Scroll Top
10 Old Grimsbury Rd, Banbury OX16 3HG, UK

7COM1084 Research Portfolio

Assignment Brief:

As an MSc research student, you are expected to understand how other areas of computer science relate to your chosen specialism. You must have a grasp of significant current open problems in other specialisms, as well as an understanding of how techniques and methods from other research areas can be applied within your specialism.

In this assignment you must provide an overview of two MSc Research specialism lectures (AI / Networking / Cyber Security / Software Engineering / Data Science) which are NOT the specialism you discussed in Assignment 1.

For each of these two areas, you must discuss the research question presented within the relevant specialist lecture for this specialism, propose some research approaches to investigate this question and identify further work you might undertake which builds on this. You must also explore your personal strengths in this area.




Part 1:

1. Introduction

A computer network (CN) can be termed as a connection between two or more than two computers for sharing different information and resources. The concept of CN is a broad approach of computer science that guides the electronic sharing of data. Spectrum sensing (SS) is a strategy of monitoring any specific band of frequency that supports easy and effective identification of absence of different primary users. The specialism of this research is identification of SS and its use in cognitive radio (CR) networking for effective identification of primary users (PUs) and secondary users (SUs). This networking system is very efficient in determination of different spectrum holes using the concept of probability detection (Pd) and false alarm (Pfa) techniques to protect PUs and provide chances for SUs. This study will guide in answering a completely specified research question along with the works on this topic and different approaches for this research.

2. Open research question

  • What are the intelligent and different energy-efficient mechanisms of spectrum sensing in the improvement of efficiency in cognitive radio networks?

Spectrum sensing is determined as an accurate and an effective networking technology that helps SUs in accurate detection of different holes in the spectrum that can cause security issue for SUs and other PUs. This specific research question is vital in the sense of answering different intelligent process along with energy efficiency strategy related with spectrum sensing in network security. According to Ozger et al. (2018), CR techniques include sharing a large number of incensed bands of the spectrum to PUs. Relation of this question with real world is important, as it will enable details about the CR technologies and their relation with spectrum for maintaining safety in networking systems. Different types of sensing techniques in the spectrum that are used for network systems can be effective in detection of empty spaces in CR systems (Syed & Safdar, 2015). Those empty spaces are the main reason for misuse of spectrums that can create barriers for development of an advanced wireless networking system using CR networking.

SS and its use on networking safety include techniques using which a historical dataset can be analysed by SUs to determine present space in CR networking. CR networking is beneficial in implementation of a completely next-generation advanced technology in improving networking functioning and safety (Bindhu, 2020). As per the case study, system models such as Markov chain have been used in the specified study guide for answering the states associated with spectrum sensing. This question will be accurate in answering real-world problems regarding energy efficiency in spectrum sensing along with robust nature issues, complexity, and low SNR problem.

Research problem

Unplanned utilisation of energy-efficient strategy of spectrum sensing in networking and security improvement can be a barrier to advancement of CR networking systems.

3. Existing work

CR networking is an important wireless technology that utilises spectrum sensing in maintaining networking facilities and security throughout for both PUs and SUs. CR systems generally use different sensor techniques in the transmission of data over the various networking channels (Ren et al. 2018). CR systems are programmed in a specified format that they can easily utilise different advanced dynamic wireless networking by maintaining accurate use of spectrum. In contrast, Li et al. (2017) have argued that SUs get permission for using spectrum only when the Pus are remaining idle in using such spectrum in CR techniques. Therefore, it is obvious that CR networking provides opportunities for the users with effective management of security in spectrum sensing. CR networks have enough positive aspect such as it can be used as a future generation technology in the improvement of wireless connection along with an increase of networking security for users (Saleem et al. 2017).

The above image indicates a cognitive cycle using which CR networks function across systems. Spectrum sensing is essential that helps in prevention of different harmful influences of improper utilisation of spectrum during wireless CR networking. Three critical categories are associated with spectrum sensing such as detection of any known sub-bandwidth, estimation of power density and estimation of boundaries of networking (Arjoune & Kaabouch, 2019). Strategy of spectrum sensing is efficient enough in providing details of the environment to CR networks and possibility of spectrum availability. In contrast, Wu et al. (2018) have suggested that a cooperative strategy in spectrum sensing is highly interactive and can easily improve performance by advancing sensing techniques for wireless networking that is mentioned in the below image. Therefore, this specified technique is effective enough to identify the use of spectrum by using history of usage and improved efficiency of networking by improving energy availability in different licensed channels of networking.

However, these existing literatures are not fully compatible in answering the entire problems regarding spectrum sensing and its use in CR networking for providing safe and effective wireless networking connectivity for users. Detailed techniques of spectrum use and disadvantages are not properly mentioned in this literature. Therefore, one open problem is insufficient availability of details on SS that can be beneficial for improving wireless networking by using CR systems. Another important open problem is a lack of technical details related to Spectrum use in CR systems in this literature creates challenges to identify actual techniques.

