses and appraisal.
  • It recommends a proper organizational structure to Human resource department so that all the resources can be properly utilized and communication should be proper. (Wilson, 1980)
  • There is proper arrangement of meetings, campaigns and conferences time to time to promote the plans for achievement of the desired target.
  • The company manages the recruitment strategy as well. There is proper structured interviewing of candidates, psychometric tests before hiring them.
  • The company ensures human resource department to make a timely budget for all the plans so that no budgetary issues should be there.
  • It ensures personal development plans for all the employees for their personal growth.
  • Training and development programs are organized time to time for growth of employees.

Explore new methods for learning new techniques which will augment the training process for the purpose to successfully train and develop personnel and improve organizational effectiveness.

This internship would be very beneficial for the future and placements. The experience of the industry would make me the right candidate for the job.

  • Can also apply in ADNOC
  • Practical knowledge hold great value.
  • Made my CV valuable

4. Impact on career

ADNOC Abu Dhabi National Oil Company
  • Contribution of College towards organization and career
  • The college provided the opportunity to work with the organization and gain experience.
  • Internship programs help students learn more and practically implement their knowledge.
  • Focuses on professional growth and development.

Contribution of college towards organization and your career

  • As the college provides these internship programs to the students thus paving the path of great success for the students.
  • Such programs provide job opportunities to the students.
  • Internship programs help students learn more and practically implement their knowledge.
  • Focuses on professional growth and development (Anon., Nov. 15)

Before hiring the employees, company need to have a match of individual and organizational needs. The company also focus on performance and appraisals time to time to motivate the employees. It’s the responsibility of Human resource manager to make sure for proper fit among employees and organization. Thus under career planning practices of the company, main considered facts are:

  • Matching of Individual-Organization before hiring employees
  • Identification of Career Opportunities and Requirements
  • Assessment of potential of employee
  • Instituting Career Development Initiative

The six week internship provided a huge amount of knowledge and experience. According to my view this was the best way gain practical knowledge. I feel privileged to be a part of ADNOC internship team.


ADNOC Abu Dhabi National Oil Company Research by Subject Academy

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Essay on Technological Disruption

Introduction

The 21st century is a time of profound technological disruptions. There are many positive consequences of these disruptions for technology along with some negative consequences too. Democratic campaigning is directly changing by digital technology. In the modern era, technological change is a distinctive factor. Some of the small new technological breakthroughs can have unexpected and huge consequences in changing the world. An innovation that alters the way that industries, consumers and businesses operate is termed as a disruption in technology. Preparing technological disruptions are difficult to prepare because they can appear suddenly. In this essay, a contradiction has been raised regarding the technological disruption and its negative impact on the social lives in the 21st century.

Technological disruptions in the 21st century

As per the viewpoint of García (2019), these technological disruptions are having both positive and negative consequences for democracy. The few examples of digital technology streaming media, self-driving cars, smart phones, and data science and analysis. Excessive use of technologies such as smart phones, televisions, video games and technical toys has a negative impact on the kids. This puts a bad effect on behavior, obesity, sleep problems, violence, and loss of social skills. Children who spend more time on digital devices experience symptoms of strain in the eye. Technologies and digital devices are providing a lot of data that assists people to gain deeper insights into motivation and brain processes under different conditions. In order to maximize focus and creativity, this enables people to design learning and environments to work. A huge ecosystem of innovative business models and e-commerce business tools has been created due to the digital explosion.

