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7COM1084 Research Portfolio

Assignment Brief:

As an MSc research student, you are expected to understand how other areas of computer science relate to your chosen specialism. You must have a grasp of significant current open problems in other specialisms, as well as an understanding of how techniques and methods from other research areas can be applied within your specialism.

In this assignment you must provide an overview of two MSc Research specialism lectures (AI / Networking / Cyber Security / Software Engineering / Data Science) which are NOT the specialism you discussed in Assignment 1.

For each of these two areas, you must discuss the research question presented within the relevant specialist lecture for this specialism, propose some research approaches to investigate this question and identify further work you might undertake which builds on this. You must also explore your personal strengths in this area.

Solution:

Research Portfolio on Computer Science

(An Individual Report on Software Engineering and Cyber Security)

Part A Cybersecurity

1. Introduction

The term Cybersecurity refers to the practise of safeguarding important infrastructure and sensitive information against cybersecurity threats. Cybersecurity initiatives, also known as information technology (IT) safety, are intended to confront menaces to interconnected applications and systems, whether they arise within or elsewhere in an organisation. The sophistication of surveillance systems, caused by divergent innovations and a lack of in-house knowledge and experience, can magnify these expenses (Lezzi et al., 2018). However, organisations with a robust cybersecurity strategy that is guided by best practises and done by robots through the use of predictive stats, machine learning, and deep learning can combat cybersecurity threats more efficiently and reduce the entire life cycle and impact of infringements when they happen. WLAN routing is typically unrestrained, and inout information is easily accessible to virtually anyone other private entity. Hacker can easily encompass security vulnerabilities in MAC website names of famous wifi networks using DoS methodologies (Sarker et al., 2020). As a consequence, cybersecurity is an advanced consequence of computer science technology that can be used to protect system and data safety. The aim of this research case study is to review internet safety problems, and points to determine probe in WLAN networks. The research will demonstrate the research methodology used along with the personal investment in the topic.

2. Open research question

  • What are the intelligent as well as realistic methods for recognition of rough probe request frames in WLAN?

Network assurance and PR are two critical viewpoints in present-day coordinating security the leaders for the protection of different particular structures from any dark attack. This specific assessment question is fundamental in the piece of taking note of different computerized security issues related with WLAN frameworks organization and likely responses for lighten issues. Computerized insurance can be portrayed as key weakness reliant upon examination of its demeanor similarly as degree (Karampidis et al., 2019). Aggressors endeavor to get to know the entire working functionalities of the system before attacking with spyware or another disease into the WLAN structures. Later through and through learning of the functionalities, aggressors use the DoS structure to change the coding of the system to hack it and make advanced issues. An interference pattern of area using the distant techniques can perceive attacks in the hidden stage before making any general step for guaranteeing the advanced issues (Ozkan-Okay et al. 2021). This framework is useful in concluding MAC taunting and assessing traffic reliably especially in cognitive radio networking.

Resultingly, this problem is qualified to answer critical important queries about just the effective strategy of cyber-attacks, as well as prospective relief and restoration from that dilemma. A set of questions of this type can be used to respond to questions about different percepts of computational intelligence inventions and their implementations in the realm of cybersecurity. Cybersecurity is considered as a multidimensional capacity for information security that can be effortlessly founded following its acquisition of any core innovations (Lee, 2020). Filling out the survey questions will also consequence in thoughtful preparation and the importance of their implementation in cyber-security preparation.

Research problem

What is the risk of using unreal applications and methods to probe cyber-threats and increase data breach risks?

3. Existing work

According to Tchao et al. (2017), responsible for monitoring PC protection in periods will be critical because a large number of mobile phones can quickly connect to the internet. Digital attacks can steal critical information from systems while allowing computerized harm, economic damages, and reputation harm to any person or group of people. Curiously, Nikander et al. (2020) proposed that a control procedures attack practise is primarily training that can be carried out in a variety of organisational settings. As a result, understanding the cyberwarfare aesthetic in digital issues is critical to more easily understand doable coordinations methodologies to try and restore the structure from those threats and their eventually results subsequent fallout.

