As an MSc research student, you are expected to understand how other areas of computer science relate to your chosen specialism. You must have a grasp of significant current open problems in other specialisms, as well as an understanding of how techniques and methods from other research areas can be applied within your specialism.
In this assignment you must provide an overview of two MSc Research specialism lectures (AI / Networking / Cyber Security / Software Engineering / Data Science) which are NOT the specialism you discussed in Assignment 1.
For each of these two areas, you must discuss the research question presented within the relevant specialist lecture for this specialism, propose some research approaches to investigate this question and identify further work you might undertake which builds on this. You must also explore your personal strengths in this area.
Part-1 AI and Robotics
Assistive robots have become very popular in the last decade. The world is amazed at the competence that these robots can provide to their humans. Assistive robotic for human has been gaining much criticism on the ground that they lack social skills. For machines to have bonds with humans, they are required to have certain degree of social skills, emotions empathy and human level intelligence (Tsiakas et al., 2018). There are several factors that affect the social skills of a robot or a rover. Distance between the human and the rover, the software system of the rover, the operating system of the input command, etc.
The aim of this research case study is to highlight the need and existence of social competence among the robots and the humans in light of the existing knowledge and research on the topic. In addition to this, a note on personal investment in the topic is also presented.
2.0 Open Research Question
- Is the robot acting like a functional social being would?
Engagement enabled robots that are broadly utilized as assistive robots are worked with an assortment of methods that guide in their social lead and cooperation viability in their applicable field. As indicated by Meattini, et al., (2020), a robot’s sociocultural authenticity can be assessed by surveying how it adheres to the guidelines and speaks with particular sociocultural norms. On the off chance that they contain sufficient information, intelligent mechanical frameworks react to both conversational and gestural data trade. A wide scope of studies in the space of HRI has uncovered that a consolidated impact of setup and actual highlights, just as productivity in both conversational and gestural data trade, all add to the improvement of tangible awareness of automated frameworks (Scassellati and Vázquez, 2020). For example, living creatures have inclinations when it will in general come to a wonderful commitment with mechanical structures and frameworks, additionally, they decided to execute similar execution measures to the robot as living creatures. It has been found that the bodily presence of meanders’, for instance, assuming the robot takes after a living individual’s feeling of being, can support the improvement of up close and personal interactional equity. As per Feng et al., (2019) conscious affirmation of automated frameworks can be expanded by attributes, for example, versatile robots, which support disseminating individual space to people and setting up acceptable-looking reaches when essential. Besides that, contemplations, for example, looks and head arrangement of drawing in automated frameworks are frequently used to survey their accentuation and the enthusiastic associations they can shape with people. Factors, for example, politeness does not affect the nature of human correspondence. Regardless, this is considered a significant worth trying to set up an ideal impact and client commitment.
Improving the social competence of the robots to increase user engagement
3.0 Existing and related work
The importance of robotic systems’ social awareness is growing. Indicators of living person social awareness, on the other hand, omit core qualifications, and robot-specific measurements do not emphasis on sociocultural intelligence. MIT researchers have integrated interpersonal relationships into a robotics foundation, allowing simulation model machineries to understand what that means to assist or impede each other to try to imitate these behavioural traits according to their own. Losey et al., (2020) have observed researchers at the university of Massachusetts have now implemented specific interpersonal relationships into a mechatronics structure, allowing computers to understand what this means to assist or impede one another and to learn how to perform these social behaviours on their own. In a simulated world, a robot observes its partner, speculates what assignment it wants to complete, and then assists or impedes this other automaton predicated on its own objectives.
The researchers also showed that their model creates realistic and predictable social interactions. When they showed videos of these simulated robots interacting with one another to humans, the human viewers mostly agreed with the model about what type of social behavior was occurring.
As indicated by Pliasa and Fachantidis, (2019), in an attempt to grow the suitability of automated frameworks among people, these durable deterrents should be enhanced through the fuse of natural prompts, imagining, and attempting to communicate enthusiastic reactions. Alongside the entire, certainty is one more critical supporter of the viable association of robots and people. Silvera-Tawil & Roberts-Yates, (2018), battled that it isn’t the sole liability of mechanical frameworks to gather every one of the elements that make a critical commitment to great social contact. People should focus on making significant bonds with them to cultivate good and vivid affiliations.
The sociocultural confidence of mechanical frameworks makes reference to their dependability and validness. Social trustworthiness of automated frameworks and customer propriety are two particular parts. An illustration of this occasion can be a situation where the robots need peculiarity in discourse and squares client addresses. It shows it has human feelings and exhibits that it is valid yet not adequate (Olatunji et al., 2021).
