The SaNTA program is a voluntary youth talk show in high schools involving guest speakers, some of whom are ex-alcohol addicts. The weekly program runs for an hour over five sessions. The resource persons use role plays and audio visuals in interactive sessions to increase participants’ understanding of the seriousness of the negative effects of alcohol addiction on young people. Participants in the program are mostly young people who are interested in learning about alcohol addiction. The program has been happening in several high schools for a year now, but this is the first time Youthy is evaluating it in XXXX senior high school.
You are an independent evaluation officer, tasked with reporting on the following program outcomes. At the end of the program participants should be able to:
Explain the prevalence and seriousness of alcohol consumption among young people
Discuss the causes and effects of ways of dealing with and places to seek help with alcohol addiction
Demonstrate improved alcohol addiction help-seeking behaviours.
Step 1: Analyse the Youthy “Say no to Alcohol” (SaNTA) program evaluation survey data below:
Step 2: Write a 6-page (2cm margins, 11 fonts) evaluation report on the extent to which the SaNTA program achieved its outcomes. Note that items marked * are not included in page count.
SOCIAL RESEARCH AND PROGRAM EVALUATION
Alcohol consumption has been an alarming issue in Australia with a higher number of ailments and emergency associated cases being observed in Australian hospitals which also include young adults. The aim of the study is to evaluate the SANTA program running actively on secondary school students in Western Australia. This is to ensure better awareness of the causative agent behind the addiction as well as its negative effects. The evaluative methods of behavioural model and results have been analysed and collated with the result or outcome effectiveness. Findings were collected from the control groups of students from various institutions. An increase in the incidence of basic awareness and knowledge has been observed through the application of these interactive learning programs.
All stages of life are significantly impacted by alcohol intake. Numerous ailments, including cancer, liver cirrhosis, TB, pneumonia, alcohol use disorder, pancreatitis, malignancies, psychological morbidity, diabetes mellitus, and damage, are linked to alcohol usage (Eze et al., 2017). Initiation of alcohol addiction has been found in senior or secondary institutions. Hence, awareness of prevalent alcohol addiction and its negative impacts should be accessible or actively introduced to the students. SANTA program is a voluntary talk show in high schools, working on this particular topic. They arrange active interaction-based learning for student awareness of alcohol addiction prevalence. This includes some unique approaches involving students in night walks and developing focus topics organized by the intensive theatrical groups.
This study will mainly focus on evaluating the effectiveness of the programs, initiatives or campaigns run by the SANTA program. This will be done by analysing the triangular model-based data evaluation of the reports produced by the organization. Awareness and involvement of the students in the program will be the primary criteria for evaluation of the success of these programs in the claim. A structural breakdown will be presented in the report for the reader’s ease. This will give out the context of the case and the overview of programs taking place. This will be followed by an evaluation of the methods used and the analysis of findings.
Alcohol addiction and associated problems have been one of the concerning cases for Western Australia or Australia in general. There are worrying statistics that prove the claim. According to the collaborative reports of the Cancer Council of Australia, WA has a higher incidence of emergency inductions into hospitals caused due to excessive alcohol consumption. 1 out of every 5 emergency patients on a weekend night are alcohol user. Presentations of alcohol-related emergency department cases experienced a hike from 6,118 in 2014 to 9455 in 2018 (cancer.asn, au, 2022). Below are the overall emergency cases caused due to alcohol usage in WA
Figure 1: Cases registered each month in Australian hospitals caused by alcohol abuse
(Source: cancer.asn, au, 2022)
Studies revealed that this behaviour associated with alcohol abuse is a predisposition to alcohol over-consumption from the young adult stages of life. Alcohol is the second-leading contributing factor for women and the first-leading risk factor for men among young adults aged between 15 to 24. Young adults (18–24) who drink are typically more likely to go over the recommended daily limits and expose themselves to the possibility of short-term liquor hazards or drunkenness (Leggat et al., 2022). According to reports, there has been a decline in the alcohol consumption rate among secondary school students over the period from 2011-2017 (ASSAD, 2017). This has accounted for an increase in alcohol-associated ailment awareness, directly or indirectly influenced by the wide range of campaigns run by the government. This suggests the validity of hands-on campaigns and programs in reducing the risk of alcohol abuse.