Cybersecurity breaches and hacking attacks that are sensor demand are typically PRFA sorts that attack WLAN faults and are depicted in the image past region. The image above depicts a computerized reach inside which the accuracy of such analyze requests ought to be guaranteed as different entry coordinates try toward get limits for exercises. A PR is a sort of requesting that can be sent by any person who moves toward a genuine MAC following partner with the association. As shown by Messnarz et al., (2021), test requests are basically used to grasp Wi-Fi components and value and nuances for setting up a relationship with that. As needs be, staying aware of safety in networks, similar to cryptography, to lessen such test request issues might perhaps diminish computerized assurance issues. The image under depicts a test transmission plot that it can use to corrupt associations.

The current information utilized here isn’t totally reasonable with tending to all requests in regards to test request attacks and organization wellbeing. The challenges identified with computerized issues are enormous, particularly in the current structure network the board (Alotaibi, 2019). The composing is insufficiently taught with respect to the challenges identified with publicizing and the execution of an organization wellbeing procedure. Potential plans following the distinctive evidence of the hidden driver of PR issues in WLAN are not referred to exactly to answer all pieces of the request. The super open issue could be mixed up referring to of PR and computerized attack methodology in systems. Another irritating issue is the unmistakable notification of state of the art techniques for viably mitigating advanced attacks on security structures.

4. Research approach

PR is a modern sort of attack on computer systems and software products that has led to development of interconnected transmission obstacles. According to the data analysis information supplied, it has been found that the relevant research technique for customers has now been bestowed for evaluation of the launch an investigation marketing problem and online security worries. The study shows that a total of a thousand frame test samples are regarded, with the user framework symbolised as 1 and the issue chassis signified as 0. According to the findings of such a study, a competent NN has successfully demonstrated both dependable and unexpected security breaches. Malevolent issues are typically characterised by probe queries usually contains pertinent information about any Wi-Fi network (Bharati et al., 2020). The research study provided implies the development of specific different factors for the progress of WIDS in the verification of practical application of a security concept against investigation requirements as well as cybercriminals.

Figure-1: Probe Transmission Scheme

The picture outlined in the above given picture portrays remote systems administration just as designated dangers connected with examine inquiries. There are 2 strategies in this, and the reconnaissance system has been restricted inside the 802.11 WLAN structure, which has helped with choosing dangers in unique organizations. The advantages of utilizing a chief interaction are required in concluding dangers have aided exactly recognizing the suitable impacted gadgets. Using such chief casing-based scientific techniques, it is additionally conceivable to recognize attackers from various spots. Primary obstacles are identified with working on individuals’ attention to digital security, which should be tended to at a primer stage (Alnasser et al., 2019).

Auxiliary exploration, in mix with proper data, can be helpful in directing an inside and out appraisal of activity and response. Further accessibility of data with a different cluster is very effective in completely using each idea during moderation and steadiness in digital assault. Auxiliary information will work on the result later productively and effectively attempting to contrast it with incredible examination to see that whether value levels of evaluation are solid or wasteful.

5. Personal investment

The examination question proposed for the situation learn at hand has advanced the benefit of being boundlessly configurable as far as researching prerequisite issues just as work area programmers’ sound technique in WLAN availability. The dispatch an examination request issue includes a necessity complete procedure and anticipated results about each framework’s feeling of having a place. This difficulty will be exact in coordinating about sync open welcome systems in a dispatch an examination request issue.

The examination study gave incorporates definite data about digital danger and examination requests, which will help with the advancement of information for future review arrangements. The benefits of body strategies in digital assault appraisal can permit us to assemble data so that plan concerns can be distinguished. Future exploration in this space will profit from the utilization of top to bottom information.

