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Development Of A Fermentation Process In Lab


A company has isolated a new bacteria strain which can produce a novel antibiotic. The company asked your help to develop a fermentation process for the bacteria in shaking flasks. You need:

  • Find the starting medium recipe for better optimization.
  • List the factors requiring optimizations, and explain why the factors have impact on fermentation?
  • Design experiment to optimize the fermentation factors.


Certain microorganisms are capable of producing some organic compounds which are directly not involved in their growth and development, known as secondary metabolites. These secondary metabolites (e.g., antibiotics) are produced by plants, bacteria, fungi, etc.  Among all these groups, actinomycetes have a dominant place to produce secondary metabolites such as antibiotics. Actinomycetes are basically prokaryotes and gram positive bacteria, but their morphology has resemblance to fungi due to presence of finger shaped mycelia. Actinomycetes are widely distributed throughout the nature. They are present in natural and as well as in manmade environment. Moreover, they exist in freshwaters, soils, lakes, composts, manure and also in plants and food residues.  These micro-organisms are very prominent due to producing high value commercial products, industrially and as well as medically important compounds such as immunosuppressant, antibiotics and chemotherapeutics (Berdy, 2005, Vijayakumar et al., 2010, Bizuye et al., 2013).

Discovery of Pencillin by AlexandarFlemming has introduced a quite different era of medicine and science. Antibiotics has contributed to increase the life expectancy and also to save a huge numbers of lives. Probably, there is no need to repeat how significantly antibiotics have saved the lives and how they contributed to treat the infections and diseases, to decrease the top causes of mortality and morbidity of human (Aminov, 2010).

Actinomycetes produce antibiotics that have application in treating different human infections. They are also known due to their genetic material, because their DNA is enriched with >55% G+C (Guanine + Cytosine) content (González-Franco and Robles-Hernandez, 2009, Gurung et al., 2009, Ogunmwonyi et al., 2010). It was observed that almost 70% of naturally occurring antibiotics are isolated by different genus of actinomycetes. Among these genus, most important genus is Streptomyces for the production of antibiotics. Certain antibiotics such as erythromycin, penicillin and methicillin, they exhibit only one time potent or effective results against infection. Because bacteria has gained resistance against such antibiotics, that’s why they has become less effective(Raja et al., 2010).Isolation and screening of antibiotic producing psychrophilic actinomycetes and its nature from hill soil against viridians Streptococcus sp. (Raja et al., 2010). Then resistant strains of antibiotics were developed such as vancomycin and methicillin. But they cause certain side effects. Antibiotic resistant strains are increasing, so to prevent such happenings, this is a time to immediately develop novel antibiotics to replace these existing antibiotics by finding new approaches to isolate promising bacteria from soil(Ilić et al., 2005). Therefore, development of new antibiotics or using the combined antibiotics has delayed the climax of microbial resistance. There is new possibility to produce synergetic antibiotics to treat microbial infection. Antibiotic synergism is a novel approach between bioactive extracts and along with known antibiotics. By combining antibiotics, potential of drug to treat microbial infection in upgraded (Adwan and Mhanna, 2008). As discussed earlier, some antibiotics have side effects or expensive, thus, finding of novel antibiotics is an important necessity (Bizuye et al., 2013, Retnowati, 2010).  From actinomycetes, we can produce novel and effective antibiotics. The aim of this study is to isolate actinomycetes from soil samples and then screen them for the production of antibiotics.


Isolation and screening of antibiotic producing actinomycetes from soil:

How to isolate and screen actinomycetes?

  • Location of study

We studied different promising areas of India for actinomycetes producing soil and then we just focused on two regions i.e. garbage disposer areas of house kitchen and rhizosphere soil samples of different areas. Microbial community of soil is highly dependent on the status and composition of their soil habitat. Then we took different soil samples with different depths, from these two potent regions for further study.

  • Sampling and isolation of actinomycetes

Samples were taken from two sources, one from garbage disposer and other from rhizosphere soil areas. During this study, 15 sterile samples were taken from 5 sites that have different depth (5, 8 and 11 cm) of the superficial layer from each location. Then soil samples were numbered accordingly and placed them in a sterilized paper sack, thenthese are transferred to Mycology laboratory, after that, homogenization of these samples carried out. Samples were spread out on trays in order to clean them out from leaves, roots and small stems. These samples were sieved in 2mm mesh and air dried them at room temp (i.e. 25°C) for 7 days. Then 5 grams of each sample was taken and poured into the test tubes that already have 10 ml of aseptic physiologic saline (0.9% NaCl) and then mix them for almost 3 minutes. Then incubate them for 15 minutes and then transfer 3 ml of supernatant to another aseptic test tube and then add 1.5 ml of streptomycin and chloramphenicol (0.2mgl/ml) and then stirrer them and  incubate for 30 minutes. This solution was shaken again by using vortex mixer. In next step one drop of sample was added to a Sabouraud’s dextrose agar medium and another drop was added to brain-heart infusion agar. These both media were containing 0.5 g/l of cycloheximide. They were now incubated at 35°C for 2-3 weeks. These colonies were selected and streaked on new plates of prepared culture media. Actinomycetes’ colonies were identified through their color and they were dried, rough with regular and irregular pattern and mentioned as convex colony. These plates were incubated at 35°C and analyzed up to 2-3 weeks for maximum growth. Although several colonies showed their maximum growth in first some days of incubation. In order to purify actinomycetes from other suspicious colonies, streak plate method was used. After that pure colonies were isolated by observing their colonial morphology, color of hyphae and aerial mycelia, and then these colonies were plated on the agar media singly.

Then cellophane tap and cover slip-buried methods were used to analyze morphology of actinomycetes. Light microscopy under oil immersion (1,000 x) was used to analyze the structure of mycelium, color and arrangement of arthrospore on the mycelium. Since a single method could not enough to identify all actinomycete thoroughly; therefore, a combination of different methods were important to identify actinomycetes isolates to the species level. If subdivided and fragile filaments specific of actinomycetes were examined, then they were isolated and inspected for partial acid-fastness by staining with the carbolfuchsin modified acid-fast stain with a weak (0.5-1%) sulfuric acid decolorizing solution. Furthermore, a standard biochemical tests and physiological criteria i.e ability to degrade the different organic compounds like casein, tyrosine, xanthine, hypoxanthine and starch as substrates, the use of urea and different carbon sources as well as growth in 4% gelatin medium were examined in order to get a possible classification to the species level. Gelatin hydrolysis was carried  by stabbing a loopful of organism about 1 cm into a nutrient gelatin tube (BBL), that were incubated at 35°C in air for up to 7 days.

Detection of hydrolysis was done by keeping the tubes at 4°C for 15 min and then tilting each tube at a 45° angle. The test was only viewed positive if the gelatin was liquefied.

For hydrolysis of urea, a heavy loopful of bacteria was suspended in 0.5 ml of a medium containing 1 g urea and 1 ml of a cresol red solution (0.5% [wt/vol]) in 100 ml phosphate buffer (0.005M, pH 6). Tubes were incubated at 35°C and checked after 1 and 2 days for a pink color shift showing a positive reaction.

  • Primary screening

Actinomycetes isolated and analyzed from different soil samples, further samples were screened for the examination of their antimicrobial spectrum. Different test bacteria were used for primary screening, these bacteria were S. aureusATCC2923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27857 (P.aeruginosa),Escherichia coli ATCC25922 (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumonia ATCC7000603 (K. pneumonia) and Salmonella typhi ATCC9289 (S. typhi). To ensure the Anti-fungal activity of actinomycetes, Saccharomyces cerevisiae(S. cerevisiae) was used as test organism. Activities were examined by using nutrient agar for culturing of bacteria and potato dextrose agar for fungi. Each plate was streaked with each isolated colony at the midpoint of a plate and incubated at 37 °C for 7 days. Then, fresh sub-cultured test organisms were perpendicular streaked to the actinomycete isolate. Then the plates were incubated for 24 hours at 37 °C for bacteria and incubated 48 h at 28 °C for fungi.After incubation, the zone of inhibition was measured and recorded.

  • Fermentation and extraction of crude extracts

So, it is proved that solid state fermentation was fitter for the production of pigment by the strain D10 when it compared to submerged fermentation. And in this study, solid state fermentation was used for the production of crude pigment. Solid stat fermentation uses the solid substrates i.e bran, bagasse, and paper pulp. The major benefit of using these solid substrates is that nutrient-rich waste materials can be easily reused and recycled as substrates. In this technique of fermentation, the substrates are used very slowly and immoveable manner, so the same substrate can be utilized for long fermentation periods. Hence, this technique provides controlled release of nutrients.Based on the zone of inhibition in primary screening, actinomycetes isolates ( represented as Ab18, Ab28, Ab43) that have likely antimicrobial activity were selected for solid state fermentation and extraction, and then the crude extracts were analyze through agar well diffusion methods. In these study cultures of actinomycete isolates were grown in starch casein broth (200 mL) at 37 °C for 7days. Finally  10% of cultured broth was inoculated into sterilize Erlenmeyer flask that containing natural media (40 g wheat grain and 20 mL milk) on thermostat water bath at 37 °C for 7days. In order to concentrate the antimicrobial metabolite produced from isolates, equal volume of ethyl acetate (200 mL) was added in each solid state fermented cultures for 1 hour in thermostat water bath shaker at 37 °C. Then the active metabolite containing ethyl acetate was isolated from the solid residue with Whatman No.1 filter paper and extracts were concentrated through the help of rotavapour. The crude extracts collected from each isolates were dissolved in ethyl acetate (76 mg/mL) and utilized as stock concentration and ethyl acetate is used as control for the determination of actinomycetes activity against test pathogens. The wells (6 mm diameter) were cut using a sterile cork

Borer on Muller Hinton agar and potato dextrose agar. Twenty four hours young culture of S. aureus ATCC2923, methicillin resistant S. aureus (clinical isolates), E. coli ATCC25922, S. typhiATCC9289, K. pneumonia ATCC7000603, S. boydi ATCC9289) and 48 h young culture of Candia albicans (C. albicans, clinical isolates) these cultures were swabbed with sterilized cotton swab on the surface of prepared Muller Hinton agar for bacteria and potato dextrose agar for fungi. Sixty micro liters of dissolved crude extract was loaded into each well and left for 30 min unless the metabolite was diffused. Then the plates were incubated for 24 h at 37 °C for bacteria and 48 h at 28 °C for fungi. After incubation, the zone of inhibitions were measured and recorded.


