According to the Registered Nurse Standards for Practice (2016), what is the role of evidence based practice in the nursing profession? (100 words±10% , 4 marks). Needs referencing.
Evidence based practice (EBP) holds the future of effective health care that support more probability of greater health and well being of the public(Mazurek Melnyk, 2016). EBP is crucial to the nursing profession because it bridges the gap between what nurses know and what they can do to do to provide effective care to the patients. Currently, a gulf of difference exists between the nursing practice and decision making that result the nursing care. EBP in nursing is aimed to empower the decision making which is supported by the best case practices in order to mitigate the fatalities that can be avoided. EBP brings a paradigm shift in improving healthcare effectiveness and creates a platform of knowledge sharing and learning in order to improve the quality of care given to patients.
How can the Evidence Based Practice Model enhance nurses’ clinical decision-makings? (100 words±10%, 4 marks). Needs referencing.
Evidence based practice model brings transparency and accountability in the nursing sector. The clinical decision-making process is complex and involves a high risk of patents safety and wellbeing as well as the professional career of the nursing practicians. EBP model aims at integrating the research evidence with that of clinical experience and pays attention to the individual care strategy of the patients. Clinical decision making based on evidential based practice also takes into account the patients preferences in terms of a right-based approach. Evidence-based practice model support culturally safe healthcare practices and promotes clinical decision making as per the safe cultural limits of Aboriginal and native peoples which are often the most vulnerable to receive the quality healthcare.
One of the components of Evidence Based Practice is consideration of the patient’s values and preferences. What does this mean? Using an example, explain the importance of this component (100 words±10%, 4 marks). Needs referencing.
EBP is a part of new nursing guidelines which demands a balance in decision making from healthcare concern as well as patients preferences in the care system. Understanding the patient’s values and preferences and integrating them in the clinical decision making means giving value to the patients viewpoint about the his health condition, understanding the circumstances from the patient and his family in order to do good with the care provided to the patient(Siminoff, 2013). Integrating the patient preferences in action-based care is the ideal process of creating a shared decision-making framework where information and awareness of the patient’s condition are crucial. EBP, when integrated with the patient preferences, results in improved understanding of the risks enhances the communication between nurses and patients and gives positive hope to the patient about the quality of the care received by patient(van der Weijden, et al., 2010).
Reflecting on your last clinical placement or clinical work experience, explain four barriers and four enablers to the implementation of evidence-based practice in the clinical settings? (100 words±10%, 4 marks).
EBP based practice in clinical settings is a challenging task. There are challenges and motivators to the EBP framework listed below from the personal experience:
Lack of communication and trust-building between patient and nursing staff.
Lack of desired change management in the clinical settings w.r.t EBP(Mathieson, Grande, & Luker, 2018)
More focussing towards learning from research rather than evidence-based learning’s.
EBP face challenges from the patient preferences, as well as the patient’sfamily and friends.
Healthcare equality can be achieved using EBP.
Enhanced patient-centric care.
Foster individual development of clinical staff.
EBP promotes international quality care
Why are randomised controlled trials considered to be ‘higher level evidence’? (50 words±10%, 1.5 marks). Needs referencing
Randomised controlled trials are assigned a higher value because of their credibility to be free from systematic errors. During a clinical trial, using the RCT, the participants can be randomly assigned to one or more than one clinical interventions(Mazurek Melnyk, 2016). It is one of the most scientific and rigorous methods of formulating the research hypothesis feasibility during the testing.
Can you trust the results of this study? What are the strengths and weaknesses of this paper? (Hint: refer to the CASP for randomised controlled trials to guide you in the critical appraisal of this study) (200 words±10%, 9 marks).
The result of this study clearly shows that music has a positive side which brings numerous changes in the emotional and anxiety level of the person suffering from the disorder. The Random control trails method was also an important part of ensuring scientifically valid results were achieved. Music therapy is considered to be a crucial part of standard care for the peoples with mild, moderate and severe depressive experiences. From the results, it shows that music therapy is a successful cost-effective standard care(Siminoff, 2013). Strong empirical research evidence was given by this study in favour of the depressive peoples.
The primary weakness of this research was the lack of defined clinical procedure to be used on the RCT’s who were given music therapies. The random control trials participants were not considered on the diversity of their age and gender. Thus, it is appropriate to say that the main weakness is the research methodology which further questions the results. Using the RCTs for the music therapy groups gives rather unique and rare results which are questionable from certain points such as it lacks the connection between the clinical methods for the control group and music therapy group. Also, the use of quantitative research methods does not ascertain the clinical methods conventionally used for the depression based research.
Was music therapy effective in treating the depression of the patients? (Hint: present and interpret the results for depression outcome- see Table 2 for the summary of the results- you need to consider the results for intervention and control groups, whether the difference between these groups is statistically significant, and if the estimation of the results for the wider population is precise (100 words±10%, 5 marks)
Table 2 is documenting the changes in primary and secondary outcomes within the music group and the control group for the baseline period of 3 to 6 months. The results of Table 2 clearly show that music therapy was successful in treating depressed patients. Table 2 signify that results outcomes for the music group were far greater and significant as compared to the control arm in the indicators of MADRS, HADS-A, and GAF scores.Also, the graphical analysis from Table 2 showsan odd ratio (OR) = 2.96 highlighting the greater results in the music group when 3-month period is analysed for all the psychiatric levels.
Would you recommend music therapy for patients with depression? (Justify your answer taking into consideration the benefits, harms, and the cost of the intervention) (100 words,±10% 3.5 marks)
Depression is one of the most common disorder creating wide-reaching impacts related to social disorder, degraded quality of life and increased mortality. The recommendation of the music therapy is beneficial to the peoples having the depressing disorder as the therapy involves the music which helps calm the emotional mood and expression as well as for the purpose of therapy personal communications needs to be established. The positive impacts of music therapy include reducing depressivesymptoms and controlling anxiety. The music therapy is also a skill-based activity which is available in cost-effective charges.
