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7COM1085 Research Report

Assignment Brief:

In order to conduct independent research in computer science you must fully understand the research area. You must have a grasp of the current open questions in this area, as well as any common techniques used to solve problems.

In this assignment you must provide an overview of your MSc Research specialism (AI / Networking / Cyber Security / Software Engineering / Data Science). Students without a specialism may choose any one of these specialisms.

You must discuss the research question presented within the relevant specialist lecture for this specialism, propose some research approaches to investigate this question and identify further work you might undertake which builds on this. You must also explore your personal strengths in this area.

Answer:

SPECIALISM RESEARCH REPORT

 DATA SCIENCE

Introduction

Analysing the chosen research specialization area, it is identified that use of real time hand movement trajectory tracking as an effective method of identifying the level of dementia among the deaf individuals. Basically, this research specialization area is seen to be highly focused around computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These two are closely associated with machine learning mechanisms. As a result of it, it can be found that this particular research matter is closely connected with the ideas associated with consumer science and thus anyone can adhere to that having no specific knowledge. The chosen area is about the speculation of attaining real-time hand trajectories through analysis of facial expression of a deaf individual so that pattern differences existing between facial and trajectory motion data can be understood effectively.

Research Question

Open research question

  • Is the signing space envelop correlated with mild cognitive impairment and, in particular early stages of dementia?

Dealing with real-world issues of dementia among ageing singers in British Sign Language(BSL) can be answered with the help of this respective research question. Mild cognitive impairment can be termed a medical term mainly used to denote cognitive impairment that does not entirely fulfil the dementia issue criteria (Schrag et al. 2017). Therefore, this open research question is scientifically important to determine the correlation of signing space with cognitive impairment in ageing singers of BSL. The interest in this research question indicates the utilisation of advanced technology of computer sand data science techniques to screen the initial stage of dementia of ageing singers of BSL. BSL singers generally use sign languages that are natural languages of humans and are useful among deaf communities. Different hand actions, body movements and facial movements are associated with this technique. Therefore, this research question effectively answers the effectiveness of signing during the screening of dementia problems.

Based on the case study, a real-time trajectory for screening of dementia issues includes different advanced technologies in data science such as ICT, CT, MRI and 2D videos (Liang et al. 2019). This research question effectively identifies different algorithms used by these advanced data science technologies to provide real-world results after screening dementia patients with cognitive impairment issues. According to Lam et al. (2018), patients having the issue of dementia are less likely to take part in any regular physical activities that can cause a reduction of physical functioning. The presence of technical algorithms of advanced technologies can be helpful for dementia screening. This question is selected to determine the use of those technologies by skilled staff during dementia treatment. Further, this question will elaborate advantages of usage of technologies in dementia screening

Research problem

The problem of this research is improper tracking of hand movement trajectory for enhancement of dementia screening in ageing BSL signers.

Literature Review

Dementia is a physical issue that creates barriers for anyone to remember anything and damages good decision-making abilities. The other disadvantages associated with dementia are physiological damage regarding the presence of anxiety and depression. The main reason for the issue of dementia is the issue of Alzheimer’s and storing of metaflammasome components that are mainly responsible for almost one-third of dementia issues (Taga et al. 2017). Dementia can be initially screened by the use of advanced technology ADL based on the case study. On the other hand, Tariq and Barber (2018) have explained that dementia is an outcome of neural loss in the brain that can cause brain atrophy before the manifestation of any new symptoms. Therefore, it can be considered that the initial screen has a significant role in the treatment of dementia and provides time for recovery of various dementia-affected patients. Technology such as hand trajectory and open pose library models can be beneficial to the initial treatment of dementia issues. Around 60 to 65% of total patient who suffers in dementia will have disturbance regarding behaviour at certain point of time (Lodha and De Sousa, 2019).

Dementia is a crucial umbrella term for different neurodegenerative syndromes that primarily influence memory functioning, behaviour, and language. However, different psychological approaches are critical by utilising meaningful technology strategies to promote the meaningful well-being of those dementia-affected patients (Goodall et al. 2021). The utilisation of modern technology such as IoT can be beneficial in initial screening and treating dementia affected people significantly. On the contrary, Asghar et al. (2017) have explained that dementia is a recognised health issue, especially in different industrially developed countries that can be treated effectively using advanced computer science technology systems. Therefore, it can be determined that the use of modern technology can be beneficial for the determination of issues in BSL patients regarding dementia and treat them effectively with the hand trajectory technique.

This literature is good enough to provide information about the negative aspect of dementia along with some treatment strategies using technologies. However, complete information regarding the strategy of using advanced data science technology to screen dementia is not mentioned correctly. The research study of Vanova et al. assumes that patients who suffers with dementia receives only GRADIOR treatment which does not improve the quality of life of such patients. Therefore, there is a need to use an advanced technology that will help to maintain hand trajectory and model of open pose library. However, there is a significant open problem is the absence of skilled staff who can handle such advanced technology in maintaining hand trajectory and open pose library model for screening of dementia issues.