References

Alnasser, A., Sun, H., & Jiang, J. (2019). Cyber security challenges and solutions for V2X communications: A survey. Computer Networks151, 52-67. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1389128618306157

Alotaibi, B. (2019). Utilizing blockchain to overcome cyber security concerns in the internet of things: A review. IEEE Sensors Journal19(23), 10953-10971. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/8795541/

Bharati, S., Podder, P., Mondal, M., Robel, M., & Alam, R. (2020). Threats and countermeasures of cyber security in direct and remote vehicle communication systems. arXiv https://arxiv.org/abs/2006.08723preprint arXiv:2006.08723.

Karampidis, K., Panagiotakis, S., Vasilakis, M., Markakis, E. K., & Papadourakis, G. (2019, September). Industrial CyberSecurity 4.0: Preparing the Operational Technicians for Industry 4.0. In 2019 IEEE 24th International Workshop on Computer Aided Modeling and Design of Communication Links and Networks (CAMAD) (pp. 1-6). IEEE. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/8858454/

Lee, S. Z. (2020). A basic principle of physical security and its link to cybersecurity. International Journal of Cyber Criminology14(1), 203-219. https://search.proquest.com/openview/70523c95474a454446f743e8dab1a06d/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=55114

Lezzi, M., Lazoi, M., & Corallo, A. (2018). Cybersecurity for Industry 4.0 in the current literature: A reference framework. Computers in Industry103, 97-110. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s40537-020-00318-5

Messnarz, R., Norimatsu, S., Dobaj, J., Ekert, D., Macher, G., Zehetner, T., & Aschbacher, L. (2021, September). First Experiences with the Automotive SPICE for Cybersecurity Assessment Model. In European Conference on Software Process Improvement (pp. 531-547). Springer, Cham. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-85521-5_35

Nikander, J., Manninen, O., & Laajalahti, M. (2020). Requirements for cybersecurity in agricultural communication networks. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture179, 105776. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168169920314812

Ozkan-Okay, M., Aslan, Ö., Eryigit, R., & Samet, R. (2021). SABADT: Hybrid Intrusion Detection Approach for Cyber Attacks Identification in WLAN. IEEE Access. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/9622260

Sarker, I. H., Kayes, A. S. M., Badsha, S., Alqahtani, H., Watters, P., & Ng, A. (2020). Cybersecurity data science: an overview from machine learning perspective. Journal of Big data7(1), 1-29. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0166361518303658

Tchao, E. T., Ansah, R. Y., & Djane, S. D. (2017). Barrier free internet access: evaluating the cyber security risk posed by the adoption of bring your own devices to e-learning network infrastructure. arXiv preprint arXiv:1710.08795. https://arxiv.org/abs/1710.08795

Part 2: Software Engineering 

1.0 Introduction

A self-driving car, additionally perceived as an autonomous vehicle, is a contraption that can perform and fill vital roles without the requirement for human mediation because of its capacity to distinguish its environmental elements. A self-driving vehicle utilizes a totally robotized route framework to adjust to different outer conditions that a human administrator would deal with (Miller et al., 2017). With regards to AV, computer programming’s liability in such manner is to guarantee that security measurements are met while working these autos. As indicated by the review, while the usefulness of AV headway is expanding, moral codes relating to these cars keep on being a significant piece of social boundaries. A portion of the ethical issues encompassing AV incorporates the notable Trolley issues, security concerns, and hazard adjusting.

2.0 Open research question

Research question

  • How do we factor ethics into AV software engineering?

Autonomous vehicles were first implemented on UK roads in the 2020s; this market is increasing, and a few countries, such as the UK, are actively engaging in vehicle roadside experiments. As per Etienne, (2020), autonomous vehicles can profit people in all sorts of aspects. For instance, it can decrease approximately 90% of fender the deaths, 60% of harmful spillages in the surroundings, the transportation stretches of games of commuters, and can widen fuel economy and customers’ investment firms. It has been witnessed that AV uses fewer gas as well as energy while planning to travel, thereby lowering inherent expenditures and air quality. Finally, the questions arise from the moral implications of AV as well as the worries it can cause in actuality. The tramway or trolley case problem has been identified as one of the most urgent moral questions in AV (Bigman and Gray., 2020).

