As an MSc research student, you are expected to understand how other areas of computer science relate to your chosen specialism. You must have a grasp of significant current open problems in other specialisms, as well as an understanding of how techniques and methods from other research areas can be applied within your specialism.
In this assignment you must provide an overview of two MSc Research specialism lectures (AI / Networking / Cyber Security / Software Engineering / Data Science) which are NOT the specialism you discussed in Assignment 1.
For each of these two areas, you must discuss the research question presented within the relevant specialist lecture for this specialism, propose some research approaches to investigate this question and identify further work you might undertake which builds on this. You must also explore your personal strengths in this area.
Research Portfolio on Computer Science
(An Individual Report on Software Engineering and Cyber Security)
Computer science is the branch of science with the support of which an in-depth understanding about computing and computers are theoretically as well as practically developed so that it might be got how a computer works and how it might aid in solving a real-life problem effectively (Salatino, Thanapalasingam, Mannocci, Osborne, & Motta, 2018). The research portfolio has been carried out into two different segments, and the first segment is about software engineering while the second section has been performed considering cyber security as a portfolio topic. With the help of the research work, the relevant kind of research question and research approaches related to each specialisation has been discussed, and this has been further utilised to conclude the personal investment as well as overall inferences effectively.
Part 1: Research Portfolio on Software Engineering
The first research specialisation which has been selected for conducting the section of the research portfolio is Software engineering. Software engineering is an analytical science with the assistance of which the knowledge of developing required kind of computer software and hardware is gained by strategically integrating the field of electronic engineering and computer science (Amershi, et al., 2019).
Figure 1: Software engineering; Source: (Amershi, et al., 2019)
Software engineering is the branch of engineering with the support of which it is theoretically and practically understood how a computer works and how the concept of electronics might be applied to develop desired kind of functionalities within a computer (Klotins, Unterkalmsteiner, & Gorschek, 2019). In current days, the demand for Software engineering has been increased for not only developing required kind of hardware as well as software, but it is being used for developing an innovative kind of robotic program so that innovative kind of autonomous vehicles might be developed effectively with minimum risk (Devadiga, 2017). Apart from it, Software engineering plays an integral part in developing a human brain-like capability within a computer system so that desired kind of decision-making and analytical capability might be developed within an autonomous vehicle for providing a controlled driving experience (Stol & Fitzgerald, 2018).
Open Research Question
The research question of the relevant specialist lecture for the Software engineering specialism has been mentioned and detailed as follows-
How do we factor ethics in AV (Autonomous Vehicles) Software Engineering?
As per the specialist lecture titled “Software Engineering Specialism” given by Dr Catherine Menon, the business head of an automobile organisation is required to have advanced kinds of computer software with the support of which it might automate its decision-making process efficiently to increase its competitiveness. With the rising growth in globalisation concept across the world, the buying behaviour and decision-making pattern of the global population has been completely dependent on AI (Artificial Intelligence) powered devices, and this has eventually reduced the efficiency of the global population is driving their car without AI help (Witt, 2019). Hence, it has become necessary for the business head of global automobile firms in developing such kind of advanced computer system and software (program) with the support of which it might predict as well as evaluate whether a particular kind of decision made by AV vehicles is correct or not (Yang & Lee, 2019). Developing a strategic control kind of ethical features within the software of AV vehicles might reduce the possibility of any irrational kind of driving decision, and this might eventually increase its demand among potential customers effectively.
The rising demand for computer-based decision-making patterns has increased the usage of Software engineering as the branch of engineering plays an integral part in developing as well as modifying defined kinds of computer systems as per organisational needs without compromising in its accuracy (Hirshleifer, Jian, & Zhang, 2018). The self-controlled automobile manufacturing sector of the world is facing issues in empowering it to decide where to divert steering if a crowd is available in all directions so that any kind of substantial damage might not be faced due to the AV (Destefanis, et al., 2018). For improving the ethics-based decision making capability of AV vehicles, the risk evaluation based automation skill of Software engineering is being strategically utilised by self-controlled car manufacturers by developing a specialised kind of robotic program having risk assessment based driving decisions.