Optimization factors for maximum product output:

As the organisms under consideration are bacterial strains, so following factors must be taken into account during the growth optimization to obtain maximum quantities of the desired antibiotic.

  • Carbon source:

The primary nutrient to run bacterial metabolic machinery is the carbon source and more specifically glucose. Glucose kick starts the process of glycolysis which is the cardinal growth sustaining pathway in all life forms. Normally LB medium used for bacterial culturing and fermentation contains Tryptone and yeast extract, which directly are not source of carbohydrates and only provide scant quantities of glucose. So in order to compensate this, 1-4 g/L of glucose is added to the medium recipe wherever  high metabolic activity is required especially in fermentation processes.

  • pH value:

pH value has been categorized as of major interest for bacterial growth by (Juwarkar et al., 2006). For optimal bacterial growth, a steady pH value of 6-7.4 is recommended by nature protocols. The importance of this factor is of major interest because optimal pH is directly proportional to the growth of bacteria. The enzymes involved in bacterial division for example DNA polymerases work best at the perscribedpH. Any shock to the pH hinders the bacterial cell division or blocks it altogether. The key point to be noted here is that pH value determines the enzyme activity in all life forms. A drift in pH value can cause a serious damage to multiple metabolic processes if not stop them altogether. Therefore it is always advised to check the pH of the medium recipe prior to inoculation so that it can be adjusted.

  • Temperature:

Another key factor is the temperature of incubation of bacterial cultures. The standardized temperature for optimal bacterial growth is 37 degrees celscius. However depending upon the type of bacteria and the environment from where it is isolated can also dictate the optimum temperature standards. For example bacteria that are isolated from dry harsh and warm regions can show optimum growths at even 50 degrees Celsius. The temperature is directly linked to the enzyme activity in bacteria. The more the temperature moves away from the optimal points the lesser the activity of enzymes is observed. However, unlike pH bacteria show increase in growth patterns as temperature is gradually increased up to a certain limit depending upon the type of bacteria after which it gradually declines.

  • Inducers:

Inducers are the natural or synthetic biochemical entities that upregulate the production of a certain metabolite or gene product. These inducers interact with the specific metabolic pathway regulatory elements in such a way that the particular process keeps on producing the desired product without any inhibition at a multiple fold rate. The most common inducer used for protein production in bacteria is T7 RNA polymerase/ RNA promoter system. Among many other advantages, it has a wide variety of hosts and can easily be incorporated in diverse range of bacterial strains. As it is based on the promoter activation principle which entails that over activation of promoter of a metabolic pathway gene sequence will up regulate the expressive gene production which inturn will increase the quantities of the desired protein product.

  • Medium additives:

Media additives vary according to the purpose of bacterial growth and desired product. As mentioned earlier, tryptone, yeast extract andNaCl dissolved in distilled water according to standard protocols is enough for a regular bacterial growth in broth medium. However, when the purpose is the production of a secondary metabolite, the metabolism of bacterial cell is enhanced for that an additional carbon source glucose/ dextrose is added as a supplement. Some studies have also shown that when specifically producing antibiotics, addition of 0.05% K2HPO4 significantly enhances the quantities of antibiotics produced by bacterial isolates(AL-GHAZALI and OMRAN, 2017).

  • Aeration:

Aeration is also an important factor especially when aerobic bacteria are under consideration. It has been observed through various studies that an increase in the oxygen mass transfer coefficient can significantly increase the bacterial growth and the production of desired antibiotic up to 30 percent. The logic behind it is that the major  metabolic processes of an aerobic bacteria are driven by aerobic respiration. An increase in the index of available oxygen means an increase in the rate of aerobic respiration which in turn enhances the metabolism leading to an increased production of secondary metabolites and antibiotics(Wang and Zhang, 2007).

  • Growth time:

Normally bacterial cultures start to show maximum growth within 8 hours which is also termed as growth or log phase. At this point the bacteria attain a maximum number of divided cells and shift towards a growth dormancy state also known as lag phase in which the number of newly grown cells decreases gradually. This behavior is an indicator that now a greater mass of bacterial cells is shifting from primary metabolism to secondary metabolism in which bacteria shift from rapidly growing phase to a survival mode. Once the bacterial cultures have attained the stationary phase, the production of secondary metabolites experiences a boost. This happens because now the bacteria are spending less energy in synthesizing peptidoglycans, primary proteins and nucleic acids. This residual energy and the capacity of bacteria to be less susceptible to the antibiotics in stationary phase are used for the production of secondary metabolites and other antibiotics. Normally this cycle starts after 8 hours of inoculation and attains a maximum productivity in 16-24 hours of initialinoculation.

Query 3

Experimental design for optimization of fermentation factors:

Normally for such experiments, that involve optimization of a process, the output production index dictates that what set of combined conditions must be applied to obtain maximum desired product rather than the standard values of protocols. In our case, we have 7-8 influential factors. Our next step is to determine significant factor/s that may affect the output production by Plackett-Burman method. Optimization of each studied factor is described following:

  1. The first and foremost step is to screen out the factors that have a negligible effect when range is concerned logically. For example using inducers by standard protocols is acceptable as an increased quantity of inducer does not necessarily mean a higher output as mode of action of an inducer follows a qualitative pattern either an inducer induces an effect or it does not.
  2. The second step involves the listing of all primary influential factors that will determine the direction of the experiment. In this case temperature and pH etc are the factors that will determine the optimum response.
  3. The third step involves the determination of ranges. This step requires literature review to determine that what experimental ranges have been used in similar experiments for identical outputs. For example in our case the optimum temperature range can be 32-42 degrees Celsius, pH can be 6.6-7.6, added glucose concentration can be 0.5-4 g/L and growth time can be 16-24 hrs and so on. Once the experimental factors and their range values are established, it becomes easier to narrow down the set of conditions that can give the maximum output.
  4. This step involves the intervention of biostatistical tools based on significant factors determined by PlackettBurman method. The specifications of our experiments are fulfilled by the Response Surface Methodology model (RSM). RSM uses a set of very specific tools which when combined determine the combined ranges of the experimental factors that can possibly give the maximum output i-e maximum quantity of produced antibiotic. RSM also rules out the factors that have a secondary role and do not significantly determine the output. The models which qualify the test of significance that is(P < 0.05) are then put to wet lab experimentation. A rough example for our experiment using RSM can be given as:
RunsTemperature (Celsius)pHGlucose (g/L)Growth time (hrs)O2 mass transfer coefficient (h−1 )Predicted Output
  • Finally the results obtained from the statistical analysis will be used as the experimental ranges. Once the experiment is conducted and the quantity of antibiotic produced by each run is determined, a standard can be established by comparing the statistically predicted output and the actual output of the wet lab experiment. Such a technique will standardize the protocols for similar experiments that are to be conducted in the future(Wang et al., 2008).


ADWAN, G. & MHANNA, M. 2008. Synergistic effects of plant extracts and antibiotics on Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from clinical specimens. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 3, 134-139.


AMINOV, R. I. 2010. A brief history of the antibiotic era: lessons learned and challenges for the future. Frontiers in microbiology, 1, 134.

BERDY, J. 2005. Bioactive microbial metabolites. The Journal of antibiotics, 58, 1-26.

BIZUYE, A., MOGES, F. & ANDUALEM, B. 2013. Isolation and screening of antibiotic producing actinomycetes from soils in Gondar town, North West Ethiopia. Asian Pacific journal of tropical disease, 3, 375-381.

GONZÁLEZ-FRANCO, A. C. & ROBLES-HERNANDEZ, R. 2009. Actinomycetes as biological control agents of phytopathogenic fungi. Tecnociencia Chihuahua, 3, 64-73.

GURUNG, T. D., SHERPA, C., AGRAWAL, V. P. & LEKHAK, B. 2009. Isolation and characterization of antibacterial actinomycetes from soil samples of Kalapatthar, Mount Everest Region. Nepal Journal of science and Technology, 10, 173-182.

ILIĆ, S. B., KONSTANTINOVIĆ, S. S. & TODOROVIĆ, Z. B. 2005. UV/VIS analysis and antimicrobial activity of Streptomyces isolates. Facta universitatis series: Med Biol, 12, 44-46.

OGUNMWONYI, I. H., MAZOMBA, N., MABINYA, L., NGWENYA, E., GREEN, E., AKINPELU, D. A., OLANIRAN, A. O., BERNARD, K. & OKOH, A. I. 2010. Studies on the culturable marine actinomycetes isolated from the Nahoon beach in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Afr J Microbiol Res, 4, 2223-2230.

RAJA, A., PRABAKARAN, P. & GAJALAKSHMI, P. 2010. Isolation and screening of antibiotic producing psychrophilic actinomycetes and its nature from Rothang hill soil against viridans Streptococcus sp. Res J Microbiol, 5, 44-49.

RETNOWATI, W. 2010. Identification of Streptomyces sp-MWS1 producing antibacterial compounds. Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease, 1, 82-85.

VIJAYAKUMAR, R., MURUGESAN, S. & PANNEERSELVAM, A. 2010. Isolation, characterization and antimicrobial activity of actinobacteria from point calimere coastal region, east coast of India. Int Res J Pharam, 1, 358-365.