Mathieson, A., Grande, G., & Luker, K. (2018). Strategies, facilitators and barriers to implementation of evidence-based practice in community nursing: a systematic mixed-studies review and qualitative synthesis. Primary health care research & development, 6(2), 34-67, doi.org/10.1017/S1463423618000488.
Mazurek Melnyk, B. (2016). The Doctor of Nursing Practice Degree= Evidence‐Based Practice Expert. Worldviews on Evidence‐Based Nursing, 13(3), 183-184, doi/abs/10.1111/wvn.12164.
Siminoff, L. (2013). December. Incorporating patient and family preferences into evidence-based medicine. . In BMC medical informatics and decision making, 53(13), 56.
van der Weijden, T., Légaré, F., Boivin, A., Burgers, J., van Veenendaal, H., Stiggelbout, A., . . . Elwyn, G. (2010). How to integrate individual patient values and preferences in clinical practice guidelines? A research protocol. Implementation Science, 5(1), 10, doi: 10.1186/1748-5908-5-10.
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The water is harmful to the people if the presence of chlorine is above the 5 mg/ litter because it causes health diseases like kidney failure (Coakley, Bridgen, Bates, & Douwes, 2018). The water chlorination damages the functions of the water heaters. This research incorporatesan investigation to identify the mitigation measures to reduce the chlorine composition. Hence, this research selects a case of Christchurch where they aregetting water supply with the presence of a high percentage of chlorine. Water testing team of theChristchurch government has tested their supplied water, where they found a percentage of chlorine of 0.2 to 1.2 parts per million (CCC, 2020). The high presence ofchlorines damages the water heater pipes that cause the sudden breakdown of those machines. The government of Christchurch has decided that the rainfall is lower in December and January that reduces the underground water level. The absence of rainfall increases the margin of chlorine within the groundwater (CCC, 2020). As per standards of New Zealand drinking water, the H level of the water should be seven and presence of Escherichia coli2 should be less than one in 100 ML samples (Health, 2020). The high pH level addressed as the presence of alkaline composition likechlorine in the water that is harmful for human consumption.
The high presence of chlorine is addressed as the Alkalosis(Rosenblum, Zaffiro, Adams, & Wendelken, 2017). The alkalosis characteristics of water signify the availability of highly chlorine composition, which is principiated presence of heated copper that destroys its function(CCC, 2020). The people of Christchurch using the cooper water heater where the water is wormed presence of copper immersion rod made with the cooper. When the copper materials are heated up in the presence of the chlorine than chlorination chemical reaction happens that precipitates the chlorine from the water (Newsline, 2020). The precipitated chlorine is stored in the water pipes, which damages the functionality of the cooper water heater. This research focuses on the mitigation measures on the poor Christchurch water quality. Christchurch has actively participated in making closely monitor the stream level of banks of the peninsula to the betterment of the quality of water by stabilisingthe pH level (Newsline, 2020). The installation of purifying machinery in the water supply station might be a potential solution to purify the water, eliminating chlorine and deliver pure water to the people Christchurch.
2. Research problem and Problem Statement
The problem statement is the poor quality of water in Christchurch due to the presence of highlychlorine composition that damage the function of the copper water heater.
Copper is the most efficient elements to heat up the water. The people of Christchurch uses this water heater at a margin of 79.8% to heat up water to purify impurechemicals from the water, and they influenced to use that purified water safely (Health, 2020). The research problem is that the presence of the chlorine composition in the groundwater of Christchurch. The presence of alkaline composition in water that dismantles the functionality of copper water heater by precipitin chlorine. The copper water heater is used for purifying the alkaline chemicals and use the water safely. But the alkaline materials like chlorine is found 61 stations of Christchurch which supplies the people of Christchurch.
The working principle of the copper water cylinder is heated by using the copper immersion rod. The presence of heat like 60 to 70 dree temperature destroys the immunity of impure biological materials which reduces the impurity from the water. The Christchurch city council distributed the water supply in 68 service station, where 53 number of stations areusing the well to supply the water (Newsline, 2020). The usage of well increases the margin of chlorine. The microbiologicalcomposition getsa chance to make a chemical reaction in the water of stored contained that improves the composition of water. that damages the copper water heaters. The copper electrodes are used within the water heater to purify the water. Chlorines are precipitated in the presence of the heated copper electrode due to this reason, approximately 45 number of cylinders have been changed by the Christchurch city council authority (Health, 2020).
The Christchurch city council claimed that the exchange of the copper water heater consumes high financial assets. Therefore, the CCC avoids this solution of replacing the copper cylinders to resolve the poor-quality issues (Newsline, 2020).
As per the standards New Zealand drinking water, it is identified that the small water supply follows 4-9 contain the microbial, chemical and radiological compliance within the drinking water to provide pure water to their people of Christchurch. This characteristicis not present within the drinking water that signifies the violation of the standards of the New Zealand drinking water (Newsline, 2020). The New Zealand government is unable to provide pure drinking water to the citizen, which consists ofa potential risk of health issues like kidney failure. The mitigation strategies are the concern of this research which help Christchurch city council to improve the quality of water and supply to their customers (Stuff, 2020). The revision of the regulatory policy of drinking water is essential that facilitates them to maintain permanent chlorination. Chlorination is the process of reducingthe percentage of chlorine from the water.
3. Research Aim
The aim of this research is to identify the mitigation measures for poor Christchurch water quality.
4. Literature Review
International and National Standards of Water
As per the international standards of drinking water is that the people must get the soft water for drinking. The pH level lies of drinking water must be lies between the 6.5 to 8 that addressed asa smaller presence of alkaline composition like chlorine in the water. This pH level slandered signifies as the soft water that is essential for the drinking water (WHO, 2020). As per the drinking water standard of World Health Organisation (WHO), it is identified that the percentage of chlorine must present at an amount of 0.08mg at 1 to 2-degree temperature water at the presence of the pH level of 7 to 8.5 (WHO, 2020). The presence of the micro chloramine must present in the drinking water at a margin of the 94 mg/ litter water presence in 1 to the 2-degree temperature of the water. Moreover, the percentage of monochloramine is present within the drinking water at the amount of 278 mg/litter at the presence of a pH level 6 to 9 (WHO, 2020).