Figure 2: Trend of substance abuse among secondary school students in Australia (1996-2017)
(Source: ASSDA, 2017)
Thus, it is evident that alcohol consumption, though reduced compared to the 90s is still an overbearing issue in the country. Instance abuse behaviour often develops from a young age. Hence, laying down the groundwork for the need for programs to increase awareness.
3. Program and organization
As discussed in the initiation of the report Santa program is directed to the secondary children at increasing their awareness of the concern of alcohol abuse and its negative impacts. Various secondary school children have been divided into groups and included in the chosen programs such as the intrinsic theatrical program and the assisted night walk.
4. Evaluation method
The factors that have been evaluated in the study are oriented to secondary school children. It gauges the awareness of issues in their life-stage that leads to alcohol abuse. Also, they have been analysed and taught about the existing risks while they are out alone and the expected and optimum reactions to them.
Students/case study groups of students have been evaluated on their opinion as qualitative data from the exante and post-experiment stages. Models included for evaluating the results are the theory of planned behaviour and result-based accountability. As per these models, the results were focused on three key pointers. These were ‘how much did we do?’, ‘how well did we do?’ and ‘is anyone better off?’ This approach is an effective one as this proves to have a round of evaluation of all the needed parameters. The first pointer reveals the number of sample/subjects; the third pointers give off the percentage of increase in participation or satisfaction as an outcome of the campaigns or training.
Figure 3: CAD evaluation model
(Source: CAD evaluation report, 2019-2020)
The theory of planned behaviour has been used to study the behavioural intention of the participants in the survey. Three predictors of intention used in these studies are the subjective norm, attitude and behavioural control. Argumentatively, this is an elaborate procedure for evaluation but is the most well-structured undermaintaining this evaluation process, the data will be available for the readers in a fixed pattern making further analysis an easy way for understanding and drawing comparative conclusions.
5.1 TRG intensive programs
Thirteen initiatives were located and held in 12 different places including in 110 students from secondary schools.
5.1.2 Seriousness of issue
Exposure to the ideas and thought patterns of various students did reveal a number of factors that are not clearly acknowledged. There was a greater increase in terms of subjective norms as compared to attitude and behavioural control. According to La Barbera & Ajzen (2020), subjective norm helps in framing better and solid opinion on the theatre-based learning show conducted by the program.
5.1.3 Knowledge issues
Parameters that evaluated the cases are their signs or effects and the support areas to be fetched when needed to manage the emergency cases. When comparing pre and post stages of the program, there has been an increase of 22% in the cause awareness, about a 25% increase in the knowledge of side effects and symptoms as well as an increase of 7% in the areas of support.
Figure 4: Trend in the change of knowledge of the students
(Source: TRG initiative report)
5.1.4 Attitude towards seeking help
A proven increase has been observed in the knowledge and awareness among the students in three key areas. These are a cause of stress/peer pressure or any form of mental manipulation. Increased reaching out trend have also been observed post learning.
5.1.5 Satisfaction with program
Focus topic swerve selected by the students themselves to talk or perform and act on the topics introducing various ideas that the students have come up with. The baseline data and the TRG definite data varied initially as 69% of the students agreed of TRG learnings were beneficial while about 35% of the participants agreed to the same in baseline data.
Again, there has been an increase in the behavioural intention output on the parameters that have been secluded in the last section of this study.
5.2 CAD evaluations
Fourteen CAD tours were conducted including in 420 participants from seven different schools.
5.2.2 Seriousness of issue
It was important to make students aware of the situation they could be facing when going out on certain city roads inviting accidents or mis happenings.
5.2.3 Knowledge issues
It was viewed that the current interactive nature of the training has helped in faster and better results as compared to theoretical training. According to Andersen (2016), application-based pieces of training lead to greater retention in learners. However, this difference has mostly been observed in areas of gaining knowledge. For example, students were now more aware of the risky scenarios, knowledge of situations that could be leading to risky scenarios, self-defines techniques as well as the effects of alcohol.
5.2.4 Attitude towards seeking help
The same improvements extents or changes have not been observed in the behavioural intentions of the students. For example, students were already aware of the proposed statement ‘It is my responsibility to avoid dangerous areas in the city at night. There has been a slight increase in the other two intention statements proposed. These are ‘walking around the city at night can be unsafe’ and ‘I am confident and know what to do to stay safe in the city at night. These have increased by 14% and 7% respectively.
