Assignment 2: Child Observation Report

  • Introduction (150 words)
  • Area of interest and observational questions (300-500 words)
  • Methodsthis section requires references (300-500 words)
  • Observations and Interpretations (500-800 words)
  • Conclusion/Summary- this section requires references (300-500 words)


1. Introduction

            Children effectively require the support of the community and family to survive lives. Maslow’s “Hierarchy of needs” is a type of psychological theory which effectively represents the needs of the human at a grassroots level such as shelter, food and water to an extent which they effectively achieve (West, 2022). With the help of this theory, children are designated to achieve their desired potential without any derivatives and limits and gain success and happiness. As a child grows, they have rights and needs and adults are designated to meet them based on constructive and positive strategies and it is their duty. In today’s democratic society, the protection of a child from harm and the guidance provision is crucial for their development phase (UNHCR, 2020). Giving a definite form of information or advice is personally aimed at supporting the child’s overall health and development. Furthermore, an adult is also said to perceive the reflective stages of social, emotional, psychological, cognitive and physical development of a child for recording and collecting the positive norms of language and information. With the help of the above derivatives, an adult can essentially identify the abilities of the children and their needs.

            This is reflected to be a type of project of a “four-year-old” mate called Ian who is of Indonesian and Australian background inside a “home and day-care setting”. The observation set of lunch and playing time set has been selected. During the three YouTube videos, at differentiated times it has been recorded that there is a total of 14 minutes of the day and home care setting and observation with his peers and caretaker. Furthermore, this project is based on the three videos for answering the qualitative questions and each of the three videos is effectively going to help in answering the qualitative questions based on discovering the lunchtime, naptime, and effective learnings about negotiations (ECA, 2012).

2. Area of interest and Observational questions

            Social competence effectively involves forming of positive connections to others and in case of young children they effectively compromise the overall social skills set which effectively leads to a person befriending and being assertive to the needs of an individual.

  • Self-regulation and concepts: As stated based on “Developing everyday coping skills in early years” emotional and levels of social competence effectively includes definite qualities that when put into a form of practice can effectively help in producing emotionally and socially healthy individuals and responsive and safe communities. Furthermore, these qualities also include derivatives for decision-making, problem-solving abilities and definite incurrence of self-motivation and direct communication. Hence, it becomes an important reflection to undermine the “self-concept”. As opined by (Zhang, et al., 2019), the self is reflected to be a type of mental arrangement of attitudes and abilities that defines an individual.
  • Interpersonal skills and knowledge: Over the years and in the process of social and emotional development children have effectively known how to set their goals, and maintain their thought processes. In addition, it has also been reflected that the overall accumulation of knowledge helps a child in gathering himself and his definite ability to put up the norms of gratification while keeping his impulses under definite control. This observation record is going to record the level of concentration on the behaviours of the child’s level of self-awareness and his positive and independent attitudes towards themselves.

            This observation report of Ian deals with two important observational questions, which are:-

  • How effectively and consciously does Ian effectively react in setting the events that are surrounding him?

This will help to measure Ian’s social competence, as the ability to achieve the personal goal (self-expression), in social dealings.

  • Can you tell me at what times are Ian demonstrating the behaviours that are reflected to be a compliance sign?

While answering to these above questions that are undermined effectively, it has been reflected that Ian’s competency level going to help in reflecting upon the strategies and goals which are consistent enough for the overall development stage which is going to help the caregivers and parents.

3. Methods

      This report effectively deals with one qualitative and quantitative method that effectively helps in observing the behaviour of Ian. The qualitative methods are based on anecdotal and the quantitative method is based on frequency count method.

  • Anecdotal Method: As per view (Whitehead, 2020), “planned anecdote writing” effectively helps in sharpening the mental ability based on the situation. In addition, it also effectively accustoms the observer for looking at a child’s behaviour for recording what Ian sees. Keeping this derivation in mind, and after going through the videos more than one time, the videos have been scripted with the help of the “record running method”.

Strengths of Anecdotal Method

The anecdote is reflected to be constructive information about a child or children which when effectively added to a record collection can effectively yield the functioning level of a child. The primary strength of this method is that the data can easily be collected with the use of pen and paper and is also reflected to be an “open-ended tool” (Wylie, 1999). During this study, “Discovering and lunchtime video” by practicing has incurred the regulations of Anecdotal method. Based on this observation it can be found that the Anecdotal method is one of the easiest methods that help in observing the behaviour of Ian among the other mates that are present.