As per the standards of the WHO it is identified that the Ozon and UV irradiation treatment process is significant to reduce the presence of an excessive margin of alkaline and acidic materials from the drinking water. This chemical and biological characterises must present within the drinking water as per the drinking water standers of WHO. The presence of these characteristics is signifying as the drinkable water for the people. The presence of low alkaline materials like 0.08mg chlorine and 94mg monochloramine along with the pH level of 6 to 8.5 signifies the pure and drinkable water as per the drinking water guidelines issued by WHO.
According to On, et al. (2019), the microbial determinants including Escherichia coli, pathogenic protozoa arecharacterised that water as adrinking water. Based on section 2.2 of standards of drinking water of New Zealand,it is identified that the presence of Escherichia coli at a range of less than 100 mL of sample (Health, 2020). The presence of a low amount of microorganism is signified aspure water as per the drinking standards of the ministry of health of New Zealand. The total pathogenic protozoa must be present in the water at arange of 00 cysts per 100 L of sample3 that signifies as the pure drinking water (CCC, 2020). As per the health ministry standards of NZ, it is identified that the chlorine level must be present below the range of 5 mg/ litre. Moreover, the presence of chromium and chromium is between the 0.8 and 0.05 mg/ litter that signifies as a drinking water.
Issues associated with drinking water
Water pollution is significant in the groundwater level that hampers the percentage of the Escherichia coli, pathogenic protozoa from the drinking water. As stated by Coakley et al. (2018), the excessive margin of chlorine-like above 5 mg/litter signifies as the polluted water, which could be drinkable by the human being. People of Christchurch getting the poor quality of water which hasa high presence of chlorine at a margin of 9.2 to 10 and a pH level of 8.2 (Stuff, 2020). The presence of a high margin of chlorine destroys the functions of the copper water heater functionality. The copper is used in the water heater because its thermal conductivity is 399 W/(m*k). Copper is widely used for heating and purifying the water from the harmful germs present within the water.
According to Zia et al. (2020),the presence of chlorine is a high percentage precepted in the presence of heated copper. The precepted copper creates a layer on the heater cylinder that destroy its functions. As an example, 75% of people Christchurch is facing this issue with their copper water heater where it destroys the functions due to high precipitation of chlorine (Newsline, 2020). For example, 68 water supply stations are present in Christchurch, where 53 number of water supply stations store and supplied water from the well (Newsline, 2020). Hence, the consumption of water enhances the percentage of chlorine due to the reaction between the microbiological organism. Therefore, the people of Christchurchis getting water with high chlorine that destroyers the function of their water heater.
Mitigation measures on poor water quality
The water supply department of the city council must follow the guidelines of international standers for the drinking water. This guideline is important to maintain the purity of the drinking water by reducing the presence of the chlorine (Newsline, 2020). Christchurch city counciltaking initiatives to change the regulatory policy for drinking water as per the international standards of drinking water proposed by the WHO. Moreover, Christchurch city council is seeking to the exception for the Lyttleton harbour basic water supply to maintain permanentchlorination and provide the pure drinking water (Newsline, 2020). According to Batley & Simpson (2020), the Christchurch eliminate the temporary chlorine dosing solution and implement a purifying system to reduce the costing for repairing copper heater cylinder and provide chlorine-free water. Therefore, the puffing system implementation is the potential solution to reduce the chlorineof 5 Mg as per the international standards and reduce the chances of destroying the function of copper water heater function.
5. Research Significance and Limitation
This research is significant because it incorporates investigation on a social issue of Christchurchwhere people are getting impure water presence of chlorine composition. Due to this reason, the functions of their copper water heater isdestroyeddue to precipitation of chlorine from the water that consumes huge cost to repair or replacement. This research is significant because it investigates the reason behind the presence of a high margin of chlorine withinthe drinking water. This research is alsoinvestigatingthe reasons behind the presence of chlorine in drinking water that destroys the functionality of the copper water heater by precipitating chlorine in the cylinder of the heater. The research is significant to make research on the international and New Zealandstandards of drinking water. This investigation is beneficial for identifying the mitigations measures to implement permanent chlorination to betterment the purity of the water by reducing chlorine composition.
This research willbe investing the water issues on a particular location like Christchurch instead of considering the overall of New Zealand. This research will not consider the primary source of data so that this research will not project the practical experience of the citizen of Christchurch. This research will consider the secondary source of information so that only theoretical and conceptual measures will be highlighted. It reduces the authenticity of the information related to mitigations measures for Christchurch water qualitybecause it collected from the secondary sources.
6. Project Design
The research methodology is a process of collection of data from the data sources to meet the objectives of this study(Humphries, 2017).
Research design is a set of method to analyse the variables are associated with the research problem to find out the answer tothe research question(Cuervo‐Cazurra & Mudambi, 2017). Research design is segmented as a type of exploratory, explanatory and descriptive. This study will be following the exploratory research design to create a link between the two variables named mitigation strategy and poor water quality of Christchurch. During this investigation, the reason behind the poor water quality is identified by reviewing the research paper related to mitigation measures of poor quality of water. The identification of the reason behind the poor water quality will also influence to make research on the variable like mitigation strategy.
Research philosophy identifies a way to accomplish the research to meet the objective(Ledford & Gast, 2018). the positivism philosophy will be suitable for the poor water quality is social issues which require mathematical information like pH level to define it. Hence, positivism philosophy will instruct to the researcher to draw the inference on mathematic information and identify the reason behind the delivery of poor quality of water. It also instructed to collect information related to mitigation measures to implement permanent chlorination that purifies the drinking water supplied to people of Christchurch.