Research approach

Analysing the existing research method, it is noticed that this particular research paper has focused on secondary qualitative data collection effectively as the part of this study. It is seen in the case study that BSL Cognitive Screen norming data is used as the part of video interviews with 250 signers whose age ranges in between 50 and 90. Initially the video recordings of signers are used as a part of analysing the level of dementia among the patients effectively. Mohajan (2018) has stated that qualitative research is seen to be relatively more concentrated because of the ability of sampling specific groups as well as key points so that meaningful data can be gathered. This chosen research approach is seen to be highly effective because of the ability to gather more authentic research samples. This particular approach has helped the researchers to thoroughly focus on the attitudes, opinions and facts at the same time. It is seen in this study that RGB video stream is used as the part of making sure the chosen method is effective for the flow of the research. Apart from that, another aspect that is noticed as information on behaviour, attitude of the respondents can be easily understood with the help of the chosen dataset. However, the disadvantage of this particular method is that people with dementia often cannot provide authentic narrative answers and this can mar the overall research outcome (Kyngäs et al. 2020). Thus, the research outcome authenticity issue can be noticed in this study. Apart from that another issue is evidently and that is the excessive time that has been required for the completion of overall study.

The approach that this paper might have taken as part of making this research more effective is the use of mixed methods effectively. As this could have helped to manage the time required for the study. The open questions would be the parfait of the interview whereas a few close-ended questionnaires could have been used as the part of making sure less time is needed for the completion of this study. This would also have made sure that the accuracy of the overall research is being maintained (Khaldi, 2017). However, the feature extraction model could have been used as the part of experiential design implementation. The overall result could have been validated along with the Automated Screening Tootkit. Analysing the study, it is seen that OpenPose software for extracting trajectories has been used. However, non-MRI classification should be a priority as part of the methodological approach.

Personal Investment

The main reason for being involved in this personal research question is the enthusiasm for diagnosis as well as existing care for acquired neurological impairments. Having a conception regarding BSL, identifying dementia among people is seen to be one of the most common factors as part of understanding the usage of sign languages. Here the aspects of sign language and its relation with the issue of dementia are thoroughly explained along with its connection with the usage of machine language in this study. Initially, having an in-depth knowledge regarding computer science is seen to have proven for me one of the most significant resources which have helped me to work on this particular subject matter. Apart from this, one most significant factor is noticed in this study and that is the knowledge about quantitative as well as qualitative research process which has helped me to evaluate the entire factors from time to time.

Reference List

Asghar, I., Cang, S. and Yu, H., 2017. Assistive technology for people with dementia: an overview and bibliometric study. Health Information & Libraries Journal34(1), pp.5-19. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/hir.12173

Goodall, G., Taraldsen, K. and Serrano, J.A., 2021. The use of technology in creating individualized, meaningful activities for people living with dementia: A systematic review. Dementia20(4), pp.1442-1469. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1471301220928168

Khaldi, K., 2017. Quantitative, qualitative or mixed research: which research paradigm to use?. Journal of Educational and Social Research7(2), pp.15-15. https://www.richtmann.org/journal/index.php/jesr/article/view/9915/9548

Kyngäs, H., Kääriäinen, M. and Elo, S., 2020. The trustworthiness of content analysis. In The application of content analysis in nursing science research (pp. 41-48). Springer, Cham. http://dl1.tarjomac.ir/nursing-ebooks/TPC202203.pdf#page=45

Lam, F.M., Huang, M.Z., Liao, L.R., Chung, R.C., Kwok, T.C. and Pang, M.Y., 2018. Physical exercise improves strength, balance, mobility, and endurance in people with cognitive impairment and dementia: a systematic review. Journal of Physiotherapy64(1), pp.4-15. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1836955317301467

Liang, X., Kapetanios, E., Woll, B. and Angelopoulou, A., 2019, August. Real time hand movement trajectory tracking for enhancing dementia screening in ageing deaf signers of British sign language. In International Cross-Domain Conference for Machine Learning and Knowledge Extraction (pp. 377-394). Springer, Cham. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7025874/

Lodha, P. and De Sousa, A., 2019. Sexual issues in dementia: An overview. management, 25, p.26. http://doi.org/10.18231/j.tjp.2019.003

Mohajan, H.K., 2018. Qualitative research methodology in social sciences and related subjects. Journal of Economic Development, Environment and People7(1), pp.23-48. https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/85654/1/MPRA_paper_85654.pdf

Schrag, A., Siddiqui, U.F., Anastasiou, Z., Weintraub, D. and Schott, J.M., 2017. Clinical variables and biomarkers in prediction of cognitive impairment in patients with newly diagnosed Parkinson’s disease: a cohort study. The Lancet Neurology16(1), pp.66-75. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmc5377592/

Taga, M., Minett, T., Classey, J., Matthews, F.E., Brayne, C., Ince, P.G., Nicoll, J.A., Hugon, J., Boche, D. and MRC CFAS, 2017. Metaflammasome components in the human brain: a role in dementia with Alzheimer’s pathology?. Brain Pathology27(3), pp.266-275. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdfdirect/10.1111/bpa.12388

Tariq, S. and Barber, P.A., 2018. Dementia risk and prevention by targeting modifiable vascular risk factors. Journal of Neurochemistry144(5), pp.565-581. https://scholar.google.com/scholar?output=instlink&q=info:labEk-bAv34J:scholar.google.com/&hl=en&as_sdt=0,5&as_ylo=2017&scillfp=17365271950264582071&oi=lle Vanova, M., Irazoki, E., García-Casal, J.A., Martínez-Abad, F., Botella, C., Shiells, K.R. and Franco-Martín, M.A., 2018. The effectiveness of ICT-based neurocognitive and psychosocial rehabilitation programmes in people with mild dementia and mild cognitive impairment using GRADIOR and ehcoBUTLER: study protocol for a randomised controlled

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