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7COM1068 Penetration Testing- Threat Modelling

Task Description

Your task is to critically analyse the literature with an emphasis on the current threat landscape. Based on this, you are asked to produce an Attack Tree against an organisation of your choice and provide recommendations on how to protect against the attacks that you have
modeled. Towards the completion of this task you need to:

a) Provide assumptions about the target organisation. Each organisation has a different threat
profile, you need to specify your assumptions that make

b) Create an attack tree that matches the assumptions that you defined as well as is relevant to
the threat landscape. The attack tree must show different ways in which the organisation can be

c). Critically analyse and evaluate the security techniques, methods, controls and procedures
that need to be applied in the scenario that you have provided in

Your report must include a number of references to academic literature or industrial best
practices to secure the organisation of this scenario.


Garrison Women’s Health Cyber Attack


Garrison women’s health is a healthcare organization where they provide services for the public in gynecologic and obstetric care for more than 50 years. They have a patient portal that provides a secure way for managing the patient’s appointments, requesting the prescription, accessing test results, and contacting the providers by signing at the portal (Tully, et al 2020) (Pandey, et al 2020).


Assumption 1: all the user access the data carefully or not

Assumption 2: we should secure the data when we are compliant

Assumption 3: increased technology requires more security

In this report, the attack tree related to the current scenario and the threat landscape, security control, methods, and techniques to prevent the organization from the attack is discussed.


Garrison women’s health stores more patient records such as patient appointments, personal information, patient health history, payment records, treatment information, genetic information, diagnosis, assessment types, results, insurance, and prescription records. All the data are sensitive and they should be secured with an effective security mechanism otherwise the patient portal will be subjected to the attack. When the data is not secured with authorized access then there will be loss of data (Martin, et al 2017)

The medical records of the organization are subjected to a data breach where the information is leaked by the Wentworth-Douglass hospital. About 4158 patient records has been lost and it could not be recovered. The hospital could not find evidence that the information is not viewed or taken any actions by them. According to the scenario, the patient’s medical records has been subjected to unauthorized access by the third party member where the information could not be accessed by the hospital and there is no backup data. information such as physician notes and the schedule of the data generated by the medical record system could not be restored due to a backup issue. The data which has been lost is subjected to medical information or treatment information, insurance, future appointments and scheduled information. Data related to radiology and ultrasound applications has been recovered. Electronic Medical records are restored via backups that include earlier data before the data leaks. This data leak does not impact the wentworth-douglass hospitals or their clinical system. Alternative arrangements have been made for the patients for future appointments and other related queries (Le and  Bris El Asri 2016).

Attack tree

An attack tree is a visual representation of the multiple attacks that are applicable to target the organization’s assets. Based on the vulnerabilities, and repository of attacks the attack tree is generated. It describes the vulnerabilities, attack vendors, and the target of the attack (Offner, et al 2020).

Attack tree

                                                            Attack tree

The above figure depicts the attack tree of the organization. In the garrison’s women health, the possible attacks are denial of service, stealing the medical records and other personal information of the patients. In the attack tree, the patient records are subjected to the attack. This has been achieved by the denial of service, stealing medical records, and monitoring personal information. By denial of service attack, the patients could not access the accounts and delete the prescriptions, and treatment information. by stealing medical records, medical insurance information, and upcoming appointments are retrieved. Monitoring personal information, patient billing, and blocking payment methods are performed by the third-party intruder (Nifakos, et al 2020).


The following security procedures are recommended to implement in the garrison women’s health for preventing them from attack (Coventry and Branley 2021).

Educating the employees

The most effective way for improving the security of the organization is to train the employees to avoid phishing attacks or social engineering attacks and other attacks possible by sending emails. If the employees are not trained then they are not aware of the attacks that may lead to the vulnerability of data.

Implementing physical security

There should be an implementation of facility access control to limit the access of the data where healthcare information is stored and accessed.