The research approach is a set of instruction that help to identify the inference of variables associated with the research topic(Quinlan & Babin, 2019). The research approach iscategorised in mainly two types, including inductive and deductive approach. The inductive approach will be adopted by this research to investigate the mitigation strategies of the poor water quality of Christchurch. The inductive approach will provide a scope to generate inference based on the investigation of the reason for the poor quality of water in Christchurch. This mitigation strategy will help to identify the reason behind destroying the functionality ofcopper water heater. The inductive approach helps to identify the inference based on the mitigation techniques like revising the water policy, repairing the copper water cylinder to resolve the issue.
The research strategy is a technique to investigate the research problem associated with the topic(Saunders & Bezzina, 2015). Ethnographic, case study, narrative, and grounded theory are the type of strategies are commonly used within the research. Case study methods will be followed in this study because it helps to develop the collect examples of different mitigation measures by reviewing the website of the Christchurch city council. This investigation will help to develop the meet the research objective by delivering appropriate measures to improve the quality of drinking water. The case study approach will help to collect secondary information related to international and domestic water standards. The knowledge gathering regarding water standards will influence to identify the proper solution to establish permanent chlorination.
Data collection is a process of gathering relevant and authentic information from the data sources(Taylor & Bogdan, 2015). The primary and secondary method is followed by research studies to collect information to meet the objective of the research study. The secondary data collection process will be followed in this study to collect facts, figures and regulations of water pollution rate in New Zealand. Moreover, the secondary data will be collected from the relevant, recent and authentic journal and news article. The collection of secondary information associated in relation to the mitigation measures to provide permanent solution about the colonisation.
Data analysis is a process of analysis of the collected statistical and theoretical information to provide an answer to research questions(Flick, 2015). The thematic analysis process will be followed by this research that enables them to prepare code, the theme from the collected secondary information. The analysis of theme helps to identify the measures that help to provide a better quality of water to their people of Christchurch by implementing a permeant solution of the chlorination.
The ethical consideration is associated with the collection of secondary information from the authentic journal and news articles. This ethical consideration will support to collect authentic information regarding international and New Zealand standards of water and suggest mitigation measures for permanent chlorination. The ethical standardswill include the rules of selection of journal articles above 2015 to implicate authentic information regarding thereason behind the poor water quality of Christchurch. Moreover, the collected information will be used for academic purpose only.
This research concludes that the chlorine composition is increased in water due to reaction with the microbiological determinants. The drinking water supply with chlorine composition destroys the functionality of copper water heater by precipitated the chlorine in the presence of heated copper immersion rod. The people of Christchurch getting water highly presence of chlorine composition. Whiling heating water the chlorine composition is precipitated in the presence of heated copper rod. The installation of the purification system for establishing permanent chlorination is essential to mitigate the impurity related to chlorine composition and deliver purified water to the people of Christchurch.
Batley, G., & Simpson, S. (2020). Short‐term guideline for chlorine in marine waters. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 1(1), 1, DOI: 10.1002/etc.4661.
Coakley, J., Bridgen, P., Bates, M., & Douwes, J. (2018). Chlorinated persistent organic pollutants in the serum of New Zealand adults, 2011–2013. Science of the total environment, 615(1), 624-631, DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.331.
Cuervo‐Cazurra, A., & Mudambi, R. (2017). Research methodology in global strategy research. Global Strategy Journal, 15(6), 233-240, DOI: 10.1002/gsj.1164.
Flick, U. (2015). Introducing research methodology: A beginner’s guide to doing a research project. London: Sage, ISBN: 0792349156.
On, S., Althaus, D., Miller, W., Lizamore, D., & Wong, S. (2019). Arcobacter cryaeropHilus isolated from New Zealand mussels harbour a putative virulence plasmid. Frontiers in microbiology, 10(1), 1802, DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.01802.
Quinlan, C., & Babin, B. (2019). Business research methods (3 ed.). London: South-Western Cengage, ISBN: 9781473760356.
Rosenblum, L., Zaffiro, A., Adams, W., & Wendelken, S. (2017). Effect of chlorination by-products on the quantitation of microcystins in finished drinking water. Toxicon, 138(1), 138-144, DOI: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2017.08.023.
Saunders, M., & Bezzina, F. (2015). Reflections on conceptions of research methodology among management academics. European management journal, 15(7), 297-304, DOI: 10.1016/j.emj.2015.06.002.
Zia, Z., Hartland, A., & Mucalo, M. (2020). Wastewater treatment in New Zealand: zeolites as a potential low-cost solution for heavy metal removal. In The International Symposium on Macrocyclic and Supramolecular Chemistry, 1(1), 26, DOI:10.1016/j.desal.2007.02.022.
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Strategic management refers to understanding the strategic position of an organization. The process of strategic management involves the methods to explore corporate strategies of organizations. Strategic management helps the organizations to examine the activities of top executives (Ketchen & Short, 2012). The concept of strategic management used in the organizations these days has borrowed various ideas from the strategic management of ancient times. In the classical military, all the major decisions were considered as strategic while the minor decisions were considered as tactical. In 1491 BC, a hierarchical delegation of authorities by Moses is the best example of ancient strategic management. Moses implemented their strategies by dividing all people into small structures for better implementation of strategies (Kreutzer & Rueede, 2019). Sun Tzu in his book “The Art of War” described the business such as Gap inc. used the “win without fighting strategy”. With the use of this strategy, their main motive was to open their stores and to create their own space in the market as compared to other traditional brands in the market.
Traditional strategic management is based on three strategic approaches: design, planning and positioning approach. Although these approaches of strategic management are simple, yet these cannot be applied to every type of business. Managers need to understand the strategic aspects of these approaches to apply it to their business. The design approach in traditional strategic management is based on a top-bottom strategy (Mendes & Machado, 2015). All the major decisions under this approach are taken by higher authorities. Under the planning approach, all the strategic decisions are taken by a specialized team. This approach makes problem-solving and decision-making process easy for the organizations. Positioning approach is based on the strategy implementation by considering the overall position of the firm in the market. Various companies such as Walmart, IKEA and Southwest airlines have replaced their traditional approach with the modern approach of strategic management (Schnellbächer, Heidenreich, & Wald, 2019).