WANG, Y.-H. & ZHANG, X. 2007. Influence of agitation and aeration on growth and antibiotic production by Xenorhabdus nematophila. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 23, 221-227.

WANG, Y. H., FENG, J. T., ZHANG, Q. & ZHANG, X. 2008. Optimization of fermentation condition for antibiotic production by Xenorhabdus nematophila with response surface methodology. Journal of applied microbiology, 104, 735-744.

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Economic Theory and the 2020 Crisis

A Public Health Emergency was declared on 30 January 2020 which was of international concern. A case of pneumonia with an unknown cause was identified in Wuhan, China and was reported to WHO (World Health Organisation). The outbreak was named as COVID-19 by WHO which took the form of a pandemic (WHO, 2020). This crisis, due to the outbreak of COVI-19 pandemic has led to an economic crisis due to lockdown in the affected countries globally. This study will highlight the macro-economic and micro-economic effects of pandemic COVID-19 on Canada.

Impact of COVID-19 on the four macro-economic factors

Economic Theory and the 2020 Crisis

Figure 1: Current GDP Growth in Canada Source: (Trading Economics, 2020)

Based on the above diagram, it is observed that the country expected to enrich its GDP at 1760 USD billion by the end of 2020 (Trading Economics, 2020). In January, the GDP rate of the country is also raised by 0.1% before coronavirus pandemic hit the country (Global News, 2020). In March 2020, the GDP rate of the country is also decreased by 9% due to the amid COVID-19, and that also affect the country’s overall production line especially in three industries such as manufacturing, financial, transportation and warehouse (Global News, 2020). For example, the contribution of the sectors in the country’s GDP reduced by $174 billion from the manufacturing industry, $142.7 billion from the financial sector (Trading Economics, 2020).

Economic Theory and the 2020 Crisis

Figure 2: Current Inflation Rate in Canada Source: (Trading Economics, 2020)

The expected rate of inflation in Canada is around 2.73% by the end of 2020 (Trading Economics, 2020). Whereas, the inflation rate of the nation faces a downfall of 1.2% due to amid COVID-19 highly affected the economy of the country. The biggest factor of that situation is that the less demand for oil and travel in the country. In addition, the lowest interest rate of the Central bank, which is around 0.5% is another reason for the economic slump of the nation (Global News, 2020). Due to the effect of amid COVID-19, the Government took that initiative to extend lockdown in the whole region of the nation which disrupts the supply chain of the nation.         

Post the outbreak of COVID-19, many sectors in Canada like manufacturing, retail, hospitality, transportation, etc., is at risk. The Business Barometer of Canada has identified that the business index has fallen from 60.5 in Feb 2020 to 30.8 in March 2020 (Hillnotes, 2020). The Labor Force Strategy has declared that the outbreak of the pandemic has reduced the employment ratio has reduced by 5.5% within one month. The employment rate fell by 1 million or 5.3% in March, which has been recorded as the lowest rate since 1997 (CBC, 2020). The figures stated above implies that there has been a significant increase in the rate of unemployment in Canada.

The novel (COVID-19) has affected the operations of Canadian companies. The outbreak of the virus has implied temporary restrictions at the borders, which has affected the developmental activities of the business (Tradecommissioner, 2020). However, Canada is committed to keeping the supply chain open and lower down the excessive strict measures on goods, especially medicines. Hence, the international trade of Canada has also been affected except for the necessities.

Impact of COVID-19 on one microeconomic factor

Economic Theory and the 2020 Crisis

Figure 3: Demand and Supply Trend Source: Author

Based on the above diagram, it is observed that the demand for necessary products in the country is highly decreased. The demand for necessary products such as consumer goods, equipment and furniture are also reduced due to disrupting in the supply chain within the nation. In that context, lower demand for products also decreases the price of products which affecting the economic stability of the nation (Global News, 2020). Moreover, the quality of the supply of products is also reduced due to that pandemic situation for COVID-19. The prices of gasoline in the country is also reduced by 7.8% which is the biggest factor for the slump in the economy of the nation and that also affecting supply chain of the nation (Global News, 2020).    

Identification of remedial measures to preserve and protect the economics from recession

Based on the current economic situation of the country, it will be suggested that the Central bank of the nation requires to finance more money for public debt in order to infuse the collapse. In April 2020, the Central bank is also decided to lower the interest rate by a huge margin for the public debts. In that context, the Central Bank will require to purchase a huge margin of Corporate Bonds to support the Government with financially. The Government will require to take health caution measures to prevent this pandemic situation. The financial support from Central Bank will influence the Government to deal with ongoing recession towards the capital market.              


Based on the above calculation, it is observed that COVID-19 is highly affecting the supply chain of the nation, which made its impact on the inflation and GDP growth rate. Low quality from the suppliers decreases the demand for necessary products within the country, which are the main reason for GDP growth fall down of the nation by 9%.  


CBC. (2020). Nova-scotia-employment-numbers-drop-covid. Retrieved from Nova-scotia: https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/nova-scotia/nova-scotia-employment-numbers-drop-covid-19-1.5529444

Global News. (2020). Global News. Retrieved from Canada’s GDP up just 0.1% in January, before coronavirus hit: https://globalnews.ca/news/6755652/canadas-gdp-januray-2020-before-coronavirus/

Global News. (2020). Global News. Retrieved from Canada’s GDP shrank by 9% in March amid COVID-19: StatCan: https://globalnews.ca/news/6820197/canada-gdp-march-covid-19-statscan/

Hillnotes. (2020). Impacts-of-covid-19-on-selected-sectors-of-canadas-economy. Retrieved from Hillnotes.ca: https://hillnotes.ca/2020/04/08/impacts-of-covid-19-on-selected-sectors-of-canadas-economy/

Tradecommissioner. (2020). Commerce-international-COVID-19-international-trade.aspx. Retrieved from Tradecommissioner.gc.ca: https://www.tradecommissioner.gc.ca/campaign-campagne/commerce-international-COVID-19-international-trade.aspx?lang=eng

Trading Economics. (2020). Trading Economics. Retrieved from Canada GDP | 1960-2019 Data | 2020-2022: https://tradingeconomics.com/canada/gdp

Trading Economics. (2020). Trading Economics. Retrieved from Canada Inflation Rate1915-2020 Data | 2021-2022: https://tradingeconomics.com/canada/inflation-cpi

WHO. (2020). Novel-coronavirus-2019/events-as-they-happen. Retrieved from WHO.int: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/events-as-they-happen

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Mission Impossible


This article title of which is “Mission Impossible” is based upon the strategies of reducing the emergence of global climate change due to increment of Greenhouse gas emission. Considering the extreme heat waves as well as flooding and wild fires, in the year of 2017, the Author of this article named Dr. Peter D. Carter and Elizabeth Woodworth has presented the case scenario of climate disruption. Through the writing, this study has compared the global population, mainly the young people as the victims of the “Unprecedented Crime” as they are the key people who will have to experience the consequences of climate change in a broader sense Further, this article has also identified that being increasing Greenhouse gas emission which is the main cause for rapid global climate change, fossil fuel; industry is entirely responsible by being denial and collusion.

Key concept of the study

The key concept of this article is to draw attention of world population towards take global emergency response for reducing the rapid global climate change for safeguarding people from experiencing natural disasters which may hinder the entire population. In order to reduce the rapidity of climate change, this study has firstly suggested that it is needed to lead GHG emission reduction fast as climate gets bitterly hampered due to the existence of CO2, NO2 and methane.

Mission Impossible -Global Climate Change

Main points of the argument

Climate change is leading people to experience an average atmosphere with ever-increased rate of warming. Considering the increasing rate of global warming, this study has stated to introduce “Negative Emissions Technology “which would be able to remove a large number of CO2 from atmosphere. On the other hand, Long term carbon storage is also observed as an alternative strategy which would make the agriculture industry to increase its sustainability through store CO2 in soils for long time trough reducing agriculture waste. In order to turn “Mission possible” of reducing global warming to “Mission possible” this study has statistically presented the increment of fuel usage and its impact on temperature increment in last two years.

Opportunities for initiating the transition process

The section presents the opportunities that exist in the journey of getting transformed into green earth. One of the opportunities is that, since 2014, the CO2 emissions have remained static. The forecast of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions says that the emissions will decline to zero by 2050 (Carter, pp. 201-224). The plan for 100 % conversion of fossil fuel to renewable energy is also a significant opportunity for achieving zero GHD emission goals. Opportunities, thereby include a target for zero combustionand resisting the CO2 emissions.

The agricultural perspective of greenhouse gas emission

The section introduces the engagement of agriculture in GHG emissions. The plan for achieving zero combustion levels includes the transformation of existing agricultural practice from the usage of chemical fertilizer to biodegradable ones. Production of meat leads to deforestation of tropical bushes, which is also a threat to a sustainable earth. The chemical-intensive fertilizer used in fields acquires the prime cause of greenhouse pollution. Heavy CO2 emissions that result in using chemical fertilizers extensively contributed to GHG pollution. Chemical fertilizers, meat production, and emission carbon dioxide during farming are liable for GHG emissions.

Funding for rescuing the earth

The paragraph presents global funding related to controlling greenhouse gas emissions and providing a balanced environment. Expenses for preserving global energy is about USD 2 million annually. Along with such investments for global energy, an additional $ 300 billion is invested for renewable energy building. The American budget or funding for the mission of restoring balanced earth is very high compared to neighboring 8 countries. Public financial bodies such as The European Bank and African Development Bank have remained engaged in developing finds for the global energy mission. The USA has been noted as the highest investor for preserving green earth.


Global Climate change has raised as the world’s largest concern, as the emission of greenhouse gases has reached its height. However, there are still opportunities, as the CO2 emissions have remained constant since 2014.