Furthermore, the risks involved with AV safety problems impacted the emergence of this unanswered question. It has been discovered that AVs are currently causing more collisions than human driven cars, despite the fact that the collisions are less drastic. Moreover, in most nations where AVs are legal, pavements and major roads are primarily unlabeled, which adds to the ambiguity for AV customers. According to Stoiber et al., (2019), lack of consistency in road intersections and thruway signboards has caused issues for AV. It has been unearthed that automated vehicles use lane markings with the help of surveillance systems regulated to follow the main road. Nonetheless, the absence of such indicators raises issues because it introduces risks on the use of AV.

Research problem

Issues of software engineering that hamper ethics in AV vehicles

3.0 Existing and related work

The rise of AV has raised moral contemplations about the correspondence of AV just as human drivers in blended rush hour gridlock environmental elements. As per Rowthorn (2019), supplanting human drivers with self-driving cars builds the odds of a crash. Various streetcar occurrences of AV can be talked about in this edge of reference, incorporating crashes that brought about serious harm. For example, in the event that the streetcar is going under a truck with a head present and the streetcar continues to work in the present situation, huge harm can result. Ryan (2020), on the opposite side, expressed that in reality, savage examples are incredibly uncommon, and AVs are fit for moving injury in its best way particularly in contrast with how a living individual can oversee it. The streetcar issue is made reference to as a security issue, yet it accepts an unrealistic degree of information and mechanical limit.

On account of major issues brought about by streetcar challenges, AV can act to lessen hazard as opposed to raising the danger. It has been found that when confronted with danger, AV needs to perform the furthest degree conceivable and errands through adaptable variation.

According to the views expressed by Adnan et al., (2018), blueprinting for AV could be viewed as another critical moral issue. AI can be used to help AV software engineers make critical thinking procedures. To keep up with plan morals, developers can incorporate preparing information that is needed to stay away from mishap situations. Essentially, the author has expressed that moral rule ought to be set up in AV to address moral worries. Designing morals are moral guidelines that originators use when chipping away at AV headway. Specialists can fuse factors like respectability, genuineness, public interest, decency, objectivity, and accuracy in the edge of reference of expert lead (Medina-Tapia and Robusté, 2018).

Hazard adjusting, as per Sparrow and Howard (2017), is simply one more arrangement of rules of moral issues related to AV and is a legal need that should be associated with driverless vehicles. In a request to diminish dangers to wellbeing in AV, government organizations can give rules on the most proficient method to keep hazards as low as essentially conceivable (ALARP). Hancock et al. (2019) expressed that improvement organization proposition, for example, distinguishing the perils relating to security, clinging to the idea of different relieving hazards, etc may assist with alleviating moral inquiries. Besides that, innovative aptitude, cost, and accessible assets are largely critical contemplations in AV ethical quality.

4.0 Research approach

The research case study was finalised by the researcher with the guidance of research-related authoritative sources. It was unearthed that the research case study contains a number of academic journals or articles written by various authors for the purpose of examining and analyzing the difficulties related with AV configuration. Plausible secondary research has produced a substantial amount of data about just the lot of data processing and designed to reflect on security corporate strategy in AV.

In this contextual analysis of the research problem, the methodology of this relevant investigation has advantaged in friendly illicit relationship a grouping of information concerning the assessment district inside a less proportion of time and effort. It has been seen that ethical idea in AV planning can be bored by passing on careful prosperity and design required for through and through execution. To create an ethical certification case, a cycle structure has been arranged in the survey. In any case, most of the discretionary sources used for the survey isn’t current which suggests they are north of 5 years old, which made a burden concerning faithful quality and authenticity. The assessment approach needs quality and continuous information about moral issues in AV planning (Adamson et al., 2019). Before long, the factors related to risk decline in AV have been found in the audit. This assessment focus on passing on the advantages of understanding the road workplaces that are tremendous in diminishing peril for AV. Other than that, it has been seen that different classes of people may experience inconveniences related to AV startlingly. Hindrances of this assessment consolidate a shortfall of information concerning what planning cycles, methodologies can be proceeded in AV arranging that would pass on more imperative capability and abatement of the primary risks.