In modern times, strategic management in the organizations is based on the strategy implementation based on five Ps. These five Ps includes plan, ploy, position, pattern and perspective. The modern definition of strategic management includes the art of taking decisions regarding multiple activities in the organizations through scanning of the environment, formulation of the strategy, implementation of strategy, proper evaluation and control. The organizations focus on simplifying the dynamic and complex processes through strategic management. For example, BHEL uses strategic management techniques to reduce the complexity of long term plans (Jurksiene & Pundziene, 2016).
The process of consolidation of classes will impact both internal and external stakeholders of the school. Stakeholders of the school are directly associated with the welfare and success of the school. Every stakeholder, through its crucial role, impacts the development of the overall educational empire (Breen & Jonsson, 2010). The main stakeholders of school are students, parents, educators, professionals and members of the administration. All these stakeholders play a significant role in the success of a school. If the school administration has planned to consolidate the classes, then there will be a high impact on all of the internal stakeholders. But the form of impact will depend upon the type of stakeholders (Campbell, Sinclair, & Browne, 2019). These stakeholders can be categorized into two categories: internal and external stakeholders.
Students and their parents are considered as the external stakeholders of a school because they are consuming the services offered by the school.
Educators, professions and members of the administration are known as internal stakeholders.
The plan of consolidation of classes by the school will impact both the stakeholders. Thus internal and external stakeholders both committees will be a part of the strategic management process of this school. It will cut the cost of the school that is paid in the form of wages to the teachers because some of the teachers will be shunted and on the other hand, it will impact the internal stakeholders (students) because it will lead to a large number of students in the classes which will further affect their study. The students will not be able to have one to one interaction with their teachers (Buchmann & Hannum, 2011). There will be less clarity of concept in the class and they will have to look for another option to make their concepts clear.
For this strategic management process of the consolidation of classrooms in the school, students, parents, educators, and members of the administration will act as partners. The major cost of this project will be bear by the external stakeholders. Consolidation of classrooms will impact the wages of teachers but it will not impact the cost bear by external stakeholders (Gorondutse & Hilman, 2019). They will pay the same amount as they were previously paying for the education of their children. This process will further impact the services offered to them.
School administrators, who are responsible for planning the overall curriculum, work as per the direction of teachers and professionals. The idea of consolidation of classrooms will hardly impact their performance. But external stakeholders can be the main victim of this consolidation of classes (Jabbour, 2019). The school needs to adopt strategic management approach before adopting this idea of consolidation so that the interests of both internal and external stakeholders can be kept. The school administration should inform the students as well as their parents before taking this action. Another victim of this act will be the teachers because the school would cut the wages of the teachers to cut the overall costs. On the other hand, it will be an opportunity for the school to merge the classes and to save from wages.
The school management has come to this decision after environment scanning and strategy formulation process. They have observed the existing number of students in the classroom. Thus, while deciding the consolidation of classes, they should target only those classes which have less number of students. Consolidation of such classes will not impact the external stakeholders. They will not have any issue with this decision of the school. On the other hand, the school administration should also inform the teachers regarding this consolidation of classrooms. In spite of cutting wages of the existing teachers, they should shunt some extra teachers and should pay the same wage to the existing teachers.
Campbell, N., Sinclair, G., & Browne, S. (2019). Preparing for a world without markets: legitimising strategies of preppers. Journal of Marketing Management, 35 (9), 798-813. https://doi.org/10.1108/EBR-09-2015-0088
Gorondutse, A., & Hilman, H. (2019). Does organizational culture matter in the relationship between trust and SMEs performance? Management Decision, 57 (7), 1638-1658. https://doi.org/10.1108/MD-05-2018-0557
Jabbour, A. L. (2019). Going in circles: new business models for efficiency and value.
Jurksiene, L., & Pundziene, A. (2016). The relationship between dynamic capabilities and firm competitive advantage. European Business Review, 28 (4), 431-448. https://doi.org/10.1108/EBR-09-2015-0088
Ketchen, D & Short, J. (2012) Strategic Management: Evaluation and Execution.
Kreutzer, K., & Rueede, D. (2019). Organizational identity consistency in a discontinuous corporate volunteering program. European Management Journal, 37 (4), 455-467. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2018.12.003
Mendes, & Machado. (2015). Employees’ skills, manufacturing flexibility and performance: a structural equation modelling applied to the automotive industry. International Journal of Production Research, 53 (13), 4087-4101. https://doi.org 10.3233/WOR-2012-0735-4389
Schnellbächer, B., Heidenreich, S., & Wald, A. (2019). Antecedents and effects of individual ambidexterity – A cross-level investigation of exploration and exploitation activities at the employee level. European Management Journal, 37 (4), 442-454. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2019.02.002
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People with blindness virtually face various challenges in their daily lives. Their visual impairment affects the every task of their daily activities. But the major problem they face is regarding looking their way on the road when they are going alone. Our idea is to design a device for these blind people to guide them for their way on the roads. The device is watch alarm. The active sensors of this watch alarm will identify any object in front of it and will intimate the user. This watch alarm will provide Google assistance to the user and will tell him about the directions where he wants to go. One can assess the watch from their computer with the assistance of the Google Map. In case of any major issue, the user can call his friends or guardians using this watch and they can guide him for his direction. Thus this device would be a blessing in disguise for blind people. Design Thinking Practice
We have interviewed some visually impaired people of Abu Dhabi University to ask them about their daily life problems and have decided to design this watch alarm to provide them with a solution.
The first respondents of age 35 described that he usually face problems regarding getting correct direction on the road.
The second respondents of age 42explained that many a times he met with minor accidents while going on road because of direction issues.
The third respondent of age 40replied that the major problem occurs when we are going alone and sometimes we hit with an object and our phone falls down and we cannot connect with anyone for help.