Existing and Related Work
Software engineering is the field of science with the support of which a desired kind of functionality is developed within a computer system by integrating the features of electronics so that it might be automated efficiently without facing any performance as well as quality-related issues. According to (Johanson & Hasselbring, 2018), Software engineering is being utilised autonomous vehicle manufacturing industry of the world to automate the decision-making process of AV so that driving-related risk might be mitigated efficiently. In the research work titled “Software engineering for computational science: Past, present, future “, which has been written by Johanson & Hasselbring, it has been depicted that Software engineering empowers car manufacturers to develop an automation-related computer software or program. With the support of Software engineering, the business head of the global AV manufacturing industry has been successful in developing a computer-based robotic program that is efficient in deciding where to slow the speed of the autonomous car and how to manage an accident situation ethically. This is the cause that the demand for Software engineering is being increased within the AV manufacturing units of the world so that they might increase their overall performance as well as competitiveness in terms of ethical risk management-based driving programs, automation, and operational efficiency. In the research work which has been written by (Johanson & Hasselbring, 2018), it has not been mentioned how Software engineering is going to automate the risk-based decision-making capability of AV in a technical format due to which it has been found inefficiency in meeting production automation-related research problem.
The reason behind not getting a full answer regarding solving the automation-related problem in the complex work of the AV manufacturing industry is that the nature of working of different kinds of AV production sector is different. This is the cause that it is not possible to apply the same kind of computer engineer in all cases following certain kinds of ethics effectively. The outcome of a different mode of action, as well as the nature of AV manufacturing sectors, is that it has not been possible for the existing work to depict the functionalities of Software engineering by relating with all ethics-based driving-related needs of AV in a single paper. Apart from it, it is not possible to demonstrate the functionalities of different types of Software engineering for each kind of AV manufacturing sector in a practical manner; this will require intensive live practical demonstration to have its understanding. On the contrary, Devadiga (2017) states that the AV professionals of the world are facing difficulties in developing an ethic-based decision-making ability within self-controlled vehicles due to the requirement of advanced kind neural network-based supervised and unsupervised models. In the research paper titled “Software engineering for computational science: Past, present, future “, the functionalities of Software engineering in developing a robotic program for helping an AV in making an ethical decision in case of an accidental and non-accidental situation. On the other hand, the research work titled “Software engineering for computational science: Past, present, future “has been found to fail in solving the problem as it has not detailed how ethics-based computer software might be developed within AV using Software engineering. The important open problem related to the speciality of Software engineering has been presented as following which is required to be addressed-
Additional Open research Problems
- The absence of practical understanding of the mode of the functionality of Software engineering might be utilised to understand how it can be used for different needs of the AV industry.
- The absence of an in-depth implementation process of ethics-based AV Software engineering skills might be used to develop a specified kind of computer hardware and software for each kind of driving-related issue separately.
From the analysis of the details given in the research specialist paper titled “Software Engineering Specialism “, it has been found that Dr Catherine Menon has utilised qualitative research methods to understand how Software engineering helps in developing an ethical decision-making ability with an AV. With the support of a qualitative kind of research method, it has been possible to have an in-depth understanding of working functionalities of Software engineering and how it can support fixing ethics-based automation-related problems available in an autonomous vehicle. The first and foremost advantage of the qualitative kind of research methodology, which has been followed in the research paper, is that it has assisted in getting different technical specifications of AV Software engineering in the context of ethics-based driving-related problems. Apart from it, with the support of the research methodology, it has been successful in getting which kind of computer program and hardware might be developed for solving the ethical decision-related capability issue of AV, and this has eventually assisted in understanding its application.
On the other hand, the primary disadvantage of the qualitative research method adopted in the research specialist paper is that it has not supported in understanding how different kinds of computer programs and hardware might be developed for the different needs of autonomous vehicles (Vakaliuk, et al., 2020). The first and foremost approach which might be adopted to meet the research question is the experimental approach. The experimental research approach will not only help in getting the practical implication of ethics-based AV Software engineering in solving as well as automating complex decision-making capability of the self-controlled car but will also assist in gaining the knowledge of developing a need-based computer program.
The first and foremost strength of ethical AV Software engineering which its practical implication that might be gained by applying its functionalities-related knowledge in the real world during a live workshop, and this will eventually help in getting how it can be applied to minimise the work complexity of a clinical and non-clinical industry. Apart from it, by gaining the experience of developing need-based computer hardware and software through attending seminars and workshops, the way of applying Software engineering in assisting medical and non-medical industry in accomplishing time-consuming as well as the complex process might be gained effectively.