The research case study can profit from the essential quantitative methodology of examination utilizing polls and overviews as a substitute answer for the exploration contextual analysis. As per Cuneen et al., (2020), this the quantitative exploration centers around directly aggregating information on individuals through gathering information. Discussions for information gathering help in attempting to clarify and more prominent understanding various perspectives on the exploration subject. Thus, directing meetings with individuals from the auto area and organizations that are by and by focusing on AV will support acquiring a more inside and out comprehension of the moral elements in AV designing. Organized poll and looking over with regards to assurance issues, streetcar issues, and AV plan issues would support assembling more different information with a better depiction of the exploration area (Cunneen et al., 2019). The methodology of by leading overviews, the pertinent individuals in the business would be equipped for realizing whether streetcar issue is a critical moral problem in computer programming identified with AV vehicles or on the other hand in the event that it is just a perplexity.

5.0 Personal investment

The investigation of details relating to this particular region of moral considerations in AV robotics and automation has greatly helped in the resolving of unanswered questions. The main variables, such as possible dangers, ineffective risk stabilization, and trolley difficulties, have dismissively did respond to the study’s main queries. Moreover, it has been unearthed that the use of artificial intelligence in design can help to reduce moral concerns.

This investigation’s rational knowledge and experience will be helpful for future data analysis. The evaluation of the provided research study will assist in understanding every crucial problem related to AV robotics and automation. Moreover, knowledge of software engineering as well as its implementation in AV will be useful in attempting to characterize additional issues in such areas.

References

Adamson, G., Havens, J. C., & Chatila, R. (2019). Designing a value-driven future for ethical autonomous and intelligent systems. Proceedings of the IEEE107(3), 518-525. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/8610013

Adnan, N., Nordin, S. M., bin Bahruddin, M. A., & Ali, M. (2018). How trust can drive forward the user acceptance to the technology? In-vehicle technology for autonomous vehicle. Transportation research part A: policy and practice118, 819-836. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0965856418309030

Bigman, Y. E., & Gray, K. (2020). Life and death decisions of autonomous vehicles. Nature579(7797), E1-E2. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-1987-4

Cunneen, M., Mullins, M., Murphy, F., Shannon, D., Furxhi, I., & Ryan, C. (2020). Autonomous vehicles and avoiding the trolley (dilemma): vehicle perception, classification, and the challenges of framing decision ethics. Cybernetics and Systems51(1), 59-80. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/01969722.2019.1660541

Etienne, H. (2020). When AI ethics goes astray: A case study of autonomous vehicles. Social Science Computer Review, 0894439320906508. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0894439320906508

Medina-Tapia, M. and Robusté, F., 2018. Exploring paradigm shift impacts in urban mobility: Autonomous Vehicles and Smart Cities. Transportation Research Procedia, 33, pp.203-210.

Rowthorn, M. (2019). How should autonomous vehicles make moral decisions? Machine ethics, artificial driving intelligence, and crash algorithms. Contemporary Readings in Law and Social Justice11(1), 9-14. https://www.ceeol.com/search/article-detail?id=784593

Ryan, M. (2020). The future of transportation: ethical, legal, social and economic impacts of self-driving vehicles in the year 2025. Science and engineering ethics26(3), 1185-1208. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11948-019-00130-2

Sparrow, R., & Howard, M. (2017). When human beings are like drunk robots: Driverless vehicles, ethics, and the future of transport. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies80, 206-215. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0968090X17301262

Stoiber, T., Schubert, I., Hoerler, R., & Burger, P. (2019). Will consumers prefer shared and pooled-use autonomous vehicles? A stated choice experiment with Swiss households. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment71, 265-282. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1361920918303304

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