The fourth respondent of age 26 also said that many a times he got hit with some objects because of direction problems.
The fifth respondent of age 29 described that they cannot take someone with them always. Thus they need a device which can help them for guiding them on their way on the road.
All the respondents said that they are really in need of such kind of device, which can help them in getting correct direction and they are ready to pay any amount for such kind of device.
Journey Map of the interviewed students
The interviews present that all the blind people face difficulties for getting correct direction on the road. The journey map of their problem is as follows
Going alone on the road
Hit with an object
Their phone falls on the ground
They are not able to get correct direction for their way
SAY “It’s difficult to manage alone on the road”. “There is no another option”
THINK Their daily issues have made the embarrassed. They think that they are burden on others because they have to ask for help from others again and again.
DO They are struggling with it
FEEL They feel that their visual impairment has made them embarrassed
Stand By phase A blind person hit with an object on the road
Request Phase The watch alarm request an intimation to user on an object at front
Confirm phase The alarm rings and intimates the user regarding the object in front
Service Phase Google map will provide assistance for direction and will provide calling option for guidance.
End Phase The user can reach the destination without any difficulty and can get any assistance from the guide through call.
How might we?
How might we be able to get direction on the road?
How might we be able to connect to friends or guardians in case of emergency?
The following solutions are provided on the basis of views of students taken from their interviews regarding their problems.
The solution to the first question is that this device “watch alarm” will provide them Google assistance. The sensors of this device will detect any object in front of it and will intimate the user through an alarm. Moreover the watch will provide correct direction to the user with the help of Google Map. The user can feed the destination spot with an audio feature in it. The watch will intimate hi regarding direction to that spot.
In case of emergency, the users will be able to connect to their friends or guardians. There will be an option of call through a button on this device. This device will connect the call to the individual whose number is connected with this device. He will be able to watch the location of this device on his phone and can guide the user for his direction or in any other issue.
Evidence of the brainstorm
Any object in front of him
Any object in front of him
Feed destination spot using an audio option
The watch alarm will intimate him
Watch alarm will provide correct direction for destination
In case of any other issue at destination spot or on the way
Calling option will connect the user with the assistance
The above brainstorm gives the idea of the watch alarm and how it will be helpful for the blind students in their daily activities.
Due to their blindness, it has become difficult for them to move alone at distant places. Thus they require a device which can help them as a guide at distant places. To overcome this problem of visually impairedpeople, we have presented the idea of watch alarm which can guide them throughout their way like a human being.
All the solutions provided to tackle the problems of the blind people are effective but this idea can be more effective if it helps the people to intimate them regarding the names of famous places around them. It is possible because the device is already connected with Google Map. The next time we will add this feature so that this device can be more helpful for them.
What is your age?
What is the major problem you face in your daily life?
How you want this problem to be solved?
If there is a device which helps you to solve this problem, would you like to purchase it?
What is your budget to purchase this device?
Assignment on Design Thinking Practice by Subject Academy.
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The government has a pivotal and growing impact on organizations’ ventures and monetary worth, respondents state. There was the point at which the private part and the open division were seen as two unique substances. They ran corresponding to one another and had different qualities and capacities. The overall subject is that business and governmental issues exist in two separate Venn Diagrams, the cover is negligible. Truth be told, business and government today are more interwoven than any time in recent memory. The connection between the two is no longer analogized as independent Venn Diagrams, yet rather the relations is best compared to the regular crossing point between the two Venn Diagrams (“Models of government policy in the sphere of small and medium business support”, 2018).
The United States alone exemplifies the most impressive national government and the most vigorous private division. Both open and private division highlights the world’s biggest economy, most unrivaled power, bleeding-edge mechanical development, and conspicuous international strategy. Extensive business-government relations in the United States can be described into five distinctive contending pressures.
As per different reports, think tanks which filled in as a mediator among the scholarly community and arrangement producers are progressively compelled to distribute reports dependent on the financing they get from different gatherings and along these lines influences the non-factional open intrigue viewpoint. However, in different zones, organizations are more than anxious to step up, be seen and heard, and practice impact. With regards to innovation, R&D, exchange talks, and so forth, the advantage for organizations’ main concern is immediate and clear, and here Gates’ shock is justifiable because corporate pioneers normally campaign to take part and change how governments think and act.
In any case, close ties among business and government are additionally essential. Solid economies need solid organizations and solid exchange, and that requires great associations with policymakers. At the point when government authorities venture out abroad to support monetary participation, CEOs of a portion of the nation’s greatest organizations ought to come. The inquiry is whether such organizations are so imperative to the nation’s economy and notoriety that the management can’t direct them appropriately. They are given inordinate slack since they, in the same way as other budgetary firms, are too essential to even consider failing (Cervi, 2013).
This mind-boggling move among business and government is ceaseless and continually developing. What’s more, the need to do the two have gotten more evident than any other time in recent memory in a time of moderate monetary development and privatization of management once gave by the open area. An extensively free-market framework with little government-claimed methods for creation;
Government security of the property using vigorous property laws that help development and monetary development;
A feeble arrangement of sorted out work that gives little quality and security to hands-on laborers; and
A solid lobbyist impact that champions specific interests instead of the general intrigue.
In this manner, the management has an enthusiasm for empowering a free market economy because such a financial framework creates a better quality of living for its residents and more noteworthy assessable riches. This assessable riches can later be utilized by the legislature to offer types of assistance to its residents — working members in the free market. These managements address concerns —, for example, value, decency, and by and large social government assistance — that are commonly not intrinsically highlights of a free market economy (Bauer & Smirnov, 2018).
Impacts Of Business-Government Relations
The unmistakable element of Business-Government relations in North America has been the basic approach that the management should not be being good to go. America’s contending ideological contrasts with the previous socialist Soviet Union, encapsulated the nation as mercilessly free-market undertaking. This implied a private area that was a long way from the control of a Governmentarranged economy, that could charge the costs for its merchandise, sell abroad, promote, keep a lot of benefits, and pay the legislature an expense as duties.