Weakness of Anecdotal Method

The primary weakness of this method is that it is very time-consuming and an observer can effectively miss “specified” behaviour types of an individual (Wylie, 1999). This study has reflected that the cognitive bias of caretaker and observer can effectively hamper Ian’s recording and observation.  

  • Frequency count method: Using quantitative methods, it is recommended to use the “grading scale methods” for measuring in place of “quantitative recording methods”. By using the scales of grading, it has been reflected that overall observation can be interpreted and observed from the viewpoint of the child and his overall “cognitive understanding”. Then again, the answer to this question has been effectively posed by this method and a child can effectively practice and try to express his overall feelings in definite form and words. Furthermore, this mentioned method is not going to be possible because this report is effectively based on watching these videos. Hence, it is best to switch to the “Frequency Counting method”.

Strengths of Frequency Count: This method is effectively closed and gives a positive indication as to how often the target behaviour has effectively occurred (MP, 2018). Furthermore, this method can help in recording the overall count of frequency based on the behaviours and movement of Ian while making an accurate estimation of the incurred data.

Weakness of Frequency Count: The main weakness of this method is that a researcher can effectively miss out on the typical situation and types.

4. Interpretations and observations

      Every detailed interpretation and observation has been outlined in this project work that has been taken from the “study of early childhood chapters” from the “book children, adolescents and infants” written by (Whitehead, 2020).

Qualitative Observation with Anecdotal method 

The day care settings and social settings has reflected that during lunchtime and every other child was sitting beside the table. It has been noted that many times the carer instructed Ian and even suggested that “I am going to give you one spoon and I am going to help you to…” To this, it has been reflected that Ian has been very disapproving as he constantly refused and shook his head then jumped to the yard and played alone. In the next scene, we observe that carer went out with a jelly bar and bowl of food. First, we can see that Ian got happy but then he effectively realised that eating jelly is reflected to be a part of the main meal. To distract Ian, the caretaker said “Ok, let’s go and wash our hands then…” To this, Ian practically reflected on his hands and answered that “I washed my hands”. Caretaker replied that “I know you washed but you again came back to the sandpit, so you have to wash your hands again, only then you can have your jelly, come on”. To this Ian also reflected that he does not want to eat his lunch.


It can be reflected that every other kid that is present in the video are girl has effectively started to eat their designated lunch which was not at all convincing enough for Ian to proceed with his lunch. In addition, he also does not feel hungry but it can be seen that he only wanted to have jelly for lunch. Furthermore, it has been reflected that when the caregiver calls and asks him separately to get ready for his lunch, Ian regulates her instructions and listens closely to what the caregiver has to say. It can also be reflected that Ian does not like the fact that the caregiver effectively makes and states that jelly is not good for health and is reflected to be conditional or lunch. To this, Ian refuses to eat lunch other than jelly which helps in identifying that Ian has developed an “acceptable developmentally appropriate behaviour” as per his age (Young, 2021). He also makes direct eye contact and he then jumps out to play in the yard which reflects his effective motor skills. Ian effectively knows how to entertain himself accordingly. We can see that Ian skilfully uses his hands inside the Sandpit and he is calm. He always gets up when he sees jelly and sits down again after hearing the same message from the caregiver. He always asserts his wants, and even when after the caregiver wants to effectively take him back to their dining room for washing Ian’s hands, he then informs her patiently that he has followed her instructions before and has washed his hands. Without looking at her, Ian continues to play and refuses to eat lunch. To this derivation, it can be reflected that he is a child with “Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)” who continues to abandon what the caregiver has to say and lives in his world (DW, 2020). He speaks in a very clear manner and also seems to enjoy his play in the sandpit independently.