Works Cited

Carter, D. P. (2018). Unprecedented Crime: Climate Change Denial and Game Changers for Survival. London: Clarity Press ; ISBN:9780998694740.

Mission Impossible: Assignment on Global Climate Change by Subject Academy

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Evidence Based Nursing Assignment

According to the Registered Nurse Standards for Practice (2016), what is the role of evidence based practice in the nursing profession? (100 words±10% , 4 marks). Needs referencing.

Evidence based practice (EBP) holds the future of effective health care that support more probability of greater health and well being of the public(Mazurek Melnyk, 2016). EBP is crucial to the nursing profession because it bridges the gap between what nurses know and what they can do to do to provide effective care to the patients. Currently, a gulf of difference exists between the nursing practice and decision making that result the nursing care. EBP in nursing is aimed to empower the decision making which is supported by the best case practices in order to mitigate the fatalities that can be avoided. EBP brings a paradigm shift in improving healthcare effectiveness and creates a platform of knowledge sharing and learning in order to improve the quality of care given to patients.  

How can the Evidence Based Practice Model enhance nurses’ clinical decision-makings? (100 words±10%, 4 marks). Needs referencing.

Evidence based practice model brings transparency and accountability in the nursing sector. The clinical decision-making process is complex and involves a high risk of patents safety and wellbeing as well as the professional career of the nursing practicians. EBP model aims at integrating the research evidence with that of clinical experience and pays attention to the individual care strategy of the patients. Clinical decision making based on evidential based practice also takes into account the patients preferences in terms of a right-based approach. Evidence-based practice model support culturally safe healthcare practices and promotes clinical decision making as per the safe cultural limits of Aboriginal and native peoples which are often the most vulnerable to receive the quality healthcare.

One of the components of Evidence Based Practice is consideration of the patient’s values and preferences. What does this mean? Using an example, explain the importance of this component (100 words±10%, 4 marks). Needs referencing.

EBP is a part of new nursing guidelines which demands a balance in decision making from healthcare concern as well as patients preferences in the care system. Understanding the patient’s values and preferences and integrating them in the clinical decision making means giving value to the patients viewpoint about the his health condition, understanding the circumstances from the patient and his family in order to do good with the care provided to the patient(Siminoff, 2013). Integrating the patient preferences in action-based care is the ideal process of creating a shared decision-making framework where information and awareness of the patient’s condition are crucial. EBP, when integrated with the patient preferences, results in improved understanding of the risks enhances the communication between nurses and patients and gives positive hope to the patient about the quality of the care received by patient(van der Weijden, et al., 2010).

Reflecting on your last clinical placement or clinical work experience, explain four barriers and four enablers to the implementation of evidence-based practice in the clinical settings? (100 words±10%, 4 marks).

EBP based practice in clinical settings is a challenging task. There are challenges and motivators to the EBP framework listed below from the personal experience:


  • Lack of communication and trust-building between patient and nursing staff.
  • Lack of desired change management in the clinical settings w.r.t EBP(Mathieson, Grande, & Luker, 2018)
  • More focussing towards learning from research rather than evidence-based learning’s.
  • EBP face challenges from the patient preferences, as well as the patient’sfamily and friends.


  • Healthcare equality can be achieved using EBP.
  • Enhanced patient-centric care.
  • Foster individual development of clinical staff.
  • EBP promotes international quality care

Why are randomised controlled trials considered to be ‘higher level evidence’?  (50 words±10%, 1.5 marks). Needs referencing

Randomised controlled trials are assigned a higher value because of their credibility to be free from systematic errors. During a clinical trial, using the RCT, the participants can be randomly assigned to one or more than one clinical interventions(Mazurek Melnyk, 2016). It is one of the most scientific and rigorous methods of formulating the research hypothesis feasibility during the testing.

Can you trust the results of this study? What are the strengths and weaknesses of this paper? (Hint: refer to the CASP for randomised controlled trials to guide you in the critical appraisal of this study) (200 words±10%, 9 marks). 

The result of this study clearly shows that music has a positive side which brings numerous changes in the emotional and anxiety level of the person suffering from the disorder. The Random control trails method was also an important part of ensuring scientifically valid results were achieved. Music therapy is considered to be a crucial part of standard care for the peoples with mild, moderate and severe depressive experiences. From the results, it shows that music therapy is a successful cost-effective standard care(Siminoff, 2013). Strong empirical research evidence was given by this study in favour of the depressive peoples.

The primary weakness of this research was the lack of defined clinical procedure to be used on the RCT’s who were given music therapies. The random control trials participants were not considered on the diversity of their age and gender. Thus, it is appropriate to say that the main weakness is the research methodology which further questions the results. Using the RCTs for the music therapy groups gives rather unique and rare results which are questionable from certain points such as it lacks the connection between the clinical methods for the control group and music therapy group. Also, the use of quantitative research methods does not ascertain the clinical methods conventionally used for the depression based research.

Was music therapy effective in treating the depression of the patients? (Hint: present and interpret the results for depression outcome- see Table 2 for the summary of the results- you need to consider the results for intervention and control groups, whether the difference between these groups is statistically significant, and if the estimation of the results for the wider population is precise (100 words±10%, 5 marks)

Table 2 is documenting the changes in primary and secondary outcomes within the music group and the control group for the baseline period of 3 to 6 months. The results of Table 2 clearly show that music therapy was successful in treating depressed patients. Table 2 signify that results outcomes for the music group were far greater and significant as compared to the control arm in the indicators of MADRS, HADS-A, and GAF scores.Also, the graphical analysis from Table 2 showsan odd ratio (OR) = 2.96 highlighting the greater results in the music group when 3-month period is analysed for all the psychiatric levels.

Would you recommend music therapy for patients with depression? (Justify your answer taking into consideration the benefits, harms, and the cost of the intervention) (100 words,±10%  3.5 marks) 

Depression is one of the most common disorder creating wide-reaching impacts related to social disorder, degraded quality of life and increased mortality. The recommendation of the music therapy is beneficial to the peoples having the depressing disorder as the therapy involves the music which helps calm the emotional mood and expression as well as for the purpose of therapy personal communications needs to be established. The positive impacts of music therapy include reducing depressivesymptoms and controlling anxiety. The music therapy is also a skill-based activity which is available in cost-effective charges.

Evidence Based Nursing Assignment


Mathieson, A., Grande, G., & Luker, K. (2018). Strategies, facilitators and barriers to implementation of evidence-based practice in community nursing: a systematic mixed-studies review and qualitative synthesis. Primary health care research & development, 6(2), 34-67, doi.org/10.1017/S1463423618000488.

Mazurek Melnyk, B. (2016). The Doctor of Nursing Practice Degree= Evidence‐Based Practice Expert. Worldviews on Evidence‐Based Nursing, 13(3), 183-184, doi/abs/10.1111/wvn.12164.

Siminoff, L. (2013). December. Incorporating patient and family preferences into evidence-based medicine. . In BMC medical informatics and decision making, 53(13), 56.

van der Weijden, T., Légaré, F., Boivin, A., Burgers, J., van Veenendaal, H., Stiggelbout, A., . . . Elwyn, G. (2010). How to integrate individual patient values and preferences in clinical practice guidelines? A research protocol. Implementation Science, 5(1), 10, doi: 10.1186/1748-5908-5-10.

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Global Food Quality Management Systems

What is personal hygiene?

  • Personal hygiene is the process and practice in which we care for our body.
  • This process includes washing our hands regularly, brushing teeth taking bath and much more.
  • Personal hygiene important especially within food and beverage industry manufacturing process.
  • Food and beverage industries especially involved in the production process are bound to provide products which are safe to eat for the customers by maintaining hygiene and sanitation practices.
  • Hygiene and sanitation practice therefore forms an integral part of workplace hygiene.
  • Here every employee would be encouraged to follow sanitation practice like washing hands before entering the production unit and other process.

Global Food Quality Management Systems

Bringing the change and improvement

  • To start with regular training sessions would be created in order to provide insight of personal hygiene under Quality planning approach.
  • The hygienic policies which would be formulated would also be demonstrated to the employees.
  • Ever new hiring will have the training process mandatory and hygiene week would be followed to improve the quality of hygiene.
  • Proper monitoring compliance and regulations check would be provided by the management as a part of quality control.

Parameter for measuring the effectiveness

  • The effectiveness would be measured with three fold monitoring process.
  • The supervisors and the line managers would provide monthly report to the higher department regarding the safety measures which are followed.
  • They would also report the employees who have filled to abide with the compliance.


  • Personal hygiene within workplace is an important element for food and beverage production unit.
  • The current scenario resulted in non-maintenance of proper hygiene factors.
  • Hand swab test resulted into satisfactory outcomes and need to improve the hygienic policies were seen.
  • The new hygienic policy would ensure washing hands, using protective equipment’s, and regular medical check-up of employees.
  • Proper monitoring process for the overall hygienic policy would also be implemented which includes the supervisors.
  • Trainings would be provided to the employees.
  • Rewarding policies and penalties are to be introduced in order to maintain the motivation among the employees.
  • The parameter for measuring the effectiveness would be the rate of response from the customers, the supervisors and from the employees themselves.
  • Further improvements would be ascertained based on the response received.


  • Nwudu, V., Fletcher, A.M. and Bauer, M., 2018. Patterns and predictors of personal protection compliance and workplace hygiene behaviors among workers with elevated blood lead levels in New York State. Journal of occupational and environmental hygiene15(9), pp.654-663.
  • Trafialek, J., Drosinos, E.H. and Kolanowski, W., 2017. Evaluation of street food vendors’ hygienic practices using fast observation questionnaire. Food Control80, pp.350-359.
  • Moerman, F., 2017. Personal Hygiene and Good Maintenance Practices for the Servicing of Food Processing Equipment. In Food Protection and Security (pp. 267-327). Woodhead Publishing.
  • Gamble, J.R., Brennan, M. and McAdam, R., 2017. A rewarding experience? Exploring how crowdfunding is affecting music industry business models. Journal of business research70, pp.25-36.
  • Borggaard, G.A., Google LLC, 2019. System and method for rewarding customers who invite other customers to a business. U.S. Patent 10,318,977.