4. Research approach

According to the provided research paper, the approach that is used is an analysis of a dataset that contains a chunk of historical data of networking that are related with spectrum uses and its importance in CR networking. The technology of dataset processing using databases is the main approach using which modelling is done in the provided research paper. The use of a cooperative strategy of SS is effective enough in gathering the useful information of different SUs using which accuracy of the use of spectrum by PUs can be improved (Wang et al. 2018). The use of two-step Markov chain (in figure 3) as an advanced analysis strategy of such dataset is used in here for achieving an effective outcome. Another important method that is used in this study is energy detectors using which database analysis becomes effective in analysis of research question. Accuracy of spectrum sensing is essential for which proposal for cooperative sensing is required for maintaining spatial diversity (Guo et al. 2017). The analysis of the dataset using MATLAB is another important aspect using which perfection is easily maintained throughout during analysis. The method of energy detection has added simplicity in an analysis of such a large historical dataset.

Advantages that are associated with using such a dataset analysis approach mentioned in the research study are availability of a chunk of historical data and their simplicity. Total scan thresholds that are used here for data analysis are five that further helps in the identification of decision-making strategies for spectrum use by SUs (Syed & Safdar, 2015). Details about false alarms and detection probability of any spectrum hole that can cause security issues for both PUs and SUs are mentioned here as advantages. However, disadvantages are associated with this research study, as it does not include any primary data. This issue causes question marks over the maintenance of an exact authenticity in an analysis of dataset and results. In-depth techniques of analysis of such a large database are absent in this study that has created barriers for improvement of knowledge about accurate analysis methods for such datasets.

Gathering the latest primary data about spectrum sensing and its use in CR networking can be beneficial to maintain authenticity. All the data used here are historic and secondary only that can contain erroneous data. Therefore, use of primary data collection on spectrum sensing using modern techniques will be beneficial to enhance results in future.

5. Personal investment

Answering the question will guide to achieve concepts about spectrum sensing and its usages in the development of next-generation wireless networking. SS has a crucial part in development of CR networking and the implementation of energy efficiency processes through which loss of spectrum can be reduced effectively. Another aspect that has supported positively for choosing this question is answering various changes that are associated with SS and CR networking. According to, spectrum sensing is a serious challenge to maintain wireless networking and security using CR systems (Fu et al. 2018).

The provided research has helped in gaining basic knowledge by providing accurate details on spectrum sensing and CR networking concepts that is a strength. The presence of a vast historical data concept in spectrum sensing and CR systems will be effective to apply knowledge in future research. This knowledge will make fit for arranging further research especially based on the topic of CR networking and spectrum sensing.

6. Reference List


Arjoune, Y., & Kaabouch, N. (2019) ‘A comprehensive survey on spectrum sensing in cognitive radio networks: Recent advances, new challenges, and future research directions’. Sensors. 19 (1) pp.126.

Bindhu, V. (2020) ‘Constraints mitigation in cognitive radio networks using cloud computing’. Journal of trends in Computer Science and Smart technology (TCSST). 2 (01) pp.1-14.

Fu, Y., Yang, F., & He, Z. (2018) ‘A quantization-based multibit data fusion scheme for cooperative spectrum sensing in cognitive radio networks’. Sensors. 18 (2) pp.473.

Guo, H., Jiang, W., & Luo, W. (2017) ‘Linear soft combination for cooperative spectrum sensing in cognitive radio networks’. IEEE Communications Letters. 21 (7) pp1573-1576.

Li, Z., Liu, B., Si, J., & Zhou, F. (2017) ‘Optimal spectrum sensing interval in energy-harvesting cognitive radio networks’. IEEE Transactions on Cognitive Communications and Networking. 3 (2) pp.190-200.

Ozger, M., Cetinkaya, O., & Akan, O. B. (2018) ‘Energy harvesting cognitive radio networking for IoT-enabled smart grid’. Mobile Networks and Applications. 23 (4) pp.956-966.

Ren, J., Hu, J., Zhang, D., Guo, H., Zhang, Y., & Shen, X. (2018) ‘RF energy harvesting and transfer in cognitive radio sensor networks: Opportunities and challenges’. IEEE Communications Magazine. 56 (1) pp.104-110.

Saleem, Y., Yau, K. L. A., Mohamad, H., Ramli, N., Rehmani, M. H., & Ni, Q. (2017) ‘Clustering and reinforcement-learning-based routing for cognitive radio networks’. IEEE Wireless Communications. 24 (4) pp.146-151.

