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“Homelessness” in Bangladesh

Task brief:

You are required to write a Research Proposal (Word count 2000 )

Solution:

An Individual Research Proposal

Homelessness in Bangladesh

Abstract

The primary factors due to which the possibility of homelessness in Bangladesh is increased are related to poverty, unemployment, mental health and the number of affordable housing, and this has eventually increased the possibility of a decline in their overall health in terms of nutrition and all.

The proposal is about the identification and evaluation of the cause and impact of homelessness in Bangladesh, and for this, both primary and secondary data collection methods will be followed as it will help in having relevant data from the perspective of both the historic information set and end respondents. Apart from it, positivism research philosophy and inductive research approach will be followed for the work as it will help in figuring out the way using which homelessness in Bangladesh might be improved.

Introduction

Homelessness refers to the demographic situation in which an individual or group of people get inefficient in having an appropriate place to reside or living so that defined kinds of personal and professional activities might be performed appropriately (Fraser, Pierse, Chisholm, & Cook, 2019). The research work will be carried out to have an in-depth understanding of the possible cause and impact of homelessness in Bangladesh, and this will be performed following both qualitative and qualitative evaluation methods. Bangladesh is an Asian country which is located in the east of India and the nearby Bay of Bengal, due to which the possibility of a natural disaster like flood and sea rise is found abruptly in a year (Britannica, 2022).

Figure 1: Slum Area of Bangladesh; Source: (BBC, 2022)

Around 5 million citizens of Bangladesh live without any house, while 124 million population live in slums and mud houses (National Library of Medicine, 2022). The factors which have increased the number of homeless people in Bangladesh are its geographical location, irrational commercialization of land, poverty, lower unemployment, substance abuse and shortage of affordable housing (Fowler, Hovmand, Marcal, & Das, 2019). With the support of the proposal, it will be detailed how the homelessness situation in Bangladesh is affecting the overall situation of its population in terms of health status, livelihood and psychological well-being.

Research Objective

The objective of the research proposal is mentioned as follows-

  • To have an understanding of the concept of homelessness in the context of Bangladesh.
  • To recognise and evaluate the possible factors augmenting the situation of homelessness in Bangladesh.
  • To identify and evaluate the upcoming impact of homelessness on the citizen of Bangladesh.
  • To analyse probable solutions for mitigating the adverse impact of homeless in Bangladesh.

Research Question

The research question of the proposal is illustrated as follows-

  • What is meant by homelessness in the context of Bangladesh?
  • What are the possible factors responsible for augmenting the situation of homelessness in Bangladesh?
  • What is the upcoming impact of homelessness on the citizen of Bangladesh?
  • What is the probable solution for mitigating the adverse impact of homeless in Bangladesh?

Research Problem

The research problem the work is to support the population of Bangladesh to mitigate the adverse effect of homelessness in terms of declining mental health and rising crime rate by developing appropriate initiatives so that respective overall growth might be achieved. As the degree of homelessness increased within a nation like Bangladesh, then the ability to meet basic needs decreased among the respective citizens, and this eventually reduced their nutrition intake and overall well-being. It is evaluated that around 70% population of the total homeless people of Bangladesh suffer the symptoms of poor nutrition, depression and mental health problems, due to which the possibility of lower informed decision ability increases, and this eventually reduces their overall growth (BBC, 2022). Hence, to support the population of Bangladesh from being away from the impact of homelessness and reducing the possibility of homelessness, the research proposal is carried out as it will help in finding an appropriate way to mitigate the condition and its adverse impact.

Research Aim

The research work aims at identifying the potential cause and impact of homelessness in Bangladesh so that appropriate strategies might be recommended to the respective government for improving the respective condition and adverse impact. The significance and scope of the research work are mentioned as follows-

  • Using the study, the government of Bangladesh and its population will be successful in finding the real cause of homelessness in the nation, and this will eventually help in taking corrective action.
  • The research work will help the government of Bangladesh and other parts of the world to predict the possible cause and impact of Homelessness, and this will eventually assist in curbing the number of homeless people.

Literature Review

Critical Evaluation of the Causes and Impact of Homelessness in Bangladesh

As per the theory of Rawlsian Egalitarianism, whenever the possibility of unequal distribution of primary goods like housing is increased, then the probability of a decline in livelihood is increased, and this eventually increases social injustice and conflict in terms of meeting fundamental needs. According to Rule (2020), following the equal distribution of primary goods related principle of Rawlsian Egalitarianism, the primary factor which increases the possibility of homelessness within a nation like Bangladesh is related to the employment rate and availability of affordable housing. If the population of a nation will not be successful in having the appropriate kind of employment, then they will not be successful in having a surplus amount of income, and this might eventually disable them from meeting basic needs like housing (Alam & Hossain, 2018). It means that the possibility of social injustice and conflict in terms of meeting housing-related needs is derived due to inappropriate employment and affordable housing distribution-related policy.  