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The Impact of FinTech on Firm Performance in the UAE


As one of the most competitive financial centers in the Middle East Africa and Southeast Asia (MEASA) region, the Dubai International Financial Centre is transforming the forthcoming era of monetary services and corporate performance in the UAE and beyond. Recent work in the financial industry has revealed that Fintech is an important element in the present revolution. We have chosen this company as it is a fast emerging as has innovative means of achieving greater financial inclusion. They also have proven goals of inclusive growth by improving speed, efficiency, and convenience of the financial services (Lukonga, 2018).

Financial technology has opened up a world of vast opportunities for the financial industry and the business world by supporting the delivery of more innovative services, transforming the traditional business models, and generation of better profits. Fintech has brought forth a major impact on the current and future of the corporate world, which implies that businesses need to explore in their Fintech investmentsto provide users with greater value, yield higher revenues, lower funding costs, increased efficiency, risk evaluation, which ultimately improve the firms’ performance.

Across the UAE, Fintech is rapidly coming of age with the UAE government and regulators examining about the impact on firm’s performance and the economy. Today, the company is ranked as number 1 in the region and top 10 Fintech hubs globally, therefore, this literature review considers how Fintech is well positioned to drive higher growth and act as a platform for accessing vast opportunities, which, enhances theperformance. Majority of the firms are still facing challenges in the acceptance and adoption of Fintech, but the most recent progresses have radically transformed various activities by offering viable solutions to the age-old problems, which have a profound impact on businesses.


The theoretical framework of this review will be based on the theory of unified acceptance. We will look at how the company has adopted newer information systems and how it has impacted their business (Howard, Restrepo, & Chang, 2017). In addition, this review focuseson three business areas that have been transformed by the use of Fintech: payment processes, low funding costs, and the customer engagement. 

Application of Fintech in the UAE Companies

2.1. Smart Payment Processes

In the recent past, the payment industry has experienced several great modifications largely due to the Fintech revolution by combining financial services, online-based transactions and pioneering analysis capabilities. The financial technology solutions prevent firms and consumers undergoing the cumbersome and time-consuming processes of cash and card payments. These transactions are easily completed online using the mobile banking applications,alternative payment methods such as digital wallets, blockchain technology (Arslanian& Fischer, 2019). 

Smart Payment Processes

At present, Fintech wholly modifies the manner in which consumers and businesses engage in managing and operating payments. Though, while majority Business-2-Business (B2B) consumers appear to know the designation of the term, the private consumers in the UAE still do not haveform of general knowledge. Therefore, this study is unique in the sense that it delves further by investigating how UAE firms can increase their performance by increasing the uptake of the Business-to-Consumer (B2C) Fintech enterprises that target the wider audience, public consumers.

Various studies have examined the impact of the Fintech on transforming the payment processes used by companies and customers. Kang (2018) looked at the inclinations of mobile-based Fintech payment services and categorized them based on their service types to aid in delivering better and securer payment services in the future. The author postulated that as the market for mobile payments is activated and payment frequency by users rises, there is a need to develop simplified payment processes for all users. Overall, the study has laid down information that is applicable to UAE firms as they have laid down the requirements that Fintech payment services must provide. It has also detailed the security challenges that these services will face in the view of mutual authentications, availability, authorizations, integrity, and data privacy. Overall, Kang puts forward the notion thatthis platform when provided on mobile will develop into much safer services in the long run.

Broom (2015) discusses that by examining the developing capabilities of Fintech in both wholesale-corporate and consumer-retail payments processes and discussing the Fintech’s monumental role – as well as solutions it offers – will play in influencing the course of the UAE’s payments industry. Similarly, several studies have also discussed how Fintech can create value for firms in the UAE. Leong & Sung (2018) argue convincingly that numerous Fintech applications are based on payment, advisory, financing and compliance services that generate value for businesses. In the study, it was found that in terms of payment processes, the cashless payments are one of the biggest development trends in Fintech because companies have devised payment processes for customers. In summary, from a business viewpoint, the latest developments of financial technologies, expand business progression, like improving sales, automating of services, as well as customer retention. In the future, propose further planssuch as data transmission technology, safety measures, better customer experiences, and data analysissystems (Leong & Sung, 2018). Some of the issues faced by older payment systems is signature-based receipts, paper receipts, checks and the security threats to our credit cards (Wile, 2014).

Thus, based on preceding literature the first hypothesis (H1) states: The current Fintech revolution will resolve the age-old payment problems faced by firms in the UAE.

Ease of access and sourcing of funds

Budding entrepreneurs experiencenumerous impediments such as access to funding in establishing new business once they identify opportunities or expansion of existing businesses to increase their capacity and firm’s performance. One of the most key challenges is raising funds to launch new venture or grow existing businesses. Traditionally, firmssought capital from banks, angel investors, friends’ contributions and venture capitalists. Freedman & Nutting (2015) postulated thatone of the key solutions provided by Fintech is crowdfunding, which allows entrepreneurs to appeal to the public using online platforms tosupport innovative ideas and grow businesses.

A study by Wati&Winarno (2018) was conducted to analyze the functioning of the crowdfunding model as one of the differentfinancingsources for SMEs in various countries. They found that themostfunding was attained by the equity crowdfunding model, where the funding targets, total of backers as well as minimum investment sum has a positive impact on the realization of crowdfunding.This shows that due to the use of FinTech, the crowdfunding model was successful in raising the required amount of money for the venture. This could be used by budding entrepreneurs to source the required funds for setting up their company.

Li, Spigt&Swinkels(2017) aimed at clarifying the importance of FinTech digital firms throughout the financial industry by examining the impact of the start-ups funding on stock returns of retail banks. The study shows that the financing of the new businesses that are in the digital banking sector has a positive impact on the stock returns which is a signal of higher firm performance.

Therefore, based on previous literature the second hypothesis (H2) states: The ability to source funds through the use of FinTechis much easier and efficient compared to other platforms.

2. 3. Interactive Consumer Engagement

In the last few years, Fintech has disrupted conventional financial services by focusing on the customers first to deliver a seamless consumer experience through increased automation and individualization. Most older technologies make use of a lot of effort to engage with customers personally. This has been resolved by Fintech as it uses SMS as well as other communication tools aimed at reducing the costs and efforts of engaging with consumers. The tools have contributed towards the achievement of an interactive customer engagements by resolving complaint, gathering feedback, and disseminating information, which fosters greater sales andcustomer loyalty.

Tonder&Beer (2018) presented the new views on the relevance of customer satisfaction as well as obligation in promotion of consumer citizenship behaviors. One of the findings of their study is that banks are well aware of the different kinds of developments in the fintech environment,but they need to emphasize on beneficial partnerships in order to deliver the digital deal. Banks are making hefty investments in IT systems in a bid to meet customer expectations and guarantee a hassle free transaction banking and other digital solutions.

Larsson (2017) has studied Swedish bank management perceptions of FinTech’s impacts on digitalization and consumer e-loyalty. The study shows that Fintech has altered the classical interactions between thefirms and their consumers using computers or smartphones. In the study, they also explored the challenges that FinTech companies have posed to Swedish banks with regard to securing higher customer loyalty by conducting interviews with managers of different banks. The study has found that the FinTech expansion has encouraged the traditional banks to accelerate digital transformation to generate a distinctive profile of customers and meet their expectations.

Along with the fast development of Fintech, it has been observed that information technology can be applied to financial services by focusing on extensive application methods including influencing mechanisms behind the implementation of Fintech services. Hu et al. (2019) proposed a better technology acceptance model, which incorporates innovation, governmental support, image of the brand, as well assupposed risks as the core trust determinants by investigating how consumershave adopted Fintech. With respect to the consumer, thestudyreveals that the perceived ease of use does not have an impact on the attitudes towards adopting Fintech services. The ease of use is used to refer to the extent to which customers feel relaxed and their efforts in learning how to use the Fintech services that provide better services and improved customer experiences for customers, by firm’s personalization of customers’ needs.

Therefore, based on literature the third hypothesis (H3) states: The Fintech revolution has improved customer engagement in the companies that have adopted this system.


Arslanian, H., & Fischer, F. (2019). The future of finance: The impact of FinTech, AI, and crypto on financial services. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Broom, D. (2015). Innovation in Payments: The Future is Fintech. The Bank of New York Mellon Corporation.

Freedman, D. M. & Nutting, M. R. (2015). Equity crowdfunding for investors: A guide to risks, returns, regulations, funding portals, due diligence, and deal terms. Wiley publications.

Hu, Z., Ding, S., Li, S., Yang, S., Hu, Z., Ding, S., Li, S., … Chen, L. (March 01, 2019). Adoption intention of fintech services for bank users: An empirical examination with an extended technology acceptance model. Symmetry, 11, 3.

Leong, K. &Sung, A. (2018). FinTech (Financial Technology): What is It and How to Use Technologies to Create Business Value in Fintech Way? International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology, 9, 2, 74-78.

Li, Y., Spigt, R., &Swinkels, L. (2017). The impact of FinTech start-ups on incumbent retail banks’ share prices. Financial Innovation, 3, 1.

Lukonga, I. (2018). Fintech, Inclusive Growth and Cyber Risks: Focus on the MENAP and CCA Regions. Imf Working Papers, 18, 201, 1.

Howard, R., Restrepo, L., & Chang, C.-Y. (2017). Addressing individual perceptions: An application of the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology to building information modelling. International Journal of Project Management, 35, 2, 107-120.