Amershi, S., Begel, A., Bird, C., DeLine, R., Gall, H., Kamar, E., & Zimmermann, T. (2019). Software engineering for machine learning: A case study. IEEE/ACM 41st International Conference on Software Engineering: Software Engineering in Practice (ICSE-SEIP), 12(1), 219-300; DOI :10.1109/ICSE-SEIP.2019.00042.
Destefanis, G., Marchesi, M., Ortu, M., Tonelli, R., Bracciali, A., & Hierons, R. (2018). Smart contracts vulnerabilities: a call for blockchain software engineering? 2018 International Workshop on Blockchain Oriented Software Engineering, 1, 19-25; DOI : 10.1109/IWBOSE.2018.8327567.
Devadiga, N. M. (2017). Software engineering education: Converging with the startup industry. 2017 IEEE 30th Conference on Software Engineering Education and Training (CSEE&T), 13(1), 192-196; DOI : 10.1109/CSEET.2017.38.
Hirshleifer, D., Jian, M., & Zhang, H. (2018). Superstition and financial decision making. Management Science, 2(1), 235-252; DOI : 10.1287/mnsc.2016.2584.
Johanson, A., & Hasselbring, W. (2018). Software engineering for computational science: Past, present, future. Computing in Science & Engineering, 20(2), 90-109; DOI : 10.1109/MCSE.2018.021651343.
Klotins, E., Unterkalmsteiner, M., & Gorschek, T. (2019). Software engineering in start-up companies: An analysis of 88 experience reports. Empirical Software Engineering, 24(1), 68-102; DOI : 10.1007/s10664-018-9620-y.
Salatino, A. A., Thanapalasingam, T., Mannocci, A., Osborne, F., & Motta, E. (2018). The computer science ontology: a large-scale taxonomy of research areas. International Semantic Web Conference, 12(1), 187-205; DOI : 10.1007/978-3-030-00668-6_12.
Stol, K. J., & Fitzgerald, B. (2018). The ABC of software engineering research. ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology, 27(3), 1-51; DOI : 10.1145/3241743.
Vakaliuk, T. A., Kontsedailo, V. V., Antoniuk, D. S., Korotun, O. V., Mintii, I. S., & Pikilnyak, A. V. (2020). Using game simulator Software Inc in the Software Engineering education. arXiv preprint arXiv:, 12(1), 11-27; DOI : 10.4236/jsea.2020.1411035.
Witt, M. A. (2019). De-globalisation: Theories, predictions, and opportunities for international business research. Journal of International Business Studies, 50(7), 1053-1077; DOI : 10.1057/s41267-019-00219-7.
Yang, H., & Lee, H. (2019). Understanding user behavior of virtual personal assistant devices. Information Systems and e-Business Management, 17(1), 65-87; DOI : 10.1007/s10257-018-0375-1.
Part 2: Research Portfolio in Cyber Security
The secondary research specialism which has been selected for the accomplishment of the research section is cyber security. Cyber security is the practical implication of technologies with the support of which the targeted kind of mobile devices, computers, electronic systems, servers, data, and networks are strategically protected from any kind of potentially malicious attacks (Sun, Hahn, & Liu, 2018).
Figure 2: Cyber Security; Source: (Lallie, et al., 2021)
The first and foremost objective of cyber security is to reduce the possibility of any kind of cyber-attacks so that potential, as well as valuable kinds of data or information, might not be exploited directly or indirectly (Gunduz & Das, 2020). With the support of cyber security, a technologically advanced kind of protective layer is created so that any kind of unauthorised access might not be performed for exploiting targeted kinds of networks, systems, technologies, and data (Srinivas, Das, & Kumar, 2019). According to (Alhayani, Mohammed, Chaloob, & Ahmed, 2021), Cyber security has been divided into three different branches, and these are named cloud security, network security, and application security. Cloud security is the branch of cyber security with the support of which valuable data and computing functionalities available on a particular kind of cloud are strategically secured to prohibit the possibility of any kind of cyber threat (Ma & Lv, 2019).
Open Research Question
The research question which has been pointed out in the relevant subject specialist lecture regarding cyber security has been mentioned and discussed as follows-
How does cyber security support as an intelligent and realistic method to recognise rouge probe request frames in wireless local area networks?