Data access control

It is recommended to implement security standards for controlling data access and applications in garrison women’s health. The data access should be protected by limiting access to the data. it can be achieved by following methods (Kruse, et al 2017):

  • Implementing two-factor or multi-factor authentication, and strong password authentication mechanisms such as facial recognition, and fingerprint authentication.
  • Access should be limited to the authorized users
  • Least privileges should be given to the data access to prevent the information access such as deleting the information, prescription, etc.
  • Ensure the password security
  • Log access

Data control

Data control is more important than data access since it includes monitoring the behavior of the intruder to retrieve the data, and sending malware with email, external drivers, and other attempts. It is necessary to implement the data control method in the garrison organization so that there will not be any data breaches in near future (Kelly, et al 2023).


It is necessary to encrypt the ways that can potentially avoid the breach of data. the data stored in the electronic health system should not be in a readable form. It should be in an unreadable format so that the third-party member could not identify the type of data and the sensitivity of the data. it should be implemented in the garrison organization so that the data could not be read by all the users.

Endpoint security

Endpoint security is the process of ensuring security with the devices that are used for medical practices. Patients are using mobile devices, personal computers, laptops, and tablets for accessing medical services so it is necessary to ensure security during the communication of the devices when this is implemented the garrison organization can secure the sensitive information and improves the security of the data communication.

Data backup

To avoid data loss, and the risk of ransomware it is necessary to secure the data by the backup method. it is necessary to back up the data in daily aspects. In the case of garrison women’s health, the organization has not taken any daily back up so they have lost the recent data that has not been backed. It is necessary to implement the method of daily data backup to avoid the data loss issue (Penfold, et al 2023).


By implementing all the security controls, and techniques the garrison women’s health can protect the sensitive information of the patient can be protected from data breach and communication will be secured.


Tully, J., Selzer, J., Phillips, J.P., O’Connor, P. and Dameff, C., 2020. Healthcare challenges in the era of cybersecurity. Health security18(3), pp.228-231.

Le Bris, A. and El Asri, W., 2016. State of cybersecurity & cyber threats in healthcare organizations. ESSEC Business School12.

Offner, K.L., Sitnikova, E., Joiner, K. and MacIntyre, C.R., 2020. Towards understanding cybersecurity capability in Australian healthcare organisations: a systematic review of recent trends, threats and mitigation. Intelligence and National Security35(4), pp.556-585.

Trego, L.L. and Wilson, C., 2021. A social ecological model for military women’s health. women’s Health Issues31, pp.S11-S21.

Martin, G., Martin, P., Hankin, C., Darzi, A. and Kinross, J., 2017. Cybersecurity and healthcare: how safe are we?. Bmj358.

Nifakos, S., Chandramouli, K., Nikolaou, C.K., Papachristou, P., Koch, S., Panaousis, E. and Bonacina, S., 2021. Influence of human factors on cyber security within healthcare organisations: A systematic review. Sensors21(15), p.5119.

Coventry, L. and Branley, D., 2018. Cybersecurity in healthcare: A narrative review of trends, threats and ways forward. Maturitas113, pp.48-52.

Kruse, C.S., Frederick, B., Jacobson, T. and Monticone, D.K., 2017. Cybersecurity in healthcare: A systematic review of modern threats and trends. Technology and Health Care25(1), pp.1-10.

Pandey, A.K., Khan, A.I., Abushark, Y.B., Alam, M.M., Agrawal, A., Kumar, R. and Khan, R.A., 2020. Key issues in healthcare data integrity: Analysis and recommendations. IEEE Access8, pp.40612-40628.

Penfold, J., 2023. The growing risk of cyber attacks in the NHS. British Journal of Healthcare Management29(1), pp.5-7.

Kelly, B., Quinn, C., Lawlor, A., Killeen, R. and Burrell, J., 2023. Cybersecurity in Healthcare. In Trends of Artificial Intelligence and Big Data for E-Health (pp. 213-231). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

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