Technological Disruption

Negative consequences of technological disruptions

According to Del Barrio-García et al. (2019), technological disruptions have some negative consequences in the 21st century and many industries are threatened by technological disruption. Some of the industries that have been affected by creative destruction are like different types of travel websites that have eliminated the need for human travel agents. Due to blogs and online media, newspapers have seen a steady decline in recent times. On the other hand, Gordon (2017) advocated that lots of booksellers have to close their stores due to the rapid growth of online bookstores. Different car-sharing applications are giving the traditional taxi drivers a run for their money. One of the things of the past is the radio DJ’s and the software now chooses most of the played music, ads have been inserted and even reads the news. Media streaming has almost more or less the sales of CD and changed the model distribution of the home and music video industries. Supporting the previous opinion Read (2019), say that due to technological advancements, many jobs and industries will be lost. On the other hand, technology has also largely impacted the mental and physical health of the users. Being overly connected with technology can cause psychological issues and can also have negative repercussions by causing vision problems, loss of hearing and neck strain. 

Supporting argument

Initially, the discoveries in science do not have the positive and the negative impact but the usage of these technologies and its adverse effect develop the impact. Like the disruptive technologies that developed in the 21st century has created various negative impacts on democracy. According to Gainous, Wagner & Gray (2016), the use of social media has created a negative influence on the change of attitude of common people. The authors in 2010 have used multilevel models and to estimate the change in attitude of the common people by the increasing use of the internet. The result visualizes that social media usage is more profound to the countries with more internet freedom as for example Latin America.

The flow of information via the internet has created substantial effect on people’s feeling about the government and thus creating political instability. On the other hand Jurasz & Barker, (2019), the impact of social media on the section of e-commerce. The social media platforms are used by various people for harassing and using abusive tweets to politicians. For example, evidence from the amnesty international study says about harassing female politicians. The social media platforms are used for sending sexual threats, vulgar tweets and anti Semitic and hateful words. These social media platforms are also used by the opponent parties for delivering fake news among the citizens about the opponent team and thus creating misbalance in democracy among the public. As per Delis, Hasan & Ongena (2019) the e banking procedure of delivering loans has created disruption in democracy. The survey results show that the loans that are given online are hampering democracy as the loans are not refunded to the bank with proper interest. Due to the lack of documents, frauds are increasing in case of online banking. According to Alsayed & Bilgrami (2017), the recent increase in internet banking has increased the financial risk among many users. The phishing attacks have become most common and have become an online identity of theft because the confidential data can be easily stolen from the online portals by the hackers. Smartphone’s have shaped up the mind of the younger generation, video games, social media and various other apps has become the addictive zone. The recent study says that the recreation of the new activities in computers has deteriorated the labor supplies between the age group 21 to 30. The research also views the main problem that is faced by the common people is getting fake news which spread faster on twitter and other portals. As a result the citizens are less informed about many cases and thus delude is created in choosing a public figure (weforum.org, 2018).    

While adoption of technology may be disruptive to the well-being of people in the short term especially in relation to the jobs, it also has extended its negativity through centuries and makes the rights of democracy more vulnerable. As per the view of Young (2018), technologies are affecting the economy of a country, different businesses, data security, different crimes and terrorism, over-reliance on gadgets and a few more factors. Disruption of technology has equally supported the advantages and interrupted in the democratic rights of people. In the opinion of Moglia et al. (2018), data security is one of the most important factors which are getting violated by digital technology and lots of data can be stored and collected through digital technology. This consists of private data concerning individuals and organizations. It sometimes gets very difficult to keep all the data safe and important information may go into the hands of criminals, foreign enemies, and terrorists with just a single breach.

The Internet is often considered as the fertile territory of evil forces to operate due to its large scale and international nature that users can enjoy. For instance, using social media by the terrorists in order to promote them and encourage others, using chat rooms for exchanging various data like photos, videos, and other information. Gordon (2017) has mentioned that social disconnection and isolation happens due to the gradual increase in the tendency for people to communicate through social media rather than contacting in real life. Due to the lack of contact in real life, depression and mental illness are found very common in many people nowadays. 

Work overload is a primary matter of concern which is found in many workers nowadays who spend their days by keeping up with lots of emails which they are sent every week and some of those require immediate reply or action after reading. In some jobs such as minutes of a meeting, photographs, training videos, and reports where a huge amount of digital data are organized can also cause headaches. As per the opinion of García (2019), the global economy is deeply affected by technology and its use has been connected to the transformation in the marketplace. Progress in technology is supposed to increase the productivity of the economy and potential growth. 

