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PSY1210 Biopsychology

Task brief:

Part B: Lab Report Assignment
Write up the lab report as if it would appear in a journal. The lab report must be formatted according to current APA style (7th Edition of the APA Publication Manual) and typed on A4 paper. (Tip: ensure that your Page Setup is for A4 paper size.). No handwritten assignments will be accepted. Use Times or Times New Roman 12-point font (Times 12- point font is used in this handout), double-spaced, with 2.54-cm margins left and right, top and bottom. Block justify your text (just like the text in this document); do not use left- or right-justification. If you follow these instructions, you should have a maximum of 25 lines
per A4 page. In other words, do not include more than 25 lines per A4 page.
The Title Page and the Abstract should be on separate pages. The Reference section usually begins on a separate page. The main body of the lab report – Introduction, Method, Results, and Discussion – should be no more than FOUR (4) pages long.

Solution:

Abstract

The analysis of Dual Task Experiment and Hemispheric Specialisation has been a fascinating topic for the researchers. The area has been considered by many researchers. It is stated that the dual task meddling is reduced during the task performance of both hemispheres occurs separately. The study aims to identify the role of hemispheric specialisation and how it affects operations of righthanded people. To achieve this, aim a bowel rob balancing task was carried out considering verbalisation and silence condition with respect to time. The review was a mixed exploratory inside area plan, and a poll was utilized to compute a handedness remainder. The observation stated the contributors’ accomplished well during adjusting a “dowel rod”, under two exploratory conditions, in case of forefinger of their right hand. From experimental results it could be concluded that for language and speech left hemisphere is dominant whereas that’s not the case with right hand while executing both assignments.

Introduction

“Dual Task Experiment and Hemispheric Specialisation” has been a intriguing area of study for many researchers for years. Many developments psychologist like Jean Piaget argued that many aspects impact the functioning and behaviour. Miller and Kingstone (2015) specifically studied each cerebral hemisphere to understand their functionality under various condition. The evaluation of these hemispheres when considered collectively or individually helped in observing the influence on behaviours and studying the coordination of brain and body for various functionates. Hemispheric Specialisation is the logical relation between the brain and various functions (Herves et al.,2013). There have been many researchers who have conducted studies to explain the various functionality of both sides. Roger Sperry and other fellow researchers started “split-brain” research, thus making the topic the popular areas of study. Gazzaniga (2002) conducted the research and observed that both sides controls the different functionality. The study concluded that right hemispheric controls the visual motor task and the left hemisphere control language and speech. It was also observed that the left hemispheric determines the functioning of right hand and right hemispheric regulates the working of left hand (“Corballis,2014”).

At the point in case two functions are performed freely by each half, double assignment  obstruction is considered  to reduce, or deferred reactions are observed. “Pashler and O’Brien (1993)” investigated a few double errand test plans (“McCann and Johnston, 1992; Pashler, 1984; Pashler and Johnston, 1989; Welford, 1952”). Participates are given dual consecutive situations and are required to exhibit behaviour in every circumstance; their reactions are scheduled. Research conducted in the past proposes that it is feasible for assignment/job to be finished simultaneously with the presence of impedance or different works (“Bliss, 1892; Boder, 1935”) anyway exploratory examination is restricted like the impediments of Hemispheric Specialisation on manual assignments. This test tried the limit of the members’ motor skills while simultaneously captivating in a articulation task or silence. Assessment to date ascribes explicit predominance in specific abilities, it is working with each side of the brain. The expectation was that the adjusting periods of the dowel rod would reduce in case of the situations wherever voicing was needed to be completed. Moreover, the experts continued that the time delay may continue during the adjustment of the dowel rod on the left hand as the Right Hemispheric would be adding to the engine developments on the adjacent hand.

Method”

Participants”

For this study 544 participants were considered (out of which 97 were males and 447 were females). These participants were selected from ECU campus. The data gathered is between 200 to 2015 and in 2021. All participant willingly agreed to participate in the study. For this investigation gender was not considered the main variable and that is why gender is not included in the analysis. The participants considered for this study were right handers and those participants who failed to complete the handedness questionnaires were not considered for the study. 0.85 is the mean handedness quotient and SD= 0.18 indicate that the participant exhibits right handedness.

Design

The experiment considered is named 2(hands: left vs right) by 2 (condition silent vs verbal) in participants.

Materials

Wooden Dowel

The study used the wooden dowel rod which is 92cm long and 1.25cm wide.

Stopwatch

To time dowel balancing a stopwatch was needed.

Handedness Questionnaire

To calculate the handedness quotient the questionnaire was used. The values 0.00 indicates extreme left handedness and 1.00 indicates right handedness.