Quantitative observations

  • How effectively does Ian demonstrate the reflections and behaviours that are reflected to be a sign of compliance?
InstancesStorytime transition to naptime (1st observation)Discovering to lunchtime (2nd Observation)Learning about the negotiations incurred inside a play (3rd observation)
Communicate openly✔✔✔ 
Expressing Ian’s thoughts✔✔✔✔✔✔✔✔✔✔✔✔ 
Making regulated and direct eye contact✔✔✔✔✔✔✔✔✔✔✔✔✔✔
Doing things for himself✔✔✔✔✔✔ 
Making regulated choices ✔✔✔✔✔
Knows how to work with the daily plans and follows accordingly✔✔✔✔✔✔✔✔ 
Changes the overall emotional states ✔✔✔✔✔
Effectively plays alone✔✔
Encourage the other individuals who are there to play  
Shouting and demanding  ✔✔✔✔✔✔
Saying “No” ✔✔✔✔✔✔
Effective reasoning ✔✔✔✔✔✔

Observation through Anecdotal Method:

Ian” effectively behaves well whenever he is deliberately dealing with the caregiver and regulates the accurate criteria inside the communication which is according to his age and regulation. Furthermore, he also respects her and is complaint overall. Similarly, it can also be reflected that “Ian” does not effectively matches the accordance and wants of his peers and there are many times when we see that he is commanding and shouting at others to play his favourite game.

Interpretation:  Referring to question 1, it has been identified that other girl children are the same age as Ian. In addition during this age time, an effective preference for “same-sex playmates” is effectively strengthened. It is due to because Ian feels desperate and due to this he can behave angrily. Furthermore, day-care is reflected to be a definite part of Ian’s overall microsystem. According to “Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory” the behaviour levels naturally influences the overall formation of one’s behaviours and when not detected manually it can negatively affect the understanding levels of a child based on the world’s interactions (Scu, 2020).

5. Conclusion

            As per the reflections of question 1, it has been identified that Ian’s social levels and his competence is measured based on the ability and his forms of social dealings. Using the Anecdotal method, a child is designated to obtain a source of entertainment while interacting with carers and parents which is essential for achieving a stable and balanced lifestyle. On the other hand, when these connections get damaged due to incompetent social behaviours and abuse, then a child needs effective guidance for resolving this source of issue for regaining the joys inside a relationship. This report has conducted an overall behavioural and cognitive analysis of Ian who is a four-year-old boy. It is recommended that Ian needs to be well-informed and understand the daily routine which is going to be beneficial for him.

Based on the reflections made in question 2, it can be concluded that Ian has a definite right to play any game he desires but he must undermine that he has a right to understand that other individuals may not be effective and interested to play. He can effectively formally invite the girls to play with him which can in turn influence them to do so. Undermining the levels of social competence becomes a crucial reflection and one is required to take definite steps for the overall gauge progress.

During the conversations with the caretaker Ian seems to be diverted and his target behaviour effectively fulfils the reflections of Anecdotal model. In addition, Ian has also reflected in-appropriate responses and has a freckle mind and only seems to enjoy his sport that is playing inside the sandpit. He does not care about his hands and does not regulate to what his caretaker has to say such as “Washing Hands” and “eating lunch”. Moreover, it has been noted that young children who are not at all adequately and socially competent can suffer from “social denial” which also includes the symptoms of refusal and withdrawal thus preventing the overall social skills that are wide within the reflective domain of social levels and competence.

Reference List

DW. (2020, October 29). Retrieved from

ECA. (2012, October 29). Retrieved from

MP. (2018, October 29). Retrieved from

Scu. (2020, October 29). Retrieved from’s%20ecological%20systems%20theory%20is,every%20facet%20of%20your%20life.

UNHCR. (2020, October 29). Retrieved from

West, M. (2022, October 28). Retrieved from’s%20hierarchy%20of%20needs%20is%20a%20psychological%20theory%20about%20what,order%20to%20achieve%20well%2Dbeing.

Whitehead, E. A. (2020). Anecdotal Records: A Successful Tool in the English Language Teaching and Learning. Excellence in Education Journal, 97-108.

Wylie, S. (1999). Scarborough, ON: Nelson Thomson Learning. Observing young children: A guide for early childhood educators in Canada, 88–95.

Young, K. (2021, October 29). Retrieved from

Zhang, C. J., Barnett, A., Johnston, J. M., Lai, P. C., Lee, R. S., Sit, C. H., & Cerin, E. (2019). Objectively-measured neighbourhood attributes as correlates and moderators of quality of life in older adults with different living arrangements: the ALECS cross-sectional study. International journal of environmental research and public health, 876.

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