Syed, T. S., & Safdar, G. A. (2015) ‘On the usage of history for energy efficient spectrum sensing’. IEEE Communications Letters. 19 (3) pp.407-410.

Wang, J., Chen, R., Tsai, J. J., & Wang, D. C. (2018) ‘Trust-based mechanism design for cooperative spectrum sensing in cognitive radio networks’. Computer Communications. 116 pp.90-100.

Wu, J., Song, T., Yu, Y., Wang, C., & Hu, J. (2018) ‘Generalized byzantine attack and defense in cooperative spectrum sensing for cognitive radio networks’. IEEE Access. 6 pp.53272-53286.

Part 2

1. Introduction

Cyber security can be defined as a strategic practice of defending systems, servers and other electronic devices from various malicious harms. Management of probe request (PR) issues is essential in electronic systems as it provides benefits in reduction of any cyber risk and any unauthorised exploitation by another party into the system. The networking using WLAN is generally unprotected and information of users is easily visible to any third party. Hackers can easily capture weak security in MAC addresses of different wireless networks by using DoS techniques. Therefore, the concept of cyber security is an advanced outcome of computer science using which security in systems can be maintained. Cyber security systems can easily block different PF attacks that are generally designed for taking advantage of requests along with response technologies. This study will guide an in-depth analysis of research questions on cyber security problems along with existing work, approach of the research paper and strengths for future research.

2. Open research question

  • What are the intelligent as well as realistic methods for recognition of rough probe request frames in WLAN?

Cyber security and PR are two important aspect in modern-day networking security management for protection of different technical systems from any unknown attack. This specific research question is crucial in the aspect of answering different cyber security issues associated with WLAN networking and possible solutions to mitigate issues. Cyber security can be characterized as fundamental uncertainty based on analysis of its nature as well as scope (Christensen & Liebetrau, 2019). Attackers try to learn the entire working functionalities of the system before attacking with spyware or any other virus into the WLAN systems. After in-depth learning of the functionalities, attackers use the DoS system to modify the coding of the system to hack it and create cyber issues. An intrusion process of detection using the wireless techniques can identify attacks in the initial stage before taking any advanced step for protecting the cyber issues (Ratnayake et al. 2011). This strategy is beneficial in determining MAC spoofing and measuring traffic in real-time basis especially in CR networks.

Therefore, this question is enough capable for answering critical real-world questions regarding the actual strategy of cyber-attacks and possible recovery strategies from that issue. Advanced technologies in computer science and their usage in cyber security can be answered using such questions. Cyber security is termed as a complex capability in maintaining security of systems that cannot readily be created after purchase of any technological components (David et al. 2020). Effective planning and the importance of their implementation in the safety management from cyber-attacks will be another outcome from answering this question.

Research problem

Lack of intelligence and a practically realistic strategy for application of cyber security in systems causes issues of cyber-attacks and damage to systems.

3. Existing work

Total five types of issues are related to cyber security in WLAN such as infrastructure security, security of a network, cloud security, IoT security, and security of an application. According to Khari et al. (2017), management of cyber security in systems will be essential as a large number of devices can connect with the internet easily. Cyber-attacks can steal important data from systems by causing digital harm, any type of economic harm and reputational harm to any individual or any organisation. In contrast, Yamin et al. (2020) have suggested that exercise of cyber security attack is generally training that can run in different environments of networks. Therefore, it is important to understand the style of attack in cyber issues to understand possible solution strategies to recover the system from those attacks and their aftermath.

Attacks that are probe requests generally are PRFA types that target flaws WLAN and are mentioned in the above image. The above image indicates a cyber-range up to which Usability of such probe requests needs to be accurately ensured as different access points try to capture parameters for operations (Gu et al. 2020). A PR is a type of request that can be sent by anyone with availability of legitimate MAC after association with the network. In contrast, Oliveira et al. (2019) have said that probe requests are mainly used for understanding Wi-Fi functionalities and information for making a connection with that. Therefore, maintaining security such as cryptography in networks for reduction of such probe request issues has potential to reduce cyber security problems. The below image indicates a scheme of probe transmission through which it can infect networks.

Literatures that taken here are not completely compatible to answer all questions regarding attack of probe requests and cyber securities. Challenges regarding cyber issues are significant especially in modern-day system network management (Clark et al. 2018). Challenges related to PR and implementation of a strategy to deal with cyber-security is not properly informed in the literature. Possible solutions after identification of root cause of PR issues in WLAN are not accurately mentioned to answer all aspects of the question. The first open problem can be improper mentioning of techniques of PR and cyber-attacks in systems. Another open problem is in-depth mentioning of advanced techniques through which cyber-attacks can be mitigated easily to safety systems.