Procedure”

Members wilfully occupied with the assignment during their instructional exercise and approached to adjust a “wooden dowel pole” on their forefinger of the right and left hand during each study condition (during a verbal task and while staying quiet). The span of the adjusting was coordinated in seconds utilizing the stopwatch. The verbal errand expected members to discuss the letter set so anyone might hear, while avoiding each subsequent letter (for example A, C, E, G, and so on) In the event that the finish of the letters in order was arrived at the member was needed to begin the letter set again and proceed however long they continue to adjust the dowel pole. Members could work on adjusting the dowel for around three minutes and could switch back and forth between their left and right hands. Members then, at that point, started the review preliminaries. Every member participated in  four preliminaries on their left-hand and four preliminaries on their right-hand. For every preliminary, the member was needed to put the dowel pole to their right side or left forefinger utilizing the other hand. When the stopwatch started timing. The stopwatch clock was halted when the dowel drops onto the floor or contacts any piece of the members body. A large portion of the preliminaries were performed during the quiet exploratory condition (standard) and half were performed during the verbal errand. The request for conditions (quietness versus) not set in stone haphazardly. At the finish of the test meeting, the adjusting times were recorded for each hand in both the verbal and quiet conditions. Moreover, members were needed to finish a handedness survey.

Results:

The above graph indicates that the members balancing the dowel rod on the interfinger tend to balance it longer on the right hand under both circumstances. The increased SD values indicate a huge deviation among the participants.

Discussion

The objective of this experiment was to study the area of each hemisphere, The Right Hemisphere is considered to be the main area of focus in motor skill and the Left Hemisphere is exceptional in linguistic related tasks, by performing dual task experiment this was concluded. The observed results have supported the theory that under certain condition the dowel rod balancing time gets reduced when the participants were involved in some verbal activity during balancing. The results indicate that each handedness was similar at certain points. It was also concluded that the balancing time would reduce if the participant is balancing the rod on index figure of left hand as the person may be a right hander. Hence the results prove the hypothesis. The right-hand figure interference is more.

In some other studies conducted by researchers like Kinbourne and Cook (1972), the results indicated that the performance enhanced during the balancing of the dowel rod in the left hand while speaking /verbal condition. Another research suggests the Left Hemisphere that control right hand motor function and speech (Johnson and Kozma,1977) backed the assumption by experimenting the balancing. It was observed that the balancing time in both conditions when right hand was used by the participant. The varying studies indicate the constraints association between both sides.

The utilization of elucidating insights alone and just working out the means and standard deviations can induce strategic constraints and possible confusing variables. Restricting the example to understudies just compromises generalisability of the outcomes and accordingly raises ideas for future exploration contemplates. The scientists suggest a more fluctuated test for future investigations, including distinctive age gatherings and not just understudies. Possibly the perspective on playing out an alternate double assignment ought to be investigated.

Conclusions

This experiment tried to survey the realities of Hemispheric Specialisation by directing a double errand test. The right-hand dowels pole on the forefinger, notwithstanding previous studies proposing, Right Hemispheric is predominant engine abilities also in charge of the left hand. Analysing the job of every half and the way it works, solo or in collaboration, further gives a cognizance of practices. This gives a general advantages to all corrective areas which are associated with human conduct.

References

Bliss, C.B. (1892–1893). Investigations in reaction time and attention. Studies from the Yale Psychology Laboratory, 1, 1–55.

Boder, D. P. (1935). The influence of concomitant activity and fatigue upon certain forms of reciprocal hand movement and its fundamental components. Baltimore, Md: The Johns Hopkins Press

Corballis, C.M. (2014). Left Brain, Right Brain: Facts and Fantasies. Plos Biology, (12)1, https:/doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001767

Gazzaniga, M. (2002). The split-brain revisited. Scientific American: The hidden mind, 12, 26-31.

Herve, P., Zago, L., Petit, L., Mazoyet, B., & Tzourio-Mazoyer, N. (2013). Revisiting human hemispheric specialization with neuroimaging. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 17(2). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2012.12.004

Johnson, O., & Kozma, A. (1977). Effects of concurrent verbal and musical tasks on a unimanual skill. Cortex: A Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior, 13(1), 11–16. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0010-9452(77)80049-X

Kinsbourne, M., & Cook, J. (1971). Generalized and lateralized effects of concurrent verbalization on a unimanual skill. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 23(3), 341–345. https://doi.org/10.1080/14640746908401828

McCann, R. S., & Johnston, J. C. (1992). Locus of the single-channel bottleneck in dual-task interference. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 18(2), 471–484. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-1523.18.2.471

Miller, M., & Kingstone, A. (2015). A vision of graded hemispheric specialization. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1359(1), 30-46.

 Pashler, H., & O’Brien, S. (1993). Dual-task interference and the cerebral hemispheres. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 19(2), 315-330. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-1523.19.2.315

Pashler, H. (1984). Processing stages in overlapping tasks: Evidence for a central bottleneck. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 10(3), 358–377. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-1523.10.3.358

Pashler, H., & Johnston, J. (1989). Chronometric Evidence for Central Postponement in Temporally Overlapping Tasks. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section A, 41(1), 19-45. https:/ doi:10.1080/14640748908402351

Welford, A. T. (1952). The ‘psychological refractory period’ and the timing of high-speed performance—a review and a theory. British Journal of Psychology, 43, 2–19. https:/ doi:10.1111/j.2044-8295.1952.tb00322.x

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