The ever-present fake news problem is also there due to the high use of social media. According to Alsayed & Bilgrami (2017), it is found that fake news through social media spreads faster than true news. In many cases, this has not only made citizens less informed but also made the public figures dismiss the truth as fake. One of the most notable incidents is the 2016 election of the US when it is assumed that fake news on Facebook helped to elect Donald Trump as the new president. Adding to this, real-life events are no longer experienced by many people. With the use of social sites media is uploaded, concerts of music are videoed on mobile phones and different events are being photographed now. As digitized machines are replacing humans, society continues to become more depersonalized.               

Opposing argument

In contrast to previous arguments, this part has analyzed those concepts that strongly oppose the statement of negative consequences on democracy due to technological disruption in the 21st century. In the 20th century, technologies like social networking and electronic commerce were not developed at such a high rate as in 21st century. The disruption is remembered to be a positive force so the disruptive technologies are not breakthrough but it is an innovation of new techniques that signifies and alter the way of many industries, customers and the business operators. The disrupted technologies made the service more accessible and affordable and thereby making them applicable to a huge span of population. The disruptive technologies are like e-commerce, online new sites for registering complaints and other forms of the GPS system.

According to Chesney & Citron (2019), disruptive technologies have a positive effect on democracy as by using the online portals the distortions in the policy debates and the online manipulation of elections can be stopped. As per the concern of Shufutinsky et al. (2018), the practice in case of analyzing the conflicts of democracy and the resolutions will be changed by the disruptive technology. The advancement and the emerging of the new innovations of technology in the third decade of the 21st century have composed a good relationship between the society and the government. On the other hand, the viewpoint of Persily (2017), the innovative tools to call up the common people or the voters through social media that has been designed improved the way voting campaign by micro targeting them. As for example, the use of innovative social technologies during the 2016 election campaign has helped Barrack Obama in reaching a huge number of citizens at a time. In distinction to others Rukasha & Bankole (2019), focused on disruptive technology like electronic commerce has a positive impact on corporate governance and on the retail sectors. E-commerce has become the fastest option to carry out business transactions and has come out one of the safest means for all the common people including globalization on the market place. The introduction of e-commerce has brought many changes in the manner of functions incorporate institutions and has provided a positive impact on the ethics of various organizations.

The e-banking, online selling, purchasing and online payment these all has simplified the way of living for all the common people. Differently, Anvari & Norouzi (2016) highlighted the impact of e-commerce on the economic development of the country. The development and the application of the diffusion of internet, e-commerce has created a global effect on the economic zone of some countries. The Internet is profoundly affecting most of the business as millions of people conduct research on various new portals that are opened from the government for purchasing and selling the products. This made economic benefits for the government and also created opportunities for all common people to transact across the borders.

At the same time Wolf, Sze & Beyene (2019), focused on the smart voting keys that have positively affected the democracy by creating various issues. The voting systems and the information technology have come up with the idea of a new electronic voting system. The proper democracy has some fundamental criteria like fair government leadership election by authorized voting. The smart electronic voting system explored the authentication of the voting so that the common people do not face any challenges. As advocated by (Atkinson, 2018), the greater digital innovations of the new technologies have helped in holding the connectivity among all people. Not only these disrupted technologies are also creating a path for disruption in politics and also broadcast by taking the test of stability in a democratic system. The catalytic change in the technology by the invention of new modes and the models has engaged the citizens in new policymaking. The shifting of the parties, the campaign, to communicate with the voters, economic build-up and most importantly the authentication in election system these all positively affected by the disrupted technology.

