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10 Old Grimsbury Rd, Banbury OX16 3HG, UK

AME6011 PROJECT PROPOSAL

Solution:

WORKING TITLE

Multi Tool Lathe Tool Head

INTRODUCTION

The Lathe machines is defined as the machine tool used to perform different mechanical operations. It holds chuck and tool on a tool post (Yang, Guan and Li, 2013). The lathe machine rotates workpiece about an axis to perform different operations like turning, facing, Chamfering, thread cutting, knurling, drilling etc (Lu and Yoneyama, 1999). The operations are performed with the tools that are applied to the workpiece. To design an object with symmetry about that axis. The prime function of a lathe is to remove the metal from a workpiece to give a required size and shape (Tamizharasan, 2011).

History

The Lathe machines were invented in 13th century by Egyptians. The first design was two-person lathe later the model got improved by the Romans. They added a turning bow to the Egyptian model. In 1772 Jan Verbruggen installed one of the first lathes machine “Horizontal Boring Machine” in the Royal Arsenal in Woolwich UK. The machine was horse powered and permitted for the manufacturing of stronger cannons used during American revolution war in 18th century. Later Henry Maudslay brough many improvements to the machines in 1783. Later in 19th and 20th centuries line shafting was replaced by power source (Gill, 1827).

Lathe Machine Issues

The main issues that could be observed in the previous models are that the Lathe Machine functioning is time consuming and costly (Bloss, 2007). The overall depth of the cutter and material removal rate needed the increase. It was also observed that the tool life for maximum production rate was to be increased and multi tool operational cost to be reduced (Jha, 1986).

AIM

The aim of this project is to make the traditional lathe machines operations efficient.

OBJECTIVES

1.The objective of this work is to propose a design for tool post headby adding multiple tools so as to reduce cutting time.

2. To propose a cost-effective model.

3. To optimize the cutting of metal by using multiple tool heads

4. To perform multi operations by means of multiple tools for the operations which sometimes need costly single purpose equipment.  

5. To compare the results of proposed model with the existing models.

BACKGROUND TO THE PROJECT / EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Previous lathe machine design and working

(Jha, 1986) investigated an automatic process plan for the study of multi-tool turning. The study was developed considering the cost and production rate taking 14 constraints. (Budak and Ozturk, 2011) structures dynamics of parallel turning by taking doble cutting tool for the same surface. (Guo and Liu, 2002) constructed FEM model to observe the impact of sequential cut on “residual stress distribution” and cutting devices. It was observed that the cutting force is highly dominating factor in the experiment. (Liu and Guo, 2000) further investigated the FE code so as to observe the outcome of tool interface friction. (El-Hossainy, 2010) suggested an innovation notion of refining the metal surface finish by using multiple cutting edge. It was determined that the roundness and straightness errors were decreased. 

Current Design and Working

The current design proposed to use multiple tools for the cutting of the metal alongside parallel processing of another rode. The idea is to mount tool post with various other tools to get the job done.

The above images give the idea about the functioning of the model. Let’s consider that a metal needs to undergo Chamfering and another metal needs to do shoulder turning. So, we need two different cutters for former and later. If both the cutters are mounted to the same tool post at a certain distance so the both processes can be conducted parallel to each other. Hence making the model time and cost efficient.

Problems identified

The problems identified in the previous models are that it takes days to cut and single metal and them the next metal is take which in turn becomes cost and time inefficient process. Secondly sometime multiple operations need to be performed by using some other tools thus resulting in costing of individual machines.

Possible Solution Applied

In order to resolve the problem, the design suggests the use of multi tool head lathe tool machine. The parallel of the jobs makes the design cost and time efficient. Also mounting various machine tools on single post reduces the cost of separate individual machines. 

The above figure is the conceptual model for the proposed work. For the understanding purposed currently only two cutters have been considers at a certain distance. It could also be observed that cutter one is smaller than cutter two size so that they don not hinder the process of each other. Similarly, mode tools can be mounted ion the post so as to perform various tasks related to the shaping of the metal. 

METHODOLOGY

The proposed work would be an experimental study in order to observe the functioning and the performance of Multi Tool Lathe Tool Head machine.

Requirements for the experiment

  1. Turning tool.
  2. Chamfering tool.
  3. Thread cutting tool.
  4. Internal thread cutting tool.
  5. Facing tool.
  6. Grooving tool.
  7. Forming tool.
  8. Boring tool.
  9. Parting-off tool.
  10. Counterboring tool
  11. Undercutting tool
  12. According to the method of applying feed
    1. Right-hand tool
    1. Left-hand tool
    1. Round Nose
For the machine structure tools needed
1. Head Stock
2. Tool Post – will be modified for the multi head tools
3. Bed
4. Hand Wheel
5. Carriage
6. Compound Rest
7. Saddle
8. Tailstock
9. Feed Rod
10. Lead Screw
11. Carriage

References

Bloss, R., 2007. Machine tools become much more than just a lathe or milling machine. Assembly Automation, 27(1), pp.9-11.

Budak, E. and Ozturk, E., 2011. Dynamics and stability of parallel turning operations. CIRP Annals, 60(1), pp.383-386.

El-Hossainy, T., 2010. Enhancement of surface quality using a newly developed technique in turning operations. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture, 224(9), pp.1389-1397.

Gill, T., 1827. Account of an improved felt polisher for the lathe, invented by the late Mr. Wm. Allen. Journal of the Franklin Institute, 4(1), p.47.

Guo, Y. and Liu, C., 2002. FEM ANALYSIS OF MECHANICAL STATE ON SEQUENTIALLY MACHINED SURFACES. Machining Science and Technology, 6(1), pp.21-41.

Jha, N., 1986. Optimizing the number of tools and cutting parameters in multi-tool turning for multiple objectives through geometric programming. Applied Mathematical Modelling, 10(3), pp.162-169.

Liu, C. and Guo, Y., 2000. Finite element analysis of the effect of sequential cuts and tool–chip friction on residual stresses in a machined layer. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 42(6), pp.1069-1086.

Lu, Z. and Yoneyama, T., 1999. Micro cutting in the micro lathe turning system. International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 39(7), pp.1171-1183.

Tamizharasan, T., 2011. Multi-objective optimisation of parameters and indirect monitoring of objectives in turning â a cutting tool chatter approach. International Journal of Materials Engineering Innovation, 2(3/4), p.264.

Yang, K., Guan, S. and Li, C., 2013. Mechanics Simulation of Lathe Tool Fixture and Tool Carrier in CNC Machine Tool for Guide Disc. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 457-458, pp.589-592.

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