4. Research approach

PR is a modern type of attack on systems and networks using which barrier creation for connectivity can be possible. Based on the provided research papers, it is observed that the primary data of the users are granted for analysis of the issue of probe request and cyber security issues. Total 1000 samples of frames are taken into account among which the user frame is separated as 1 and the issue frame is depicted as 0 (Ratnayake et al. 2011). The outcome for such type of analysis indicates that a trained NN has successfully depicted attacks that are known along with unknown attacks. Malicious attacks generally contain probe requests that contain important information about any Wi-Fi network (Alsahlany et al. 2018). The provided research paper indicates selection of specific variables for the development of WIDS in verification of real-world implementation of safety strategy against probe requests and cyber-attacks. 

The above figure indicates wireless networking and possible attacks associated with probe requests. Total two systems are taken here and monitoring mode has been restricted within the 802.11 WLAN system that has helped in determining attacks in different systems.

Advantages for using such a primary frame system in determining attacks have helped to accurately determine the specific attacked systems. Identification of attackers that are from different locations is also helpful by using such primary frame-based analysis techniques. Key challenges are associated with improvement of knowledge on cyber security among people that needs to be eliminated at an early stage (Happa et al. 2019). Another advantage of using such a frame system is that manipulations of different variables that are granted for analysis are almost impossible. Therefore, availability of authentic data is an important advantage in this specific research. Disadvantages include lack of secondary data usage regarding PR issues and cyber-attacks make this research a limited one. Complexity in this analysis strategy is another important disadvantage as identification of the attacked system is a complex task based on Wi-Fi network only.

An alternate approach can be secondary research along with primary data that can be beneficial in an in-depth analysis of cause and result. Further availability of data that has a wide range can be effective to fully utilise every concept during determination of cyber-attacks. Secondary data will enhance the result after comparing with historic data effectively to check whether the prices of analysis are effective or not.

5. Personal investment

The research question has a positive aspect of answering different probe request issues along with strategy of cyber-attacks in WLAN connections. The issue of probe request includes a strategy of request and respective response about a desire to connect with any network (Roth et al. 2019). This question will be accurate to guide about systems of sync request in an issue of probe request. Challenges associated with handling cyber issues and the implementation of safeguarding techniques such as encryption can easily be answered through this specific question.

The provided research paper contains strong information about cyber risk and probe requests that will help to build strength in knowledge for further arrangement of research. Advantages of frame methods in the analysis of cyber-attacks can help to gather data in such a manner for detecting system issues. Application of in-depth knowledge will be fit to conduct future research by choosing the same topic.

6. Reference List


Alsahlany, A. M., Almusawy, A. R., & Alfatlawy, Z. H. (2018) ‘Risk analysis of a fake access point attack against Wi-Fi network’. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research. 9 pp.322-326.

Christensen, K. K., & Liebetrau, T. (2019) ‘A new role for ‘the public’? Exploring cyber security controversies in the case of WannaCry’. Intelligence and National Security. 34 (3) pp.395-408.

Clark, R. M., Hakim, S., & Panguluri, S. (2018) ‘Protecting water and wastewater utilities from cyber‐physical threats’. Water and Environment Journal. 32 (3) pp.384-391.

David, D. P., Keupp, M. M., & Mermoud, A. (2020) ‘Knowledge absorption for cyber-security: The role of human beliefs’. Computers in Human Behavior. 106 pp.106255.

Gu, X., Wu, W., Gu, X., Ling, Z., Yang, M., & Song, A. (2020) ‘Probe Request Based Device Identification Attack and Defense’. Sensors. 20 (16) pp.4620.

Happa, J., Glencross, M., & Steed, A. (2019) ‘Cyber security threats and challenges in collaborative mixed-reality’. Frontiers in ICT. 6 pp.5.

Khari, M., Shrivastava, G., Gupta, S., & Gupta, R. (2017) ‘Role of Cyber Security in Today’s Scenario’. In Detecting and Mitigating Robotic Cyber Security Risks. (pp. 177-191). IGI Global.

Oliveira, L., Schneider, D., De Souza, J., & Shen, W. (2019) ‘Mobile device detection through WiFi probe request analysis’. IEEE Access. 7 pp.98579-98588.

Ratnayake, D. N., Kazemian, H. B., Yusuf, S. A., & Abdullah, A. B. (2011) ‘An intelligent approach to detect probe request attacks in IEEE 802.11 networks’. In Engineering Applications of Neural Networks. (pp. 372-381). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Roth, J. D., Lutton, C. E., & Michael, J. B. (2019) ‘Security Through Simplicity: A Case Study in Logical Segmentation Inference’. Computer. 52 (7) pp.76-79.

Yamin, M. M., Katt, B., & Gkioulos, V. (2020) ‘Cyber ranges and security testbeds: Scenarios, functions, tools and architecture’. Computers & Security. 88 pp.101636.

Related Posts

Leave a comment

× WhatsApp Us