As per the lecture slide titled “An Intelligent Approach to Detect probe Request Attacks in Wireless LANs”, an organisation is required to secure its valuable financial and non-financial data so that it might not be mis-utilized by its rivals or anti-social elements to threaten its business growth. With the rise in international trade and digitalised business platforms, the management of global firms are performing their operational and financial activities digitally only, and for empowering their operational efficiency, they are strategically storing relevant kinds of data on the cloud and their system (Bahoo, Alon, & Paltrinieri, 2020). The outcome of performing a larger number of operations as well as a financial activity using a local area network is that the possibility of getting relevant data digitally exploited through rogue probe requests has been increased. The method of probe request is being utilised by organisational rivals and hackers to intrude organisational and personal local area networks to meet their illegal needs effectively (Hasibović & Tanović, 2019). The rising trend of the usage of local area networks within an organisation has made the business head of global corporate dependent on digital technologies and their available data. For avoiding the possibility of any potential kind of rogue probe request, it has not been possible for corporates to delete all potential data and perform physical kind of operational activity only to avoid cyber threats (Nambisan, Zahra, & Luo, 2019). Hence, for reducing the possibility of any kind of cyber threat, the demand for cybersecurity-related specialism has been increased globally, and this is the cause that respective experts are being hired by technology and non-technology-related firms directly or indirectly for keeping their data and functionality secured.
Existing and Related Work
According to (Lallie, et al., 2021), cyber security plays a pivotal role in the management of an organisation is not only securing its valuable data but also protects from getting its unique operational strategy exploited so that progressive growth might be sustained. As per the research work titled “Cyber security in the age of covid-19: A timeline and analysis of cyber-crime and cyber-attacks during the pandemic “, in the current cutthroat competition, the administration of global corporate is using both digital and non-digital strategy to improve its competitiveness. The rationale behind the usage of digital strategy by the management of global legal entities is that around 70% population of the world is using the internet, due to which its penetration or reaching capability is comparatively higher than that of non-digital media (Statista, 2021). On the other hand, the extensive usage of the digitalised mode and LAN based business model has kept the operational and financial data of global firms at risk of cyber-attack like probe requests due to which cyber security experts are being hired by global firms to secure their data.
Since the current business world has been completely dependent on digital data as it helps in forecasting, improving, and competing for required kind of performance within an industry, this is the cause that the possibility of cyber threat has been increased as these data is largely available on a digital platform only. Using the literature work titled “Cyber security in the age of covid-19: A timeline and analysis of cyber-crime and cyber-attacks during the pandemic “, it has been detailed why cyber security is important for an organisation related to any kind of business sector. On the other hand, the research work has failed in detailing how cyber security works for prohibiting probe requests practically. For example, in the research work which has been written by Lallie et al., cyber security heads deploy triple layer-based firmware to secure the server of an organisation so that any kind of unauthorised access might not be facilitated thorough probe request on LAN directly or indirectly. On the other hand, the research work has failed in detailing how cyber security specialism helps in avoiding the possibility of probe requests on LAN of organisational sectors like research, pharma, defence, and manufacturing, etc.
The other significant open problems related to cyber security has been mentioned as follows, which are required to be addressed-
Another Open Research Problem related to Cyber Security
- Absence of practical implications of different techniques of cyber security which might be utilised to provide to different firms to protect from probe requests got on their LAN.
- Unavailability of implementation method of different cyber security method which might be applied to support different organisational sectors to defend potential kind of probe request received on their LAN.
From the analysis of the information given in the selected research specialist paper titled “An Intelligent Approach to Detect probe Request Attacks in Wireless LANs “, it has followed an exploratory kind of research method to understand the importance of cyber security specialists in curbing probe requests in LAN. With the support of the exploratory research method, it has been possible to have an in-depth insight about potential functionalities of cyber security in the context of data protection and how it is important these days to get a competitive edge over rivals (Taylor, Dargahi, Dehghantanha, Parizi, & Choo, 2020). Apart from it, the exploratory research method has facilitated the ways of exploring multiple operational situations during which a defined kind of cyber security process might be applied for avoiding the possibility of a potential kind of cyber threat through probe requests on LAN. The primary advantage of the exploratory research method adopted in the research specialist paper is that it has played an integral part in exploring the operational and non-operational functionalities at which cyber security might be applied to reduce interruption in the organisational system by mis-utilizing LAN through probe requests.