At the point when the private part acquires a benefit in the United States, organizations tend to reinvest the profit once again into the organization or give the investor profits or even add to the person’s 401K annuity plan. Governments anyway can complete two things legitimately that the private segment can’t do. That is print cash through the Federal Reserve (Central Bank) and duty people and partnerships. Aside from tax collection, business and government associate with one another through a couple of explicit methods. Strategy creators set the venture law structure, work visa amounts, guidelines in specific parts, work benchmarks, financial and exchange arrangements (“International businesses and industry groups recognize the impact of climate change”, 2014).
Few of the impacts the Businesses in relationship with Government are explained as under,
1. Productivity and Equity
Most financial analysts and the private area center around the idea of “monetary proficiency” — that is the idea of augmenting by and large resources accessible to society to create the most returns.
While the government would need more comes back from utilizing the least resources, it is the open division’s privilege to not disregard the significance of value. That is the circulation of resources inside the general public.
2. Financial Growth versus Quality of Life
The private segment simply needs to see its main concern and its arrival to investors. Governments then again, need to create a strategy that adjusts such contending pressures between our craving for financial development without settling on children’s needs.
3. Long haul and Short Term
Business needs to take a gander at both long haul and transient objectives. Be that as it may, government spending plans must be estimated as long as possible. Even though legislatures have a momentary residency.
4. General Interest versus Particular Interest
Private division organizations could be general intrigue or specific intrigue centered. In any case, government bodies taking into account a wide masses need to pay special mind to the large number.
5. Security and Stability versus Dynamism and Innovation
Private area organizations, for the most part, wind up in a mess between secure stable funds or dive in by putting resources into another development. America’s private segment has been described by development through Silicon Valley and has seen different hazards taking cravings from Wall Street. Governments anyway must be undeniably increasingly thrifty and miserly with their accounts (Knill, 2016).
6. Incline mindfulness crusades to set up open awareness.
Government administrative bodies are famously moderate, however, customers rush to get on to very much played mindfulness crusades. A decent advertising exertion frequently makes ready for open help that helps drive administrative change.
7. Adopt a synergistic strategy with regards to the guideline.
Businesses and governments shouldn’t be at chances with each other. Now and then a cooperative methodology enables the two gatherings to accomplish their objectives.
Business-Government Relations And Growth Of Organizations
Campaigning is a key part of business-government relations in the United States with a few private segment firms going about as conductors between explicit intrigue gatherings and government. The positive angle is that the private part can utilize such campaigning firms as vehicles to the approach creators. On the off chance that the particular vested parties speak to bigger open intrigue issues, for example, wellbeing and natural concerns, at that point it fills in as an additional advantage for bigger people.
Nonetheless, cash purchases campaigning and as a general rule, it’s the huge tobacco and the weapon hall that use the impact in the passages of Washington D.C. One of the larger negative perspectives is the means by which policymakers can undoubtedly be influenced by campaigning firms, in this manner impacting their situation on key issues, which will thusly influence how they pass bills (Gopalan, 2014).
Two elements of this relationship produce a powerless work framework. To begin with, request and rivalry drive business conduct, for example, advancement, and this conduct does as such with benefits — not laborers’ rights — at the top of the priority list. Second, the US government has been moderate/hesitant to straightforwardly intercede and support the privileges of laborers. The tale of how governments influence comprehensive business development is definitely not a basic one. Groaning about government guidelines and formality essentially doesn’t do equity to a mind-boggling field. Progressively we see a large group of positive and negative impacts of government and strategy, some more unequivocal than others. What strikes me is that the positive impacts of government are getting progressively obvious in the IB scene, and the most noteworthy impacts of government are likely the least apparent ones (Cervi, 2013).
Government obtainment of products and ventures: governments acquire tremendous measures of merchandise and enterprises in wellbeing, instruction, and open management. I’ve never comprehended why this ought to be mistaken for negative meanings around continuous ‘appropriation’. In the event that a comprehensive business can make sure about government as a long haul client, or win an agreement for the arrangement of management paid for by the government, fantastic. Three unique models from India delineate the point:
ZHL runs a rescue vehicle management which empowers low-salary individuals to get to crisis treatment. Some portion of the business is run as an open private organization with government, won through a delicate by ZHL and paid for by the government. This was the main such delicate, and the exhibit impact of ZHL’s business helped put forth the defense for such a methodology.
These perspectives are not totally unrelated. For instance, the equivalent sun-powered business can utilize a portion of its communication with government to attempt to augment the advantages, for example, great duty credits, it gets from government and simultaneously works in association with the government to accomplish a social reason, for example, diminishing carbon outflows, and afterward attempt to limit its expense commitments (Tser-Yieth Chen, 2012).
Organizations, for example, the organizations introduced for the situation study sections right now—as Stonyfield Yogurt, Oakhurst Dairy, and Green Mountain Coffee—will in general spotlight on their duty to nature and cultural effect and furthermore will, in general, perceive that management strategies and projects are regularly important to assist them with accomplishing their destinations and subsequently are slanted (Thomas, 2013).
They can likewise be “dynamic”, where the Government may legitimately intercede for specific firms, businesses, and segments. Instances of “latent” state-business relations are the setting up of an opposition authority by the legislature to ensure that enemy of serious practices by any firm is debilitated, or the presentation of a speculation atmosphere change measure, for example, decreasing the days that it takes a firm to get a permit to begin tasks. Instances of “dynamic” state-business relations are the point at which the Government gives endowments to explicit firms as a byproduct of their achievement in sending out business sectors or in making work in monetarily in reverse districts (Sankgond & Narayanappa, 2020).
Be that as it may, passing laws and setting strategies—the activities administrators Government regularly influence their organizations’ monetary worth—have a generally negative impact. Respondents whose essential markets are in creating economies are more positive than others, be that as it may, about the impact of government activities, for example, the section of laws and requirement of rules.