Technological Disruption

Final decision

 The previous arguments deal with the analysis of both the positive and negative aspects of disruptive technology and about its impact on democracy. In the opinion of (Jurasz & Barker, 2019), the technology may improve the political responsiveness but at the same time it may raise up the challenges to all the traditional practices for all plural republics. The other concerns that play with this democratic technology are that the political ruler is using the social network as an echo-chamber. It can be said that at the broad this social networking is diminishing the capacity of all the groups that are created. It confuses common people as the citizens are not able to understand the interest as well as the perspective by weakening the social togetherness.

The positive and negative news that are advertised in social media is increasing the risk of conflict between various age groups by hindering democracy.  According to Makvand & Fernández (2017), the challenges faced by social media in case by increasing the spread of disinformation or the theories of conspiracy and by increasing its effect on common people. The generation of expanding the capacity of data with the combination of processed power may create structural hazards to the function of democratic societies. The automation in the business has created a threat among the whole sectors by replacing the efficient methods and the machines. As per Atkinson, (2018), this structural change has created a threat among the workers because the capacity of technologies is delivering high risk of obsolete among the employees. From these all viewpoints, it can be decided that disrupted technologies of the 21st century might have some useful or productive effect but in contradiction, it has a more negative impact on both the public and in government.

Conclusion

From all the above points it can be concluded that the disruptive technologies of the 21st century have more negative aspects rather than the positive aspect. The disruptive technologies like new social websites, e- portals and electrical banking this may save the time of people but at the same time increase the risk factors. The automated generated pins and OTP can be easily hacked by other persons by increasing the chance of economic insecurity. The web portals or the social sites that are used by the politicians in voting campaigns sometimes deliver fake news among the citizens resulting in conflict between two parties. The automated machines that are recently developed are used in many workplaces by obsolescing manual workers. Thus, technologies have started creating dilemma among the workers. The manual workers are being terminated for the usage of these technologies and thus creating an unemployment situation which is a democratic hurdle. 

Reference list

Alsayed, A., & Bilgrami, A. (2017). E-banking security: Internet hacking, phishing attacks, analysis and prevention of fraudulent activities. Int. J. Of Emerg. Techn. and Adv. Activ7(1), 109-115. Retrieve on: 20January 2020, from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Alhuseen_Alsayed/publication/315399380_E-Banking_Security_Internet_Hacking_Phishing_Attacks_Analysis_and_Prevention_of_Fraudulent_Activities/links/58cfbf14aca27270b4acaeb5/E-Banking-Security-Internet-Hacking-Phishing-Attacks-Analysis-and-Prevention-of-Fraudulent-Activities.pdf

Anvari, R. D., & Norouzi, D. (2016). The impact of e-commerce and R&D on economic development in some selected countries. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences229, 354-362. Retrieve on: 20 January 2020, from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877042816310813/pdf?md5=667dc9f0dd957c347b830c33d7b8cbc6&pid=1-s2.0-S1877042816310813-main.pdf&_valck=1s

Atkinson, R. D. (2018). Shaping structural change in an era of new technology. Praise for Work in the Digital Age, 103. Retrieve on: 20 January 2020, from: http://pmb5.cereq.fr/Documents_numeriques_PMB/Work-in-the-digital-Age.pdf#page=126

Chesney, B., & Citron, D. (2019). Deep fakes: A looming challenge for privacy, democracy, and national security. Calif. L. Rev.107, 1753. Retrieve on: 20 January 2020, from: https://lawcat.berkeley.edu/record/1136469/files/2-Chesney-Citron.34.final_.pdf

Del Barrio-García, S., Kamakura, W. A., & Luque-Martínez, T. (2019). A longitudinal cross-product analysis of media-budget allocations: How economic and technological disruptions affected media choices across industries. Journal of Interactive Marketing45, 1-15. Retrieve on: 20January 2020,  from: :https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Wagner_Kamakura/publication/323974366_A_Longitudinal_Cross-Product_Analysis_of_Media-