Kang, J. (January 01, 2018). Mobile payment in Fintech environment: trends, security challenges, and services. Human-centric Computing and Information Sciences, 8, 1.

Teigland, R., In Siri, S., In Larsson, A., In Puertas, A. M., & In Bogusz, C. I. (2017). The rise and development of FinTech: Accounts of disruption from Sweden and beyond. Abingdon, Oxon; New York, N.Y.: Routledge.

Tonder, V. E., & Beer, D. L. T. (March 28, 2018). New perspectives on the role of customer satisfaction and commitment in promoting customer citizenship behaviours. South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences, 21, 1.

Wati, C. R., &Winarno, A. (April 23, 2018). The Performance of Crowdfunding Model as an Alternative Funding Source for Micro, Small, and Medium-Scale Businesses in Various Countries. KNE Social Sciences, 3, 3, 16.

Wile, R. (2014, May 7). The way we buy stuff is totally ridiculous-Here’s what needs to be fixed. Retrieved from https://www.businessinsider.in/tech/the-way-we-buy-stuff-is-totally-ridiculous-heres-what-needs-to-be-fixed/articleshow/34792576.cms

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Business Issue: Culture Shock in Business Environment


Businesses are growing globally and thus giving various opportunities to organisations and individuals to grow career-wise. With these global business expansions, an individual gets an opportunity to work abroad or the ongoing projects of the company on foreign land allows these representatives to work with natives. Every culture has its customs and tradition and they are also reflected in our work culture. Various cases reflect that it becomes very difficult for a Chines immigrant to work in American culture or vice versa. The articles listed below focus on various culture shock experienced by these representatives.

Article 1

Shi, L., & Wang, L. (2014). The culture shock and cross-cultural adaptation of Chinese expatriates in international business contexts. International Business Research7(1), 23.

The article focuses on the important causes of cultural shock by “Chinese business representative “and the difficulties they faced in adjusting to the international business environment. To identify the causes of cultural shock a semi-structured interview and an online of 80 Chines business experts who were associated with organizations who did business globally.  The finding of the study highlighted eight major causes of cultural shock were “language, professional communication, religion, time coordination, power distribution, traditions, openness and socialism. The study also concluded that almost all expatriates face the problem of culture shock while doing business internationally and were extremely affected by the mentioned issues. The research further reveals three major problems such as inability to adapt to business communication, languages barriers and the extreme pressure from work duties. On the bases of research conducted various measures are proposed. (Shi & Wang, 2013)

The article has focused on eight major factors of cultural shock which have not been considered in other articles cited below. The study specifically focuses on a particular country which has experience of cultural shock. The study was conducted on the people of China who went abroad for work. The article highlights the major causes of cultural shock and the survey illuminates that almost every individual has experienced cultural shock which has affected the business greatly.  

Culture Shock in Business Environment

Article 2

Selmer, J. (2004). Psychological barriers to adjustment of Western business expatriates in China: newcomers vs long stayers. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 15(4-5), 794-813.

The article focuses on the psychological factor and sociocultural adjustments of western business expatriates working in China. To study the problem a mail survey was conducted and the psychological barriers for adjustment and its impact on socio-cultural and psychological adjustment were studied.  This was an exploratory study and the finding concluded that the continuous incapability and unwillingness to adjust with newcomers have affected various aspects of sociocultural adjustment but it doesn’t affect the emigrants’ psychological adjustment. It has been observed that these factors have not stabilized over time in anyways there are no effects in case of long stayers in China. The study also suggests that in upcoming time both factors of inability and unwillingness towards adjustment may become of some importance. Paper suggests various points for selection of emigrants for job selection in China. (Selmer, 2004)

The article focuses on people who came to China to work and the cultural shock they experienced while doing business. The article focuses on two factors i.e. the psychological factor and sociocultural adjustments and their impact. These factors have been a great part of cultural shock and highlight major issues of cultural shock. 

Article 3

Ruben, B. D. (1989). The study of cross-cultural competence: Traditions and contemporary issues. International journal of intercultural relations, 13(3), 229-240.

The article studies cross-cultural communication skills attained by individuals or people working overseas to cope up with problems encountered by them. Though this paper it was observed there exists cultural shock difficulties, adjustments at the personal level, adaptability with regards to culture and cross-cultural effectiveness. The problem was significant in businesses which came in the form of project failures, the return of workers and loss of time and money. Though the studies it was observed that these problems occurred due to personal adjustment issues or due to lack of cultural participation. It was concluded that they needed a perspective so that the essential needs of the business were met. (RUBEN, 1989)

The article focus on the factor of individual adjustment with regards to culture and cross-cultural effectiveness. It considers the problems caused by these cultural shocks in the business. It highlights the major causes of cultural shock.

Article 4

Kaye, M., & Taylor, W. G. (1997). Expatriate culture shock in China: A study in the Beijing hotel industry. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 12(8), 496-510.

The article explores the existence of cultural shock occurred among emigrant managers in the joint venture hotels in Beijing and China region. The article focuses on factors infusing culture shock. The exploratory study was conducted and a model was proposed that predicted cultural shock which was determined by situations and intercultural sensitivity. The finding reflected a strong relation between cultural sensitivity and cultural shock. It was concluded that Asian expatriates experienced a great level of cultural shock due to inter-culture sensitivity.  (Marianna Kaye, 1997)

The article shares a case of the joint venture of hotel industry where the cultural shock was experienced. The study is a case analysis which has not been studied in any of the previous articles cited. The article highlights the strong relationship between cultural sensitivity and cultural shock.

Article 5

Fink, G., & Holden, N. (2002). Collective culture shock. Contrastive reactions to radical systemic change.

The article focuses on culture shock experienced during organizations moving from one economic system to another or when these businesses undergo expansion. By analyzing various factors it was suggested that culture shock has four components namely “integration, assimilation, separation, and marginalization”. This extension movement results in difficult social adjustments and undergoes an extreme challenge for a systematic way. To demonstrate the collective cultural shock the research was examined in four countries Russia, Europe, South Africa and Japan. The observation reflected that these shocks are the result of economic complexity, specific social and political situations. The article concludes that culture shock is an important factor or tool for managers who are responsible for constructing and evolving international business strategies to understand the complexities of culture shock or to adjust to the change in the traditional system of management. (Gerhard Fink, 2002)

In this article, the cultural shock is studied on the economical aspect which has not been considered in any other article. The article studies cultural shock in four countries Russia, Europe, South Africa and Japan and results conclude the causes of culture shock. The article highlights that is a key factor responsible for constructing and evolving international business strategies.


From the above cases, we could conclude that immigrants have faced a lot of difficulties while doing business on foreign land. The culture shift has been one of the reasons for that has affected various business tremendously. Due to the cultural shock organisations have undergone huge losses.The language barrier, adaptability and pressure of work duty timing and cultural difference have been a major reason for these cultural shock which can be overcome by giving initial training to the representatives about language and culture.


Fink, G., & Holden, N. (2002). Collective culture shock. Wien: Research Institute for European Affairs.

Kaye, M., & Taylor, W. (1997). Expatriate culture shock in China: a study in the Beijing hotel industry. Journal Of Managerial Psychology12(8), 496-510. DOI: 10.1108/02683949710189102

Ruben, B. (1989). The study of cross-cultural competence: Traditions and contemporary issues. International Journal Of Intercultural Relations13(3), 229-240. DOI: 10.1016/0147-1767(89)90011-4

Selmer, J. (2004). Psychological barriers to adjustment of Western business expatriates in China: newcomers vs long stayers. The International Journal Of Human Resource Management15(4-5), 794-813. DOI: 10.1080/0958519042000192951

Shi, L., & Wang, L. (2013). The Culture Shock and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Chinese Expatriates in International Business Contexts. International Business Research7(1). DOI: 10.5539/ibr.v7n1p23

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Social Media Related Challenge


It is believed that online media communication is the trending topic among practitioners handling public relations for various organisations(David Phillips, 2009).The digital media mainly focuses on mobile phones, satellite, television and the internet used as means for Internet marketing. In recent years Social Media Analytics have become a booming topic. This is mainly associated with the operational challenges, managerial issues and advantages which increases the implementation and uses of social media for promotional activities, entertainment, communication etc. Social Media is a platform for communication. It has reduced the distance between two individuals. Social media has brought down the world to just one click away. A student wanting to learn a particular subject can do the same from any teacher in the world through online tutoring. A farmer can get the information about the weather in order to sow seeds or to reap the field just by a click.

Social Media Related Challenge

Mostly companies these days make use of various social media platforms so as to build customer base and to earn profit. The report contains the description of social media and how it is different from concepts that are related i.e. web 2.0 etc. On the bases of the definition social media is further classified into various categories like blog, content communities, networking sites etc.(Andreas M. Kaplan, 2010)This report focuses on examining the impact of social media, exploring the new approach and the challenges. To study the importance of social media and its effects with the help of various literatures studied. Empirical observation explained the perception about social media and challenges associated with them.

Literature Review

(Shintaro Okazaki, 2013)Studded thetheoretical concept that is useful in research on social media with reference to international advertising research and they aimed to find further scope with relation to theory building in social media research. The paper derived three key features from the previous work. These features were in regards to theatrical concepts in research that can be used in advertising media for promotional purpose. These three concepts perspectives (networking capability, image transferability, and personal extensibility) is an advantage in case of understanding and acts as a disadvantage for publicity. The gap in the studies is that the international content is still in its beginning, which need the attention. A framework is practically none existing for the gap. 

