This case illustrates the pressure project managers face in ensuring projects fulfil promises made by governments on infrastructure projects. These promises include what will be produced, when it will be produced and how much the project will cost.
Use any project management theory, framework, or model provided in this course, explain how you would manage these stakeholder expectations. Explain what issues project managers need to overcome to achieve what is expected. You need to be critical, use relevant course concepts, reflect on the case, and provide examples to support your answer. Use APA referencing as required. [10 marks]
This case poses the question “What can be done to break this costly habit of rushing megaprojects to market?”
Use any project management theory, framework, or model provided in this course, to explain how you would manage the rushing of projects to market. You need to be critical, use relevant course concepts, reflect on the case, and provide examples to support your answer. Use APA referencing as required. [10 marks]
This case identifies governments as significant stakeholders in infrastructure projects.
Consider the topic of stakeholder management and discuss what other stakeholders are important for the project manager to manage. Why are these stakeholders important? What strategy would you recommend managing these relationships?
You need to be critical, use relevant course concepts, reflect on the case, and provide examples to support your answer. Use APA referencing as required. [10 marks]
This case presents a scenario that project managers need to deal with as part of their role.
Considering the issues presented in this case, and reflecting on topics covered this semester, identify three critical skills required of any project manager. Explain how each of these skills can be used to address the issues in the case. You need to be critical, use relevant course concepts, reflect on the case, and provide examples to support your answer. Use APA referencing as required. [10 marks]
Agile is one among the highly recognized project management theory that ensures dealing with projects through a more systematic manner accounting for a collaborative as well as a self-organizing effort for teams and consumers into manifesting the project. Researcher Brenner & Wunder (2015), highlights the fact that within the Agile framework numerous sets of principles ensures the best deliverance of projects through formulating communication along with interaction under a systematic banner. This researcher also frames that the principals represented in Agile emphasize consumer satisfaction by amending project requirements as well as frequency in delivery. It can well be analysed that under all of these government failures the project managers can firmly utilize the Agile framework to meet the stakeholder’s expectations while conceptualizing an efficient delivery of any project. According to Savolainen & Ahonen (2015), the Agile framework evaluation of the complete structure of the project and then signifying improvements after which the designing should be based upon the improvements. Lastly, as per the framework, the implication of the design along with monitoring of the implicated process should be accounted for. Taking the case of the huge cost blowout for manifesting the car parks under the suburban train station the design of the project should have been more emphasized upon by project managers within the limited amount of time. If the structure of the car parks could have been kept short or flexible within a limited space then cease deterioration of government, funds could have well for pleasing voters and the budget for this project will not have failed. It is indeed a fact that limited-time projects often incurs cost failure but through inducing the Agile framework project managers can better utilize the time into methodically designing projects while other stakeholders can be kept busy evaluating the raw materials for the same. It can well be ensured that through advocating of the Agile framework all stakeholders under the project manager can be divided into five different groups and then the period could be redeemed for all five processes working collaboratively.
Given achieving projects within a limited amount of time project managers are highly required to deal with the scope along with the communicational framework for the project. Researcher Savolainen & Ahonen (2015), illustrates that scoop creep is the uncontrolled growth into the scoop of a project which further results in demeaning the objective of the project. Thus, project managers firmly need to adhere to an effective communicational framework to diversify the objectives of the project as well as induce a limited scope to complete the project within the allocated time range.
The project screening method is one of the most applicable ways used for evaluating the developmental method of the project as well as examining the varied affiliates of the same. Chin et al. (2008), shares the view that through screening of project assessments reflecting the idea, resources along with balancing of risks and evaluation during implementation could well be managed. This research further stretches upon the fact that screening of projects helps obtain a visualized idea reverting the varied opportunities, efforts along with the given time of the project. Project screening also ensures conducting of varied procedures upon the given project while analysing the strength and the weakness for the same. Into the given case, it has been witnessed that several government institutes rushed projects within the market to complete them within a limited amount of time for appeasing the public and this lead to cost outturns and failure of major projects. The rushing of projects to the market-leading cost outturns can better be managed through utilizing a project screening method wherein all affirmatives related to a particular project shall be reassessed and then acknowledging of this analysis a suitable time range should be proposed by the project managers to the expected stakeholders.
Researcher Paulukonis et al. (2014), depicts a project rush as a shortening time frame for a standard project time within which durations along with the opportunities that the project should meet are amended via creative developments so that results could be obtained within a shortening time frame. Evaluating this evidence it can widely be concluded that project screening is one among the certain effective methods to eliminate the rush of projects to the market as this framework helps project managers and other stakeholders precisely depict the objectives, data, resources along with the risk on investments for the same. Chin et al. (2008), determine the fact that for eliminating a project rush to the market the type of the project along with its expected results should be analysed which can help to request the early period into completing the whole. Besides this, the researcher also claims that given eliminating a rush for a project all its parameters, small changes such as colour, logo or boilerplate updates are to be accounted for much earlier before processing of the project. Chi et al. (2013), also frames that all necessary content within the project encompassed within its data is to be subsequently evaluated through a dashboard and lastly the anecdotes are to be evaluated. Accounting of this evidence the project screening method is one among the most applicable tools that shall help towards evaluating all necessary project affirmatives likely the scoop, small amendments, ROI along with content data at a much earlier stage and thus creates a dilemma for requesting of time at a much earlier phase eliminating a project rush.