Budget_Allocations_How_Economic_and_Technological_Disruptions_Affected_Media_Choices_Across_Industries/links/5afaaa85a6fdccacab16fa10/A-Longitudinal-Cross-Product-Analysis-of-Media-Budget-Allocations-How-Economic-and-Technological-Disruptions-Affected-Media-Choices-Across-Industries.pdf

Delis, M. D., Hasan, I., & Ongena, S. (2019). Democracy and credit. Journal of Financial Economics. Retrieve on: 20 January 2020, from: https://www-1.aueb.gr/sites/default/files/Delis.26-1-2017.pdf

Gainous, J., Wagner, K., & Gray, T. (2016). Internet freedom and social media effects: democracy and citizen attitudes in Latin America. Online Information Review. Retrieve on: 20 January 2020, from: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/0cba/73403322253374cbe01ee99b4df6b39938d2.pdf

García, M. R. (2019). Global Governance and Technological Disruption What world can we be in 2050? Retrieve on: 20 January 2020, from: https://asta-umweltreferat.fs.tum.de/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/20190108_Martin-Stuchtey_TUM_A-Good-Disruption1.pdf

Gordon, R. (2017). Development Disrupted: The Global South in the 21st Century. Temp. Int’l & Comp. LJ31, 195. Retrieve on: 20 January 2020, from: https://sites.temple.edu/ticlj/files/2017/05/31.1_Gordon_Article-11.pdf

Jurasz, O., & Barker, K. (2019). Written Submission of Evidence to the Joint Committee on Human Rights inquiry on Democracy, free speech and freedom of association. Retrieve on: 20 January 2020, from: http://oro.open.ac.uk/61235/1/JCHR%20Free%20Speech%20%26%20Protests%20%28Barker%20%26%20Jurasz%20-%20March%202019%29.pdf

Makvand, A. F., & Fernández Alarcón, V. (2017). How does social media affect the behaviours of managers and employees in non-democratic countries?. International journal of web based communities13(3), 321-343. Retrieve on: 20 January 2020, from: https://upcommons.upc.edu/bitstream/handle/2117/109144/fullpaper.pdf

Moglia, M., Cork, S. J., Boschetti, F., Cook, S., Bohensky, E., Muster, T., & Page, D. (2018). Urban transformation stories for the 21st century: Insights from strategic conversations. Global environmental change50, 222-237. Retrieve on: 20 January 2020 , from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Declan_Page/publication/324681122_Urban_transformation_stories_for_the_21st_century_Insights_from_strategic_conversations/links/5add13aaaca272fdaf86c8c2/Urban-transformation-stories-for-the-21st-century-Insights-from-strategic-conversations.pdf

Persily, N. (2017). The 2016 US Election: Can democracy survive the internet?. Journal of democracy28(2), 63-76. Retrieve on: 20 January 2020, from: https://research.steinhardt.nyu.edu/scmsAdmin/media/users/jzf206/Persily.pdf

Read, W. (2019). The Evolution Of Dirt: Real Estate In The Age Of Disruption. Plan II Honors Theses-Openly Available. Retrieve on: 20th January 2020 retrieved from: https://repositories.lib.utexas.edu/bitstream/handle/2152/75499/READ_Thesis_The%20Evolution%20of%20Dirt_2019.pdf?sequence=1

Rukasha, M., & Bankole, F. (2019). Impact of e-Commerce on Corporate Governance and Ethics. Retrieve on: 20 January 2020, from: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/64df/77621fc16f87e3af6dc19ce2ef6cd3e5cb2a.pdf

Shufutinsky, A., Sibel, J., Murray-Hayden, P., Shufutinsky, D., & Cox, R. (2018). The Disruptive Technology that Will Change the Practice of Conflict Analysis and Resolution. OD PRACTITIONER50(3). Retrieve on: 20 January 2020, from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Anton_Shufutinsky4/publication/330765087_Holoportation_The_Disruptive_Technology_that_Will_Change_the_Practice_of_Conflict_Analysis_and_Resolution/links/5c565e06458515a4c7539869/Holoportation-The-Disruptive-Technology-that-Will-Change-the-Practice-of-Conflict-Analysis-and-Resolution.pdf

weforum.org, (2018). Is new technology hurting our productivity?.  Retrieve on: 20 January 2020, from: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2018/03/is-technology-hurting-productivity