4.0 Research approach
In the research case study, a research design with 30 respondents were used to comprehend their responses to sociocultural believable and non-credible automated devices. In this study, a few survey questionnaires were used to assess potential hazardous warnings provided by having to engage automated systems. In this study, many relevant factors were used to evaluate the students’ perceptions. This research was performed out on an automated robotic residence with all participants being informed about remote monitoring of robots. A kitchen power plug was utilized to count participants, and a container of pepper was served as a fallback cyborg to keep an eye out for possible dangers (Chita-Tegmark and Scheutz, 2021). This preliminary study benefitted greatly from responses centred on socioeconomic authenticity and safety activity conducted out by automated devices. Respondents’ responses revealed a deep sense of responsibility for both the kitchen’s power supply as well as the container of Pepper.
Prefaced on the survey study illustrated, it is extremely ensured to assume that individuals don’t actually acknowledge that natural robots can give prosperity. The drawbacks of this audit join the shortfall of a colossal differentiation between two perspectives that are in this survey, two robots were seen as mishandling acknowledged practices (AN) and dismissing acknowledged practices (VN). Notwithstanding, positive responses were considered to be higher than positive responses to VN. Plus, the disclosures of this survey enjoy the benefit of understanding people’s bits of knowledge and preparation to respond to robot-passed on exhortations. In this particular situation, it was viewed that as a large portion of individuals responded earnestly to dangers and reprimands passed on by socially strong mechanical frameworks (Park, Kim and Kemp, 2018).
The quantitative research on the topic can open avenues for the researchers to develop possibility of the future research. When the researchers will attempt to collate and collaborate the data with the other evidence gathered on the topic, diverse topics can be simultaneously studies. Questionnaire survey method is one of the easiest ways to collect primary data on any topic. In addition to this, it is affordable and the researchers can thus, conduct several types of analysis and assessments on the topic.
5.0 Personal investment
This research case study analyzed the significance of the ideas identified with automated frameworks and their social pertinence with quality correspondence worries in intuitive mechanical frameworks. Various obstructions, like visible presentation, absence of enthusiastic reactions in mechanical frameworks, and honesty relating to participatory robots, can be tended to utilizing basic inquiries. Besides that, the place of strategies like AI, VR, and so forth in improving the viability of conduct characteristics in HRI can be talked about. Moreover, open inquiry can be utilized to acquire data about the advantages and disadvantages of HRI.
The individual experience and strength acquired in this exploration study will help with the lead of future examination on comparable subjects. Also, every part that adds to vivid robots’ low friendly authenticity can be researched. This experience can recognize more advancements that can be consolidated in HRI to work on their game. More noteworthy comprehension of helpful and connecting with robots will support forthcoming inside and out the examination.
Tsiakas, K., Abujelala, M., & Makedon, F. (2018). Task engagement as personalization feedback for socially-assistive robots and cognitive training. Technologies, 6(2), 49. https://www.mdpi.com/2227-7080/6/2/49
Meattini, R., Chiaravalli, D., Palli, G., & Melchiorri, C. (2020). sEMG-based human-in-the-loop control of elbow assistive robots for physical tasks and muscle strength training. IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, 5(4), 5795-5802. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/9145636
Feng, F., Chan, R. H., Shi, X., Zhang, Y., & She, Q. (2019). Challenges in task incremental learning for assistive robotics. IEEE Access, 8, 3434-3441. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/8911341
Losey, D. P., Srinivasan, K., Mandlekar, A., Garg, A., & Sadigh, D. (2020, May). Controlling assistive robots with learned latent actions. In 2020 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA) (pp. 378-384). IEEE. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/9197197
Olatunji, S. A., Oron-Gilad, T., Markfeld, N., Gutman, D., Sarne-Fleischmann, V., & Edan, Y. (2021). Levels of Automation and Transparency: Interaction Design Considerations in Assistive Robots for Older Adults. IEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems, 51(6), 673-683. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/9537578
Park, D., Kim, H., & Kemp, C. C. (2019). Multimodal anomaly detection for assistive robots. Autonomous Robots, 43(3), 611-629. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10514-018-9733-6
Chita-Tegmark, M., & Scheutz, M. (2021). Assistive robots for the social management of health: a framework for robot design and human–robot interaction research. International Journal of Social Robotics, 13(2), 197-217. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12369-020-00634-z
Scassellati, B., & Vázquez, M. (2020). The potential of socially assistive robots during infectious disease outbreaks. Science Robotics, 5(44). https://robotics.sciencemag.org/content/5/44/eabc9014.abstract
Pliasa, S., & Fachantidis, N. (2019, October). Mobile technologies serious games for the development of social skills in children with autism spectrum disorders, in enhanced with socially assistive robots interventions. In Interactive Mobile Communication, Technologies and Learning (pp. 618-628). Springer, Cham. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-49932-7_58
Silvera-Tawil, D., & Roberts-Yates, C. (2018, August). Socially-assistive robots to enhance learning for secondary students with intellectual disabilities and autism. In 2018 27th IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN) (pp. 838-843). IEEE. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/8525743