(John Carlo Bertot, 2012)Proposes theincreased use of social media by government agencies in order to build the connection with those whom the serve. The use of social media involves exchange of crucial information which if leaked may result to greater damage to a nation. These media have provided the advantage of exchanging the information but on the other hand it is also becoming a threat. The paper suggest various challenges with respect to privacy, weak security, data management, governance, accessibility and various other policy issues in regards to information. The continuous adoption of the social media has overtook the supervised framework in regards to information, though the guideline rules behind the framework are still necessary. The paper discusses the regulations of the existing framework and the methods in which they are applicable to social media.

(Andreas M. Kaplan, 2010)Suggests the trends of social media and their adoption in various businesses. Discussed how consultancies and business makers can use these technique for their benefits. YouTube, Wikipedia, twitter and Facebook has become few of the trending platforms of social media. With their bulky content there comes the issue of privacy, security and data management. These are few challenges that are being faced by social media today. It appears that the word social media is partially understood the exact definition and meaning is explained in the paper. Basic concept of social media is explained and difference between them in relation to relative concepts such as Web 2.0. On the bases of the definition provided in the paper classification of social media is done.

(Kristian Tørning, 2015)Suggests social media to be an upcoming field in the academic research and organisation practices. The paper discusses the operational issues, management challenges and advantages of adopting social media platform for the functioning of the organisation. To conduct this study multiple case study were studies and interview were conducted. The empirical finding explains the perception of social media among managers and the managerial challenges directly associated with media production, what’s more, vulnerability about the arrival of venture via web-based networking media exercises.

(José van Dijck, 2014) The paperinvestigates the social media rise in European public service broadcast mainly in the reason of UK and Netherland. The author explores the encounter of “social” and “public” with regards to three levels: professional, institute and content. After deep analysis of these three levels some questions of general like the way general public is coping up with challenges of social media, the way public television earn from social media without adjusting public values are answered. The paper also discusses the challenges regarding the social media content, violation of public values and privacy.

Main body

Generate Multiple Ideas

  1. The uncensored or violent content in social media tends to bring aggressive behaviour in people which affects the mental health of the viewer.
  2. The unnecessary content present on social media engages students and they tend to waste lot of productive time.
  3. There a lot of dependency on social media that student prefers this platform more than books.
  4.  Spending more time on virtual word affect their social life and reduce their public involvement.

Justify why this option was chosen

This topic is chosen because various research shows that in youth of today spend more time on social media which involves high risk of depression, stress and anxiety in them. As they are not physically socialising, these problem are increasing day by day which results in higher rate of suicides amongst youth. 

Research Question: To study the impact of social media and its content on youth.


H0:There is no significant impact of social media and its content on youth.

H1 :There is asignificant impact of social media and its content on youth.

Draw a Journey Map

Journey Map of the interviewed students

The interviews shows that students often tend to waste their time on social media and the reason is its catchy content. The journey map of their problem is as follows:

Journey Map

Empathy Map

Said   It is difficult to censor the content on social media.   There is no option.    Think   This has become an addiction and student think spending more time in real world is waste of time and that’s why they prefer virtual world.
Do   Content censoring is a struggle on social media.Feel   They feel virtual world is making them more advance.


Due to this addiction the students have lost the ability of creativity and decision making and the uncensored content has violated all boundaries. Thus they need to realise to control this addiction. Although this problem cannot be overcome on a large scale but if these social media platform censor their content so that they don’t turn out to be more harmful.

The solution to this problem is strict laws to be implemented to control and censor the content on social media. In case of youth and student there should be a limit on their social media usage. Collages and university should promote book learnings, outer door games, events of interest and gathering in order to socialise more.


Andreas M. Kaplan, M. H. (2010). Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media. Elsevier Business Horizons.

Link: www.sciencedirect.com

David Phillips, P. Y. (2009). Online public relations : a practical guide to developing an online strategy in the world of social media. Philadelphia : London ; Philadelphia : Kogan Page, 2009.

Link: https://trove.nla.gov.au/version/44762970

John Carlo Bertot, P. T. (2012). The impact of polices on government social media usage: Issues, challenges,and recommendations. Elsevier, 30-40.

Link: www.elsevier.com/locate/govinf

Kristian Tørning, Z. J. (2015). Current Challenges in Social Media Management. Research gate.


Shintaro Okazaki, C. R. (2013). Social media and international advertising: theoretical challenges and future directions. emerald.


Van Dijck, J., &Poell, T. (2015). Making public television social? Public service broadcasting and the challenges of social media. Television & New Media16(2), 148-164.

Link: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1527476414527136

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Operation and Supply Chain Management

1. Introduction

Operation management and supply chain, both are important aspects of a business. Operation management involves all the activities inside the organization and supply chain management includes the activities related to the supply of products to the market. This report is a detailed analysis of the operation and supply chain management of the company M&M.  M&M has a rich history from the past 100+ years. The company is continuously offering new products and new segments of the business but one thing is common that all the segments act as family members(Abbady, Hessian, & Alaam, 2017). M& M plain chocolate candies were introduced by Forrest E. Mars in the United States. In 1950, the company came up with a new solution to maintain the uniqueness of their products by stamping m letter on every candy. In 1954, the company introduced M&M peanut chocolate candies. In 1960, the company introduced fruit chews. In 1984, the plain and peanut chocolate candies offered by the company became the official snack food of the Olympic Games. In 1989, in the US, the company came up with peanut butter chocolate candies.  The company M&M continued its innovations by introducing caramel candies in 2017 and crunchy mint in 2018.

This report is a detailed analysis of the operation management and supply chain management of the company for its products and services. The first section of the report explains the key products offered by the company. In the second section, the report has discussed the competitive capabilities of the firm. The third section shows the comparative analyses of the company with its competitors through polar chart and dominance frontier. The fourth section of the report is about process calculation analyses. The fifth and sixth section discusses the supply chain of a product and new location of the warehouse of the company. The last section of the report explains how the firm can improve its productivity through mass customization.

2. Key products/ Services and Input-Output process

The company offers various categories of products. The products of the company can be categorized based on the occasion, personalizable products and non-personalizable products. The products of the company are available in different flavours: chocolate, peanut, chocolate peanut and peanut butter(Abbas, 2018). These chocolate and peanut products are available in different colours. In this section, the report has discussed the main products and their input-output process. The company offers different product based on different sizes, chocolates, nuts, spices and herbs, fruits, deserts and colours. Input-output process of products of the company is as follows

Inputs: The main inputs for the process of chocolate and chocolate related products making is cocoa beans, chocolate, milk, electricity, labour, machine and paper.

Process: It includes various processes to prepare the products such as sorting, mixing, grinding, winnowing and roasting.

Output: The main products produced are chocolate products and waste products.

3. Competitive Capabilities of M&M

The chocolate brand M& M offers chocolate products in different colours and sizes. M & M is the sub-company of Mars Inc. There are various competitors of M&M in this industry. But the company has gained a competitive advantage in the food and beverage industry because of its strengths. The main strengthening factors of the company are high brand recognition in all over the world, affordable products, variety of colours which attract the attention of the customers, attractive marketing and advertisement strategy and personalized gifts for birthdays and parties. Hershey is the main competitor of the company which is regularly offering new brands of the chocolates(Dubai, 2018). But M&M has kept eye on them every strategy of its competitors to gain competitive advantage. The tagline of the company “Melts in your mouth, not in your hand” helps the company to attract a large number of customers.

4. Comparison of the company with other companies using Polar chart and Dominance Frontier

In this section, the report has described the comparison of M&M with its close competitor Hershey. The comparative analyses of both these companies have shown through the following polar chart. The comparative analyses of both of these competitors describe that overall score of the company M&M according to Knoji ratings is 3.8 and the overall score of Hershey is 3.9. Hershey is highly recognized as compared to M&M. This brand is globally recognized because of discounts and offers provided by it o its customers.


Low price strategy followed by M&M Company has made it able to compete with the other competitors in the market. One positive factor which attracts more customers towards M&M as compared to Hershey is the variety of chocolate products offered by the company. The company offers chocolate products in different colours and sizes. The products of the company can be categorized based on the occasion, personalizable products and non-personalizable products. The products of the company are available in different flavours: chocolate, peanut, chocolate peanut and peanut butter. These chocolate and peanut products are available in different colours. In this section, the report has discussed the main products and their input-output process. The company offers different product based on different sizes, chocolates, nuts, spices and herbs, fruits, deserts and colours. But on the other hand, Hershey offers limited chocolate products in limited colours.

The above graph explains how the company can make the supply chain and distribution process easy by following the dominance frontier in operation management and supply chain process. This process will help the company to use specialization of skills and to increase productivity. It will also help in overcoming the challenges related to delay in delivery of products.

5. Process Analyses Calculation

Every organization uses flow rate, inventory and flow time as the main units of measure the performance of the workers as well as the overall productivity of the organization. For the process analyses calculation, the organizations use the term flow unit which represents every single activity in the firm(Landry, 1998). All the chocolate products offered by the company are known as flow units. The number of products manufactured by the company in per unit of time is known as flow rates. Flow rate term also represents the speed of delivery of products from the operation department to the supply chain department and its further processing to the customers through the distribution process.

The time taken by the supply chain department to the customers is known as the average flow rate. This stream pace of administrations conveyed to the clients is known as the normal rate. The aggregate sum of time spent by stream units in the business procedure is known as the complete time of preparing. If there should be an occurrence of more than one way, this stream time is determined through the way which is the longest(Wu & Pagell, 2011). The all outnumber of stream units took care of by the business procedure is known as stock. Stock at the organization is determined by separating the stream rate isolated by stream time. Stock can be determined to utilize the speed of conveyance of administrations to the clients and the quantity of clients handles by the office in a specific time. The chiefs for the most part centre on expanding the throughput. Accordingly, they attempt to lessen their cost and attach the speed of conveyance of items to the clients to expand the income of the organization(Zuckerman, 2002). The organization wants to get the input from the clients identified with the administrations offered by the organization to improve the administrations later on. This encourages the organization to build the speed of conveyance of administrations to the clients because the organization modifies their administrations according to the input got from the clients.