Wolfe, A., Sze, A. J., & Beyene, Y. (2019). Smart Voting keys to e-Democracy. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Security and Management (SAM) (pp. 48-55). The Steering Committee of The World Congress in Computer Science, Computer Engineering and Applied Computing (WorldComp). Retrieve on: 20 January 2020, from: https://csce.ucmss.com/cr/books/2019/LFS/CSREA2019/SAM9708.pdf

Young, S. D. (2018). A Work of Art in the Age of Technological Disruption: The Future of Work in the Music Industry. MEIEA Journal18(1), 73-104. Retrieve on: 20 January 2020, from: http://www.meiea.org/resources/Journal/Vol.18/MEIEA_Journal_2018_Complete.pdf#page=73


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Sustainable Water Management

Introduction

The global crisis has emerged due to extensive consumption of natural sources like energy, water, petroleum, and greeneries. The unrestricted consumption of natural elements has led to retarded ecological balance. The crisis of water has become one of the significant aspects of global crisis as it has been found that only 2.5 % of water is suitable for drinking (Yang, Hyndman and Winkler 12 ). The gradual reduction in the availability of freshwater has made it indispensable to look for sustainability programs that can save water. Hence, water sustainability has been selected as the area of interest for the present research essay.

The purpose of the research essay is to investigate the impact of sustainable water management for dealing with global challenges such as the depletion of water, health concerns coming out of consuming polluted water and termination of marine life. The concept of sustainable water management will be provided at the beginning. Next, to that, the existing global challenges will be discussed. The impact of the sustainability programs on the global challenges will be discussed at the end.

Sustainable water management

The section defines the sustainable water management programs that would deal with global challenges such as water scarcity (Shahzad, Burhan and Ang 52-64). The sustainable water management aims at developing programs such that water consumption can be controlled and used efficiently to quench the vast global water necessity. The sustainable water management comes from the need of developing environmental integrity for committing towards social responsibility (Poff, Brown and Grantham 25-34). Apart from the unrestricted use of water, the leakage in pipes, pump failures, and other infrastructure disputes also contribute towards the need for sustainable water management (Marques, da Cruz and Pires 142-151). The water supply systems require timely maintenance to prevent the unnecessary flow of water. The maintenance is ought to be performed through checking of pipe fractures, internal repair and many more to ensure that there are no infrastructural issues that restrict the flow of water.

In terms of sustainable ways of preserving water, some human practices are required, such as keeping taps closed, using already used water if applicable, using less water to take shower and steamed eating habits. Protection of environment by reducing consumption of water comes under the social responsibility of every human kind (Jacobs, Lebel and Buizer 4591-4596).  The closing of taps after filling buckets helps to restrict the unnecessary flow of water (Gude 87-106). Using dishwater to wash other utensils is another way of controlling water usage. In simpler words, putting a stop to water usage is a manual sustainable approach to water management.

Water reclamation technology is another sustainable approach to restrict the consumption of the huge amounts of water. The reclamation technology is to reuse used water by filtering it. Even the used water from sewage, toilet, and kitchen are also recycled in some parts of the world and is consumed by people as fresh drinking water (Butler, Ward and Sweetapple 63-77). The water reclamation technology is active in cities like Perth in Australia, where the water is recycled through the toilet to tap scheme (Van Franeker and Law 89-96). The sustainable water management has remained successful in controlling water usage, to deal with the global challenge of water scarcity and retaining the stock of freshwater intact.