However organizations aren’t doing as a lot to counter those issues as possible; for instance, just third Governmenttheir organizations are “amazingly” or “extremely compelling” at building solid associations with key government partners. Actually, in spite of the assortment of practices that can help an organization effectively deal with its relationship with the government, a greater part of organizations aren’t successful at even one of them.
Government’s developing job
Squander Ventures accumulates and reuses squander, making occupations for underestimated individuals and cleaner urban communities. Its present fast extension is halfway gratitude to new agreements from a few districts (Gopalan, 2014).
DataWind’s drive to give minimal effort information tablets in India has been supported by the management’s appropriation of versatile tablets with an end goal to improve the nature of and access to instruction. Starting a year ago, the management made up around 20% of DataWind’s deals and has been a significant impetus in building the shopper advertise. For supply to understudies, the management defers obligations and expenses, yet in addition, sponsors the expense by half for the Aakash 1 version. Positive guidelines that increase expectations can be basic for the development of a comprehensive business. Sproxil gives an SMS check management to assist clients with evading fake medications. In Nigeria, it got a lift when government guideline required such check for all anti-infection agents. Sproxil was the primary organization to be an endorsed supplier (there are currently four others additionally) and was persuasive in making the case for administrative change.
Another new sort of positive guideline is developing, which explicitly makes impetuses for comprehensive business. Accreditation for comprehensive business in the Philippines, and the UK Government’s improvement of expense motivating forces for sway speculation, are models. They make a large group of difficulties in characterizing what precisely is ‘in’ or ‘out’ however assist the center with financing and consideration around the comprehensive business.
Administrative limitations obviously are a lot of models where administrative situations are a hindrance to new business, especially for new companies based at the BoP. Mpesa has not taken off as quickly in different nations as in Kenya. Some portion of the explanation, especially in India, is the less inviting administrative condition. On the other hand, Abellon Clean Energy has an effective bio-pellet business in India yet an alternate and troublesome administrative setting has blocked its venture into Ghana. Additionally in Ghana, Ajinomoto is creating wholesome items for kids. It has likewise needed to put resources into neighborhood mastery to explore the complexities of nearby wellbeing guidelines in Ghana (“International businesses and industry groups recognize the impact of climate change”, 2014).
Import obligations and postpones hit little organizations hard and are frequently regretted in the comprehensive business space. As AfriNut, a Malawian nut processor got moving, the main season’s creation was very unique to design since hardware stalled out at the port. In Kenya, Envirofit is moving to the nearby production and get together of stoves. One purpose behind this is import expenses and obligations can viably twofold costs. For business people and innovators, the magnificence of an imaginative new item or management appears glaringly evident – particularly when buyers grasp it excitedly.
Be that as it may, the truth of putting up an energizing item or management for sale to the public in a directed industry implies exploring a hindrance course of rules. With numerous new or problematic advancements, guideline slacks development. Governments are inalienably bureaucratic and ease back to set up rules for items and managements that break existing molds. Selection and instruction can require some serious energy, be that as it may, and industry pioneers should assist controllers with contemplating and summary the new innovation or framework by giving abundant access to it. Meanwhile, guidelines ought to stay sensible, and improvement should proceed apace while rule-creators survey. Like other driving e-cigarette organizations, my organization, which showcases the V2 brand, has imparted adequate contribution to the FDA, utilizing information that focuses on openly accessible examinations and reports to exhibit the noteworthy estimation of our items, especially for grown-ups (Knill, 2016).
Since the very beginning, it’s been business people that drive the production of development. Genuine leaps forward have been the aftereffect of an individual or little group who had a thought and the assurance to oversee it to realization. By and large, disregarding the counsel of companions and the absence of what many would call standard statistical surveying/approval. The drive to develop is perfectly healthy inside the core of the business person. It’s amazing to discover that the littler the business, the more licenses per representative are recorded. This remains constant regardless of the size of the business. An organization with 25 workers create a bigger number of licenses per representative than an organization with 50, which delivers a greater number of licenses than an organization with 100. Indeed, even in enormous organizations, the pattern remains constant, with enterprises of 10,000 workers petitioning for additional licenses per representative than an organization with 50,000 individuals. While the facts demonstrate that bigger partnerships frequently become managements with layers of the executives being included as the association develops, when a straight correlation of just people engaged with innovative work (advancement) is made, the pattern despite everything holds. Private companies concoct at a rate quicker than enormous organizations (Thomas, 2013).
With regards to achievement development, it’s not about the number of licenses or the number of licenses per representative yet about the quality and effect of the licenses. Right now, business leads again as an unbalanced number of licenses for developing advances are given to little firms To be explicit, the Small Business management reports that, while little firms are conceded just eight percent everything being equal, they get 24 percent of all licenses gave in the main 100 rising advances. The licenses gave to private venture are expansive nonexclusive licenses, however, are engaged toward explicit advancements that have the most noteworthy contact with the best yield (“Models of government policy in the sphere of small and medium business support”, 2018).
Its these business visionaries and their fantasies that make a monetary open door for urban areas, districts and nations. Incorporate influence with development programs. Set up motivating forces (decreased formality, exceptional foundation venture, contracting and preparing impetuses, and so on) to put resources into regular territories along these lines making a biological system of members (college, financial specialists, business people (Sankgond & Narayanappa, 2020).
Sankgond, M., & Narayanappa, D. (2020). THE STUDY OF RELATIONSHIP OF STUDY HABITS & ATTITUDE, INTELLIGENCE, COGNITIVE STYLE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS OF GOVT & PVT. EPRA International Journal Of Economic And Business Review, 85-90. https://doi.org/10.36713/epra3050
Tser-Yieth Chen. (2012). Financial performance of township governments and its four budget cycles. AFRICAN JOURNAL OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT, 6(2). https://doi.org/10.5897/ajbm11.1697
Assignment on Impacts of Business Government Relation on Growth and Success of the Organization by Subject Academy
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