Besides government agencies, the other form of stakeholders that project managers are required to manage are the functional stakeholders, contractors, administrative support for the project along with the sponsors and the expectations of consumers. Stakeholders are highly important while framing a project because it leads towards a collaborative formulation for a project as well as the participation of stakeholders addresses a joint ownership for any project. Researcher Kaur & Lodhia (2018), illustrates that stakeholder participation is firmly important for any project as this helps to identify the major participants for any project as well as acknowledges the diversity of experiences, knowledge as well as creativity while adjourning any project. It can better be analysed from this evidence that stakeholder participation widely entrusts a competitive advantage to a functional project as well as helps in the accumulation of diversified strategies for the same. The senior managers are responsible for heading the complete costing along with the resources while finalizing the project whereas the customers are expected to utilize the resultants of the project. The applicable contractors lead into administrating the designing, regulations, safety as well other forms of quality of instruments to be used for a project.
The Law of reciprocity is a highly applicable law that develops the managing of relationships with stakeholders through a highly systematic manner. Researcher Becker (2014), determines the fact that the reciprocity principle is a psychological framework that insists stakeholders pay back what they have received from other stakeholders. This law emphasizes a favour that requires to be returned in the same affectionate manner so that relationship among stakeholders develops more emotionally than only professionally. Analysing of this evidence it can well be acclaimed that for balancing of relationship among stakeholders functioning within the same project besides monetary giving, exchange of time and information is also highly required for developing or holding back of relationships among stakeholders. Kaur & Lodhia (2018), also determines the development or balancing of stakeholder relationships can also be accounted for through creating influential currencies. Influential currencies are favours done under organizational dilemmas that ensure the development of corporate relationships. Thus, it can be analysed that through raising of favours as well as paying back for great deeds of stakeholders relationships among stakeholders functioning into a project can be maintained.
As reverting, the issues highlighted in the case study the most effective skills that project managers require is being a system thinker, high with emotional intelligence along with skills for effective time management. Researcher Lodhia (2018), states that effective skills of project management ensure managers to administrate resources as well as implement goals among stakeholders along with balancing of project priorities. As illustrated in the given case projects such as the CBD along with the South East Light Rail project as well as the Rollingstock trains were all highly criticised because they all were formulated through inadequate planning, overrun cost along restricted time frames. Given encountering all of these significant challenges project managers shall firmly induce three prior skills as contemplation based upon emotional intelligence, system thinking as well as effective time management skills. According to the view of Paulukonis et al. (2014), system thinking acknowledges witnessing objects or scopes of any functional project as a whole and not in the subsequent part. System thinking acknowledges observations based upon witnessing amendments into the complete pattern of the business and not as significant snapshots connected to the project. This researcher also clarifies that emotional intelligence within project managers addresses the capability of administrating emotions thus advocating actions based upon an emotional outlook. Thus analysing this evidence it can be claimed that devising efficient strategies along with effective organizing of attributes by project managers can only be framed if managers observe all of the affirmatives as a whole as well as induce emotional skills while adjourning of major decisions.
Project managers could have better managed inadequate planning of the projects that have been later criticized by members of the legislation through adopting a system thinking approach. Brandstädter et al. (2012), determines the fact that system thinking anticipates additional tasks added within a project as a whole and not just to be a significant part of the project. With this approach the manifestation of the CBD and the Southeast light rail could have better been framed as all attributes induced for the following projects could have been looked at as a whole and thus have been accomplished or implemented as a whole. Applying system thinking by project managers won’t have resulted in inadequate planning of these subsequent projects as well as skills of effective time management could have also accomplished all the projects within the given time frame. With effective skills of time management, project managers could have divided the scope of the objectives of the project into significant time gaps thus systematically accomplishing each objective within the determined time gaps. Thus, the tight time frame would have been eliminated for the subsequent criticized projects. Lastly, with the capabilities of high emotional intelligence project managers could be better understood the circumstances of a predictable business situation and then lead towards navigating stakeholder relationships and proper team-building process ensuring the elimination of cost outruns for any project.
Becker, L. C. (2014). Reciprocity. Routledge.
Brandstädter, K., Harms, U., & Großschedl, J. (2012). Assessing system thinking through different concept-mapping practices. International Journal of Science Education, 34(14), 2147-2170.
Brenner, R., & Wunder, S. (2015, April). Scaled Agile Framework: Presentation and real world example. In 2015 IEEE Eighth International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops (ICSTW) (pp. 1-2). IEEE.
Chi, S., Hwang, J., Arellano, M., Zhang, Z., & Murphy, M. (2013). Development of network-level project screening methods supporting the 4-year pavement management plan in Texas. Journal of Management in Engineering, 29(4), 482-494.
Chin, K. S., Xu, D. L., Yang, J. B., & Lam, J. P. K. (2008). Group-based ER–AHP system for product project screening. Expert Systems with Applications, 35(4), 1909-1929.
Kaur, A., & Lodhia, S. (2018). Stakeholder engagement in sustainability accounting and reporting: A study of Australian local councils. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal.
Paulukonis, S. T., Harris, W. T., Coates, T. D., Neumayr, L., Treadwell, M., Vichinsky, E., & Feuchtbaum, L. B. (2014). Population based surveillance in sickle cell disease: methods, findings and implications from the California registry and surveillance system in hemoglobinopathies project (RuSH). Pediatric blood & cancer, 61(12), 2271-2276.
Savolainen, P., & Ahonen, J. J. (2015). Knowledge lost: Challenges in changing project manager between sales and implementation in software projects. International Journal of Project Management, 33(1), 92-102.