6. The supply chain of a product and risks related to supply chain

In this section of the report, we are discussing the supply chain process of M&M peanut chocolates. Supply chain process of the M&M Peanut chocolate consists of various elements for the movement of products. The supply chain of these products starts with the customers and also ends with the customers.

Supply Chain

Customers: This chain starts when the customers start liking the products and demand for these products and finally purchase the products offered by the company through the retail store. The customers’ order for the products as per their requirement and sales department of the company receive the orders to manufacture the products(Stephenson, 2014).

Planning: The next step of the supply chain process of the company is to plan for manufacturing. The planning department is responsible for all these planning to fulfil the requirement of the customers. According to the plans, the company purchases the required raw material.

Purchase: The planning department sends the list of required raw material to the purchasing department. This department further sends the purchase orders to the different suppliers to purchase the materials.

Inventory: Afterreceiving the raw material from the suppliers, quality and accuracy of the products are checked and the material is sent to the warehouses.  After supplying the material, the suppliers also send the invoices to the specific departments from where the material was ordered(Sarkis, 2006).

Production: According to the plan of the production, the raw material is transferred to the specific departments. Using this raw material, finish products are also produced as per the requirements of the customers.

Transportation: After receiving the finished products, the shipping department decides to ship the products to the customers by using efficient methods. When the goods are delivered to the customers the company also sends an invoice for those goods.

Supply chain risks: The Company also faces various challenges in the supply chain process of the products. These risks include supplier failed to deliver the raw material. Although the company gets the raw material from renowned suppliers, yet the risk of poor material or latte delivery of products always exist(Joshi & Rathore, 2013). Other risks can be outsourcing, logistic delays, loss of information, miscommunication regarding orders, risks related to political, economic and natural calamities and risks of theft and terrorism. These risks can affect the supply chain process and production and distribution capability of the organization.

7. New Location for the warehouse or service centre of the firm through the Center of Gravity method

By using the centre of gravity method, the firm can locate a new place, which can increase the productivity of the firm by reducing its cost. Through this method, the company can locate the area which is near to its distribution centres. Less distance between the distribution centres and the operational plants will help the company to reduce the cost of transportation. The following example shows how the company M&M can find a new location using the centre of gravity method.

Operation and Supply Chain Management
Numerical  Data

The above numerical example proves that the company can use this center of gravity method to decide about the location which can help in minimizing the cost of transportation of the company. Center of gravity method is an approach used by organizations to find a new facility which can help in the minimization of the costs of the organization. The main input used in this method is the volume of services offered by the firm(Wu & Pagell, 2011). In this case, we are discussing the services offered by M&M chocolate company. Facility location for every organization is a one-time decision(Stephenson, 2014). This decision cannot be reversed. Overall cost pattern is based on this facility location. This facility location directly affects the sales of the organization. The main factors which influence this plant facility are its distance from the raw material centre, its distance from the market and its facilities and infrastructure

This new location explored using this centre of gravity method will help the company in increasing the speed of delivery of the products. It will increase the satisfaction of the customers of the company as well as it will increase the revenue of the company by decreasing its cost. 

8. Application of Mass customization to the product

Mass customization is known as the production of unique goods on a large scale. Using this technique the firm can serve different requirements of the customers, preferences of the market by producing varied products. Through this technique, the company can easily overcome the challenges related to delayed delivery and the disappointment of the customers. Mass customization can help the company for knowing the choices of the customers so that new products can be able to meet their requirements. This strategy acts as a postponement tactic to attract a large number of customers towards the products of the company(Landry, 1998). The company can also adopt modular design and packaging for its chocolate products through this strategy. In the way, the company will be able to compete with its competitors.The Company also faces various challenges in the supply chain process of the products. These risks include supplier failed to deliver the raw material. Although the company gets the raw material from renowned suppliers, yet the risk of poor material or latte delivery of products always exist.

Other risks can be outsourcing, logistic delays, loss of information, miscommunication regarding orders, risks related to political, economic and natural calamities and risks of theft and terrorism. These risks can affect the supply chain process and production and distribution capability of the organization.  As we have studied previously, the main competitors of the company are Hershey for its chocolate products and it is regularly introducing new chocolate products for its customers. Thus the company needs to adopt this mass customization technique to maintain the interest of their customers in these chocolate products and to attract new customers to gain competitive advantage.

9. Conclusion and Recommendations

­­The study concludes that M&M is a renowned company in the Food and Beverage sector of the United States. The company has covered a large share of the market by introducing a wide range of chocolate products to the customers of the company. Although the main competitor of the company Hershey has gained the largest share of the market in this industry the company has made its recognition through a variety of chocolate products. The report has described the comparative analyses of the company with its close competitor Hershey through Polar chart from the aspects of quality, price, taste, packaging and variety. The report has also explained the supply chain process and supply chain risks of the company. The only risk faced by the company is related to the delay in delivery of products to the customers. The new location facility explained that the company can overcome this risk by finding a new location near its distribution plants through the centre of gravity method. This new location explored using this centre of gravity method will help the company in increasing the speed of delivery of the products. It will increase the satisfaction of the customers of the company as well as it will increase the revenue of the company by decreasing its cost.

10. References

Gerhard F. Knolmayer, P. M. (2009). Supply Chain Management Based on SAP Systems: Architecture and Planning Processes. Springer Science & Business Media.

Hodges. (2012). Supply Chain Management. Net Library inc.

Hugos. (2011). Essentials of supply chain management. Willey publications.

Joshi, & Rathore. (2013). On Supply Chain Competitiveness of Indian Automotive Component Manufacturing Industry. International Journal of Production Economics, 21-35.

Landry. (1998). Supply Chain Management. Harvard Business Review.

Laudon. (2010). A New Supply Chain Project Has Nike Running for Its Life. In Essentials of Management Information Systems: Managing the digital firm. sixth edition Pearson Education.

Sarkis, J. (2006). Greening the Supply Chain. Springer Science & Business Media.

Snippet, V. (2015). Supply chain development. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 2 (1), 311-325.

Wu, & Pagell. (2011). Balancing priorities: Decision-making in sustainable supply chain management. Journal of Operations Management, 65-78.

Zuckerman. (2002). Supply Chain Management. Kingdom: Capstone Publishing.

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Marketing Assignment of Nattas Cafe


The report is based on my visit to Nattas on 11th November 2017 at 5:30 pm. Natta is basically a cafe also preferred by people for casual dining. The purpose of my visit was to work on marketing assignment. Though my visit was all about information gathering but the food smelt so delicious that it tempted me to grab a bite, this later proved to be very useful in my work.

The finding has been listed below.

Product Strategy

Analyse menu

The menu itself provides a huge amount of varieties. It is divided mainly into three categories

  1. Starters
  2. Main Course
  3. Dessert

It becomes difficult to make the right choice as the food looks so delicious it is a tedious job to pick any one or two items from the menu.

Marketing Assignment of Nattas Cafe
Marketing Assignment of Nattas Cafe

Now it’s quite evident that when you have so many options it becomes difficult to make choices.

Analyse quality of both services and product offerings

The quality and services has been appreciated by the costumers. The quality of the food and services are great.

They have quick services it feel you are welcomed here. As soon as you enter the staffs’ stands to welcome and the food is smells so great and tempting it appears as if it is their way to welcome the guests.

Services they provide and Product Offerings

  1. Wi-Fi
  2. Kids friendly zone
  3. Desserts and Bakes
  4. Private dining area available

Product Offerings

  1. Starters
  2. Main Course
  3. Dessert

All details are already mentioned above.

  • Product that customers might find valuable

Mostly people like Chocolate milk and the Nattas signature dish.

Chocolate milk is so concentrated that you can see the chocolate at the bottom.

Nattas this is a tart that is crispy outside and creamy inside.

  • Analyse food quality, service and ambiance based on customer ratings and reviews

Nattas have been working very hard towards customer delight and satisfaction and over the years this has paid the off. the reviews shared would be quite evident to reflect this.


On the bases of rating and reviews the rating lies between Excellent and very good. This rating is given on the bases of services, food and value.

Delighted Customer

Delighted Customer Reviews


People visiting the have a delightful experience

Portugal people say that the get a taste of Portugal far away from home

 Customer satisfaction through food and music

They provide a demo of Portugal products.

Professional staff


Though the food it great but sometimes the services aren’t that great.

Pricing strategy

  1. Cost – plus pricing- calculating you cost and then adding extra amount.
  2. Competitive pricing – analysing the competitors charges and setting the price
  3. Price skimming- setting a higher price and then keep a scope of lowering it as the market evolves.
  4. Price bundling- combining products or services to increase value and price.

Cafe used mix price strategies

Free Wi-Fi services

Payment by credit card

Coupons system

All these strategies not only add to customer delight but also attract customer attention.

Cafe used any price adjustments strategies

Happy hours


Menu of the day

These techniques are used to lower the price and get more customer attention.

Promotion strategies

In the era of technology, promotion through social media has become the best option.

Nattas also follow the same the promotion is done through facebook, instagram , Twitter and they do have their own web site where all the details have been give. They also have tie-ups with zomatto where people come to know everything about them.

On their web sites they some videos and chef interviews.

Place strategies

Nattas have made a very smart move in finding the location.
University City Road, Muwailih Commercial – Sharjah – is the location which is one of the prime locations of the country. As this place various institutes and collages, so it’s a convenient food joint for the students. So students will be the most attracted customers.

Nattas also serve in one more location in the country i.e  inside Global Village.

Target and Positioning  

As already discussed the have concerned a convenient spot for themselves. University City Road, Muwailih Commercial – Sharjah this hub for the students and the main targeted customers are the students itself. Second prime location is Global Village it has been a famous tourist spot and the target customers are the tourists.

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