Global challenges

The global challenges related to environmental disruption have been seen in areas of water scarcity, land pollution, polluted farming and depletion of marine life. Since the area of interest in the present research essay is water sustainability, the global challenges that have triggered the need for sustainability programs for water have been discussed in the section. Due to the disposal of garbage into seawater, the marine littering percentage got increased abruptly. The disposal of an enormous amount of wastes has created a layer in the seawater, which resists the entry of oxygen into the water leading to breathing problems for marine creatures.

The depletion of marine life is one of the significant global challenges that is required to be mitigated using sustainable water management sessions. Salinization has also come as a significant effect due to the scarcity of non-polluted water (Gude 15-63). Water containing a high percentage of toxic elements gets rushed into the fields and increases salinity of soils. The increased salinization of soils resists plant to extract nutrients from soil, leading to toxic farm fields. Salinization is one of the global challenge coming out of fresh water scarcity and release of toxic water into fields.

The increased pollution of water is mainly caused by the release of factory wastes into water bodies. The factory wastes consist of toxic chemicals that increase the chemical context of water and make it toxic (Shahzad, Burhan and Ang 36-45). The toxic water affects marine life, farming and also the health of people because, water from those water bodies gets distributed to people’s houses, as domestic water supply. Sustainable water management programs are required to deal with global challenges.

Effect of sustainable water management on global challenges

The section is concerned with the evaluation of how sustainable water management programs have dealt with the global challenges that have arisen such as scarcity of water, an increase of toxic water content, depletion of marine life and farming pollution.   Sustainable water management is practiced in response to global challenges such as polluted domestic water supply, pollution in farm fields and depletion of marine life. The sustainable management of controlling the unnecessary flow of water is obtained through repairing of leakages and regular maintenance of water pipes (Shahzad, Burhan and Ang). The effect of infrastructural maintenance, as a part of sustainable water management program helps in controlling water leakage. As a result of the sustainable water management program of infrastructural maintenance, the global challenge of water scarcity can be addressed to some extent.

When there will be null, water leakage, the global challenge of water scarcity is controlled to some extent. However, there are also other sustainability programs that have been successful in dealing with the global challenge of water scarcity (Yang, Hyndman and Winkler). Apart from water scarcity, there are also other global challenges such as toxic content of water affecting the domestic supply and the depletion of marine life. The water reclamation process is a sustainability program that is deliberately helpful in controlling over usage of water, thereby dealing with water scarcity. Since water reclamation helps in the recycling of used water, the impact of such sustainable water treatment technology will help in the preservation of freshwater content globally.

The water reclamation process enables the reuse of used water and hence, the same water gets recycled to be used for domestic purposes such as drinking, cooking and in washrooms (Shahzad, Burhan and Ang). Due to the filtration of water that is done through the reclamation process the used water gets filtrated, such that the unhygienic particles can be removed and the water again becomes suitable for consuming. The impact of such sustainable technology for water recycling is perceived in controlling water scarcity, retention of global freshwater content and resisting the waste of water. The repetitive phrases of water collection and filtration recycle the same water and hence saves people from acute water scarcity.

The toile to tap schemes have been widely accepted by countries like Australia to deal with the global challenge of drought. The toilet to tap scheme talks about the reutilization of the wastewater from human toilets for the domestic purposes (Mukherjee and Jensen 5-14). The impact of the sustainability scheme is seen highest in parts of Western Australia, as they experience frequent drought. Despite having disgust to use toilet water for drinking, people has also appreciated the concept, as the water entirely gets recycled and suitable for drinking, which tastes alike fresh drinking water.

The water reclamation process, however does not complies with the global challenge of the depletion of marine life. Due to both manual and industrial pollution, the marine littering got increased exponentially, resulting in increase of the fatality rate of marine organisms. The manual efforts of sustainability such as underground waste disposal instead of littering into the water bodies reduces the global challenge of depletion of marine life (Wang, Li and Li 171-179). The effect of controlling manual littering practices has led to reduced threats in marine life. As a result, of controlled waste disposal practices in water bodies, the marine organisms will be again able to breathe.