On the other hand, the primary disadvantage of the exploratory research method followed in the research specialist paper is that it has not experimentally detailed how cyber security might be applied actually in an organisational structure to secure its data from unpredicted probe requests (Taylor, Dargahi, Dehghantanha, Parizi, & Choo, 2020). The research approach with the support of which the defined kind of research problem related to cyber security might be met effectively is an applied and analytical research approach as it helps in getting the practical implication of cyber security within an organisational context. Initially, the mode of action and working pattern of cyber security in the context of different kinds of organisational needs will be evaluated using applied or experimental design, and this will be eventually evaluated using an analytical approach to meet defined research problems.
The foremost strength of cyber security is its practical implication as per operational situation, and this might be gained by attending relevant live workshop programs so that it might be got how it works in the real world in avoiding the probe request on LAN. Apart from it, the experience of applying a different kind of cyber security at different organisational sectors and probe request situations might be gained by gaining practical knowledge from its industry experts and attending an efficient kind of practical seminars as well as internship program.
It has been concluded from the evaluation of the research work that software engineering is essential for the business head of an autonomous vehicle manufacturing sector as it helps in not only developing an ethics-based decision-making capability with AV but also assists in automating it. Apart from it, cyber security plays an integral part for the administration of a firm in securing its financial, operational, and administrative data from any probe request generated on LAN so that it might perform its organisational activity without losing its competence in the digitalised corporate world.
Alhayani, B., Mohammed, H. J., Chaloob, I. Z., & Ahmed, J. S. (2021). The effectiveness of artificial intelligence techniques against cyber security risks apply of IT industry. Materials Today: Proceedings, 13(1), 22-29; DOI : 10.1016/j.matpr.2021.02.531.
Bahoo, S., Alon, I., & Paltrinieri, A. (2020). Corruption in international business: A review and research agenda. International Business Review, 29(4), 101-660; DOI : 10.1016/j.ibusrev.2019.101660.
Gunduz, M. Z., & Das, R. (2020). Cyber-security on smart grid: Threats and potential solutions. Computer networks, 16(9), 12-29; DOI : 10.1016/j.comnet.2019.107094.
Hasibović, A. Ć., & Tanović, A. (2019). RINCE2 vs Scrum in digital business transformation. 2019 42nd International Convention on Information and Communication Technology, Electronics and Microelectronics (MIPRO), 12(1), 1514-1518; DOI : 10.23919/MIPRO.2019.8756716.
Lallie, H. S., Shepherd, L. A., Nurse, J. R., Erola, A., Epiphaniou, G., Maple, C., & Bellekens, X. (2021). Cyber security in the age of covid-19: A timeline and analysis of cyber-crime and cyber-attacks during the pandemic. Computers & Security, 10(5), 201-248; DOI : 10.1016/j.cose.2021.102248.
Ma, X., & Lv, S. (2019). Financial credit risk prediction in internet finance driven by machine learning. Neural Computing and Applications, 12(1), 8359-8369; DOI : 10.1007/s00521-018-3963-6.
Nambisan, S., Zahra, S. A., & Luo, Y. (2019). Global platforms and ecosystems: Implications for international business theories. Journal of International Business Studies, 50(9), 1464-1484; DOI : 10.1057/s41267-019-00262-4.
Srinivas, J., Das, A. K., & Kumar, N. (2019). Government regulations in cyber security: Framework, standards and recommendations. Future Generation Computer Systems, 9(2), 178-189; DOI : 10.1016/j.future.2018.09.063.
Statista. (2021, Dec 16). Global Internet User. Retrieved from Statista: https://www.statista.com/statistics/617136/digital-population-worldwide/#:~:text=How%20many%20people%20use%20the,the%20internet%20via%20mobile%20devices.
Sun, C. C., Hahn, A., & Liu, C. C. (2018). Cyber security of a power grid: State-of-the-art. International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, 12(1), 45-56; DOI : 10.1016/j.ijepes.2017.12.020.
Taylor, P. J., Dargahi, T., Dehghantanha, A., Parizi, R. M., & Choo, K. K. (2020). A systematic literature review of blockchain cyber security. Digital Communications and Networks, 6(2), 147-156; DOI : 10.1016/j.dcan.2019.01.005.