Figure 2: Homelessness and Crime in Bangladesh; Source: (Britannica, 2022)

As the homelessness-related adverse situation is increased, the mental state of the individual might be declined in terms of consumption of appropriate nutrition and living standard live.  In 2021, the rate of unemployment in Bangladesh was around 5.23 %, and this is expected to be increased with the CAGR (Compound Annual Growth Rate) of 3.51 % by the end of 2025 if corrective action will not be taken by its government (Statista, 2022). The outcome of the higher unemployment rate in Bangladesh is that its population is found unable to afford appropriate housing, and this has eventually increased the degree of homelessness in the nation along with deviance in basic need fulfilment related to social injustice. On the contrary, Hossu et al. (2018) stated, following the conflict theory of Karl Marx, that the availability of limited resources within a nation is the primary cause of homelessness within it as it helps in meeting a fundamental need, and this eventually increases crime and reduced overall wellbeing.

On the evaluation of the geographical structure of Bangladesh, it is found that incident of climate change like flood and cyclone is frequently found within the coastal area of the nation, due to which respective people get no place to live and continue their livelihood (World Bank, 2022). In other words, the shortage of limited resources in terms of agricultural land and source of income has reduced the capability of Bangladesh people to have surplus funds to build homes after natural disaster-related activities like cyclones, and this eventually increases the condition of homelessness (Williams & Drew, 2020). As per the theory of functionalism, the inefficiency of the government of a nation or region in terms of providing fundamental needs might inhibit the basic functions of society in terms of living, food and better social life. Whenever the degree of homelessness is increased within a nation, then respective individuals become disabled in functioning social activities like social interaction and religious practices, and this eventually reduces their mental peace for living life appropriately. In other words, the homelessness situation of a nation like Bangladesh increases social conflict and social injustice in terms of meeting fundamental needs along with functioning fundamental social practices.

As per the theory of Rawl’s theory of social justice, the limited availability of resources for citizens increases the possibility of homelessness along with the crime rate and social injustice. With the substantial hike in the degree of homelessness in Bangladesh, the health-related problem within the respective population is increased substantially in terms of nutrition, mental health and cognitive ability, and this has eventually aroused social conflict within them in terms of meeting fundamental needs and social practices.

Analysis of the Ways for Mitigating the Possibility of Homelessness in Bangladesh

According to Afrin & Islam (2021), the primary way in which the degree of homelessness within a nation like Bangladesh can be minimized is through the provision of strategic support from the respective government in terms of employment and the availability of affordable housing. If the government of Bangladesh focuses on providing appropriate kinds of employment for the below the poverty line of people, then it will be successful in increasing the income and spending capability of the population, and this will eventually reduce their homelessness. On the other hand, Fowler et al. (2019) stated that the provision of health support might help the population of a nation to take corrective action to have appropriate housing, and this might reduce the possibility of homelessness. It means that if the government of Bangladesh focuses on providing mental illness and substance abuse-related support to the respective victim, then it will be successful in having a surplus income, and this will eventually reduce their homelessness situation.

Methodology

Research Strategy

Research strategy refers to the overall plan which a researcher follows in conducting research work (Oliva, 2019). To have an in-depth understanding of the potential cause and impact of homelessness in Bangladesh, a qualitative research strategy will be followed as it has helped in finding the potential reason why the situation of homelessness is increasing within the nation. 

Research Philosophy

Research philosophy refers to the belief about the process desired kind of data about a research topic is collected and utilized (Hürlimann, 2019). To have an insight into the way homelessness is affecting the overall health of the population of Bangladesh, positivism research philosophy will be followed as it will help in collecting relevant data by collecting and analysing relevant data in logical and scientific format.

Research Approach

The research approach refers to the collection of steps which are followed for the steps of data gathering, evaluation and interpretation (Alase, 2017). The inductive research approach will be selected over the deductive research approach for figuring out the potential cause and impact of homelessness in Bangladesh as it will help the researcher to develop a respective model for understanding the drivers for homelessness and its respective association with social justice.

Research Design

Descriptive research design over others, including correlational research design and experimental research design, will be selected for the work as it will help in evaluating the factors are which are contributing to the hike of homelessness in Bangladesh (Dannels, 2018).

Data Collection and Sampling

Both primary and secondary data collection will be performed for gathering homelessness-related data in Bangladesh. Primary data will be collected by making a survey with 100 individuals (sample size) from Bangladesh living in a slum area (Population Size = 150), and this will be performed following a closed-ended questionnaire and random sampling method.

Data Analysis

Both quantitative and qualitative data analysis methods will be followed as the nature of collected primary and secondary data are numerical as well as non-numerical, and the mixed kind of approach is effective in this situation (Munch, 2017).

Ethical Consideration

To keep the outcome of the study unbiased, the personal data of participants will not be disclosed to any third party without any prior consent, and no individual perception will be used for concluding the work. Apart from it, the source of information, like journals regarding homelessness in Bangladesh, which fact will be supported by at least 8 similar kinds of sources, will be considered in the work so that the possibility of biasness in data collection might be minimized.