Figure 5: Behavioural intentions
(Source: CAD report)
5.2.5 Satisfaction with program
Both of the approaches to evaluating the programs for alcohol awareness have seen an increase in prevalence in 2020 as compared to 2019. Therefore, the government can be looking into bringing in more consultants to cover a greater number of students under the campaigns.
Currently, the intensive evaluation technique does not give out valid results in terms of theory and outcome. This makes it difficult to stand a point based on the statistics. The recommendation here includes regular updates on the evaluation method to find the best fit.
Currently, all the evaluation criteria are focused on a single factor. This is not a fit for future studies and evaluation as these multidimensional studies come up with multiple themes. According to Reed (2021), working with multiple themes helps in developing subjective nature or perspective of the problem. Hence, the second recommendation would be to bring in an updated evaluation policy having a scope to work on multiple theme intensives.
The third recommendation is that the government could bring in tertiary bodies in the evaluation method in order to bring a randomized trial approach to studying the awareness. This can then be used as an s gold standard upon approval.
A system should be introduced in order to ask for the relevance that each of the students feels in taking them through these awareness sessions or campaigns. It is important to prioritize project communication over other parameters when it consists of a large member setting (Shakeri, & Khalilzadeh, 2020). There might not be a uniform opinion of the same. Therefore, there should be enough space, accessibility and acknowledgement of the student’s contradicting opinion if any. For example, during CAD some of the participants were not comfortable walking and eating on the shady streets.
Some of the associated suggestions or recommendations have been developed by looking into the experiment or the study and the reports. The groups are of larger size in these campaigns. If these groups could be much smaller, analysts are to give a better outcome for the groups.
Increasing emergency cases in hospitals and higher health complications associated with alcohol have led to the increase in the issue of alcohol abuse gain importance. Alcohol consumption gets initiated from secondary school. Here, the SANTA program aims at increasing the awareness of secondary school students about the prevalence of alcohol abuse and its associated negative impacts. It also focuses on the causative factors for alcohol abuse. All of this has been done by a collective induction of interactive approaches, namely, the CAD and the theatrical intensive programs. These results have been evaluated by the use of the theory of planned behaviour and result-based accountability. A significant rise in student knowledge gain and awareness has been observed as an outcome.
Andersen, E. S. (2016). Do project managers have different perspectives on project management?. International Journal of Project Management, 34(1), 58-65. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0263786315001465
ASSAD (2017) TRENDS IN SUBSTANCE USE 1996-2017 https://www.health.gov.au/sites/default/files/documents/2020/07/trends-in-substance-use-among-australian-secondary-school-students-1996-2017.pdf
cancer.asn,au (2022) WA’S HIDDEN CRISIS: HARM FROM ALCOHOL Retrieved from: https://cancerwa.asn.au/wp-content/uploads/2022/08/2022-06-WAs-Hidden-Crisis-Harm-from-alcohol-FINAL.pdf
Eze, N. M., Njoku, H. A., Eseadi, C., Akubue, B. N., Ezeanwu, A. B., Ugwu, U. C., & Ofuebe, J. I. (2017). Alcohol consumption and awareness of its effects on health among secondary school students in Nigeria. Medicine, 96(48). doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000008960
La Barbera, F., & Ajzen, I. (2020). Control interactions in the theory of planned behavior: Rethinking the role of subjective norm. Europe’s Journal of Psychology, 16(3), 401. doi: 10.5964/ejop.v16i3.2056
Leggat, G., Livingston, M., Kuntsche, S., & Callinan, S. (2022). Alcohol consumption trajectories over the Australian life course. Addiction. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/add.1584
Reed, M. S., Ferre, M., Martin-Ortega, J., Blanche, R., Lawford-Rolfe, R., Dallimer, M., & Holden, J. (2021). Evaluating impact from research: A methodological framework. Research Policy, 50(4), 104147. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048733320302225
Shakeri, H., & Khalilzadeh, M. (2020). Analysis of factors affecting project communications with a hybrid DEMATEL-ISM approach (A case study in Iran). Heliyon, 6(8), e04430. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2405844020312743