The removal of the layer of litters from the surface of water bodies creates a passage of air, which in turn normalizes the respiratory process of the marine animals. The impact of the low littering practices on the beaches has also made water bodies fresh and lack of an unhygienic ingredient. The initiative of lowering manual practices of littering beaches has been taken widely by multiple governments such as the UK, Ireland and many more. The reason behind taking such a sustainability initiative to protect water is the high littering levels on the beaches of Wales. An average of 35 wet wipes have been found on the coast of the UK and have been cleaned by the beach authority (Gude). As an impact of such manual sustainability intuitive the water got cleaned to some extent and the concentration of litters got reduced.

As an impact of the sustainability initiative to reduce littering on beaches, plastic pollution also gets controlled along with water pollution. Due to the water sustainability practice of controlling the human activity of littering, the blockage of drains also gets reduced.  In the Great British Beach Clean event, about 15,000 people participated (Wang, Li and Li 171-179). Such a great number of participation for beach cleaning has led to the cleaning of 500 number of beaches.

The beach cleaning has remained one of the significant water sustainability programs, as it resists natural water bodies from getting polluted through human activities. The impact of frequent maintenance of water pipelines has been seen in the controlled flow of unnecessary water. The entire impact of the sustainability programs has resulted in controlled pollution of water, reduced chances of drought and has enabled people to reduce unnecessary usage of water.

The knowledge gap in the articles lies in limited discussion of the innovative sustainable methods for preserving water. The articles have been more focused towards the concern that has been created due to rising water crisis. However, the need for sustainable water management has been explained broadly in the articles.

Conclusion

The effect of the water sustainability programs has been seen in the eradication of the chances of water scarcity. The water reclamation process, where used water is being recycled by making it suitable for re consumption. The process has saved a huge quantity of water from getting wasted. Manual control measures of keeping water taps closed and preserving used water for using them for other domestic purposes have also contributed to the active water sustainability program.

Works Cited

Butler, D, et al. “Reliable, resilient and sustainable water management: the Safe & SuRe approach.” Global Challenges (2017): 63-77. Online.

Gude, V.G. “Desalination and sustainability–an appraisal and current perspective.” Water research 89.02 (2016): 87-106 ; DOI:10.1016/j.watres.2015.11.012.

Jacobs, K, et al. “Linking knowledge with action in the pursuit of sustainable water-resources management.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2016): 4591-4596. Online.

Marques, R.C., N.F. da Cruz and J. Pires. “Measuring the sustainability of urban water services.” Environmental Science & Policy 54.01 (2015): 142-151 ; DOI:10.1016/j.envsci.2015.07.003.

Mukherjee, M. and O. Jensen. “Making water reuse safe: A comparative analysis of the development of regulation and technology uptake in the US and Australia.” Safety Science 121.01 (2020): 5-14 ; DOI:10.10925753519304199. 08 April 2020. <https://www.bbc.com/future/article/20160105-why-we-will-all-one-day-drink-recycled-wastewater>.

Poff, N.L, et al. “Sustainable water management under future uncertainty with eco-engineering decision scaling.” Nature Climate Change (2016): 25-34. Online.

Shahzad, M.W., et al. “Energy-water-environment nexus underpinning future desalination sustainability.” Desalination 413.01 (2017): 52-64 ; DOI:10.1016/j.desal.2017.03.009.

Van Franeker, J.A. and K.L. Law. “Seabirds, gyres and global trends in plastic pollution.” Environmental Pollution 203.01 (2015): 89-96 ; DOI:10.1016/j.envpol.2015.02.034.

Wang, Q., S. Li and R. Li. “Evaluating water resource sustainability in Beijing, China: Combining PSR model and matter-element extension method.” Journal of cleaner production 206.01 (2019): 171-179 ; DOI:10.1007/978-981-10-5047-3_7. 08 April 2020. <

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