Conclusion

It is concluded that the factors due to which the situation of homelessness is aroused substantially in Bangladesh are related to the shortage of affordable housing, poverty, and unemployment, and this has eventually increased the possibility of a low degree of well-being. With the strategic deployment of employment, social justice and equal resource distribution related policy, the government of Bangladesh will be successful in mitigating the possibility of homelessness in the nation and its adverse impact.

References

Afrin, T., & Islam, M. S. (2021). Exploring the livelihood pattern of the floating population using the SL framework: a case study of metropolitan Dhaka, Bangladesh. Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy, 2(1), 1-30; DOI : 10.1080/13547860.2021.1884173.

Alam, M., & Hossain, M. (2018). Fuzzy cognitive maps to study the fact behind homelessness in Bangladesh. Journal of Politics, 8(1), 22-29.

Alase, A. (2017). The interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA): A guide to a good qualitative research approach. International Journal of Education and Literacy Studies, 12(1), 9-19; DOI : 10.7575/aiac.ijels.v.5n.2p.9.

BBC. (2022). Homelessness in Bangladesh. Retrieved Oct 06, 2022, from https://www.bbc.com/news/av/world-asia-21318530

Britannica. (2022). Bangladesh. Retrieved Oct 06, 2022, from https://www.britannica.com/place/Bangladesh

Dannels, S. A. (2018). Research design. he reviewer’s guide to quantitative methods in the social sciences , 8(1), 402-416; DOI : 10.4324/9781315755649-30.

Fowler, P. J., Hovmand, P. S., Marcal, K. E., & Das, S. (2019). Solving homelessness from a complex systems perspective: Insights for prevention responses. Annual review of public health, 8(1), 4-65; DOI : 10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040617-013553.

Fraser, B., Pierse, N., Chisholm, E., & Cook, H. (2019). LGBTIQ+ homelessness: A review of the literature. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(15), 26-77; DOI : 10.3390/ijerph16152677.

Hossu, C. A., Ioja, I. C., Susskind, L. E., Badiu, D. L., & Hersperger, A. M. (2018). Factors driving collaboration in natural resource conflict management: Evidence from Romania. Ambio, 47(7), 816-830; DOI : 10.1007/s13280-018-1016-0.

Hürlimann, C. (2019). Research Philosophy and Ethics. Valuation of Renewable Energy Investments, 11(3), 111-126; DOI : 10.1007/978-3-658-27469-6_3.

Munch, E. (2017). A user’s guide to topological data analysis. Journal of Learning Analytics, 4(2), 47-61; DOI : 10.18608/jla.2017.42.6.

National Library of Medicine. (2022). Homeless in Dhaka. Retrieved Oct 06, 2022, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2928094/#:~:text=An%20estimated%203.4%20million%20people,lacking%20the%20most%20basic%20shelter.

Oliva, R. (2019). Intervention as a research strategy. Journal of Operations Management, 65(7), 710-724; DOI : 10.1002/joom.1065.

Rule, C. (2020). Online dispute resolution and the future of justice. Annual Review of Law and Social Science, 1(6), 277-292; DOI : 10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-101518-043049.

Statista. (2022). Unemployment in Bangladesh. Retrieved Oct 06, 2022, from https://www.statista.com/statistics/808225/unemployment-rate-in-bangladesh/#:~:text=Unemployment%20rate%20in%20Bangladesh%202021&text=In%202021%2C%20the%20unemployment%20rate,Stuck%20in%20the%20middle%3F

Williams, S., & Drew, G. (2020). Co-creating meeting spaces’: Feminist ethnographic fieldwork in Bangladesh. Gender, Place & Culture, 27(6), 831-850; DOI : 10.1080/0966369X.2019.1657070.

World Bank. (2022). Climate Change in Bangladesh: Impact on Infectious Diseases and Mental Health. Retrieved Oct 06, 2022, from https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2021/10/07/climate-change-in-bangladesh-impact-on-infectious-diseases-and-mental-health

Appendix

(A)

(B)      

(C) Primary Research Question

1. What is your age?

  • Between 18 to 30 years
  • 30 to 45 years
  • 45 to 60 years

2. are you having a home to live?

  • Yes
  • No
  • To some extent

3. what factors do you find responsible for cause of homelessness in Bangladesh?

  • Irrational housing affordable policy
  • Low employment opportunity
  • Social injustice in terms of education
  • Above all

4. what are the impact of homelessness in Bangladesh?

  • Higher crime rate
  • Malnutrition in slum area
  • Higher pay gap
  • All above

(d) Secondary Research Question

1. what are the causes of homelessness in Bangladesh?

2. how the social injustice and conflict is associated with homelessness in Bangladesh?

3. what are the impacts of homelessness in Bangladesh in short-term and long-term?

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