Assessment 3 brief: Individual reflection (Word count 2000)
Critically reflect on the application of key concepts and theories of MGT602 in the analysis of a decision from your current or previous workplace. In doing so, you MUST consider a meaningful work challenge that you observed another person or persons make. If you do not have previous workplace management experience, then you must analyse the group
decision-making processes undertaken by your team in Assessment task 2.
Research Analysis Report
This assignment report is based on the outcomes of possible group and decision-making activities that can be performed or successfully organizing Olympics in Japan. Amidst covid-19, the stakeholders recognized that Olympics can cause a major threat to the safety of the nation and there are chances of spread of the deadly virus. This assignment study showed the use of distinct decision-making techniques and tools, including Brainstorming, Didactic Interaction, Normative group Technique, Rational-decision making approach that stakeholders can use for launching the event and up keeping the safety of visitors as well as athletes and inhabitants. The collection of data information was critical for the implementation of these decision-making tools, as was the analysis of the data obtained. Final data analysis aided in the development of sound proposals for stakeholders to initiate the games and improve information flow and communication.
In today’s culture, many firms face numerous challenges that restrict their performance and output. As a result, companies are taking steps to address the challenges. In any industry or community, major decisions are usually taken in groups (Hwang and Lin, 2012). Finding consensus as a group is not always straightforward, as it entails managing expectations, exchanging stories, finding agreement, and minimizing confrontations (Kaner, 2014). Brainstorming, Didactic Interaction, Normative group Technique, Rational-decision making approaches can be used to quickly solve problems or prepare counterattack strategies for future problems. The analytics procedure employs a variety of decision-making tools. In such a scenario, associated stakeholders are expected to undertake several decisions to improve the workflow and make better judgments for sustainable outcomes.
Aim: The goal of this study is to analyze the individual and collective decision-making processes that resulted from the decision to consider the challenges facing the Japanese government and the International Olympic Commission to run the revised 2021 Olympic Games in Tokyo in August 2021.
Structure: The first part of the report will provide a brief on the Olympics Games, followed by an examination of key considerations to be kept in mind amidst COVID and the numerous challenges. Next, an evaluation of numerous decision-making procedures that can be used to solve complex challenges is explained. This is followed by a discussion on the emerging decision-making tools and technologies.
2. Analysis and evaluation
Case Overview: The Tokyo Paralympics of 2021 and COVID-19 have a direct influence on the state populace, sportsmen and their team, and worldwide organizations. As a result, a committee was established to combine resources, train and knowledge in order to provide guidance to the IOC and JOC. When it comes to avoid the spread of the virus, the golden rule is to limit people’s interaction with one another. Nonetheless, the two-week event, which began on July 23 in Tokyo, is aimed at bringing the world together just to interact, welcome, and fight in an often not-so-distant way. The Olympics and COVID-19 are really not meant to be compatible. Between July and August, an estimated 70,000 athletes, trainers, staff, officials, and media will gather in Tokyo for the Olympic and Paralympic Games, at a time when the city’s viral outbreaks are escalating. On July 8, the government declared Tokyo to be in the midst of a fourth COVID-19 national emergency, which will remain until the Games conclude. To ensure the event is conducted safely and securely, the government has implemented several measures to ensure the safety of athletes and other visitors to Japan, including requiring athletes to cover their faces, promoting social distancing norms, screening upon arrival and at regular intervals, and mandate vaccination reports (TheDiplomat, 2020).
Challenges faced while implementing different decisions by the stakeholders: The International Olympic Committee’s project planning for the Olympic Games is not supported up by scientific data. The rule volumes say that competitors fight out for their own risk, failing to differentiate between the various degrees of danger encountered by athletes and to compensate for the limits imposed by temperature screens and face coverings. Similarly, the IOC has disregarded prior major sporting events’ lessons learnt. Numerous major sports leagues based in the United States of America, including the National Football League (NFL), the National Basketball Association (NBA), and the Women’s National Basketball Association (WNBA), enjoyed successful years, but their protocols were restrictive and reassured by an understanding of disease transmission, undiagnosed spread, and the explanation of strong connections. Adapted in response to rising independent review, protection tactics included isolating athletes in segregated hotel rooms, screening at least once daily, and wearing technology for detecting interactions, all substantiated by thorough disease control. Despite strong regulations controls, Covid-19 breakouts have caused the cancellation of numerous games. The IOC’s playbooks are not founded on scientifically based risk assessment and they refuse to explain exposed modes, contributing factors to risk and thus people may be most at risk. To be sure, the majority of athletes are unlikely to cause serious health issues from Covid-19, while some Paralympic athletes may be at a greater risk. Additionally, we feel the playbooks fail to adequately safeguard the thousands of people – trainers, sponsors, authorities, and transportation and hotel staff – whose labor is vital to the success of such a large event.
Range of decision-making tools and comparative analysis of decision-making styles:
When preparing any event, the first step should be to identify the individuals most at risk from exposure and the occupations, activities, and locations that will experience the greatest exposure. When it comes to aerosol inhalation, the most critical aspects of exposure are the concentration of infectious particles in the air and the duration of contact. Particle concentration is dependent on the number of sick persons, the type of activity (i.e., how much aerosol is generated), the amount of time infected people spends in a certain place, and the degree of ventilation. Physical separation becomes less important in enclosed environments with time, as particles become spread throughout the space. The decision-making system is complex and convoluted (Garg et al., 2016). To aid in the process’s improvement, the following tools can be used:
- Brainstorming: The most often employed decision-making technique which can be used is brainstorming. It was suggested for members of the team to come up with several different ideas as they could in order to build ideas. The approach was concerned with the development of ideas rather than the content of those ideas. Following this procedure, the team can come up with a list of the best alternatives, which they can then connect to form the organization’s recommendations (Haddou et al., 2014).
- Normative group Technique: Along with brainstorming, the normative group procedure can be used in this project. This ruling tool required the following steps: (1) study of a business issue, (2) formulation of a list of options independently, (3) each individual sharing this alternative with the community, and (4) polling on the best alternative chosen (Jongsawat & Premchaiswadi, 2014). This presents an opportunity for people in the team who were more hesitant to express their opinions.
- Didactic Interaction: Furthermore, didactic interaction can also be used. The group can be divided into two teams, one addressing the pros and cons of each alternative. After both teams had spoken, the two sides would trade roles and try to discover flaws around their own arguments. This argument would be utilized to propose an alternative (Chandan, 2005)
Rational Decision making models: This technique refers to the act of forecasting a framework that focuses on the probable outcomes of multiple rounds given by panel experts or surveys (Goodman, 2016). The numerous rounds employed in this approach aided me in identifying both the consolidated and shared anonymized comments from each phase. This framework helps individuals to make decisions based on the most frequently recommended options.
Amidst COVID-19, Olympic game stakeholders can utilize Decision-support system as decision making process is most suitable in making choices when the underlying reasons of the situations are not immediately apparent. It is an extremely dynamic as well as a very adaptable information technology system. It will allow the stakeholders to design various protocols, which enables both athletes and patrons to make informed decisions. The security and safety protocols will assist the institution organizing committee in successfully organizing an games while avoiding the harmful transmission of the disease. Individual decision-making procedures are ones that are made independently about any other person or group. It permits rapid and easy decision-making and is cost-effective (Ferrell & Fraedrich, 2015). It’s one of the simplest decision-making procedures because no additional information or plan is required. On the other hand, in the context of group-decision making the organizing committee collaborative decision-making procedure shall need to be implemented. But in the context of Olympic Games to be held in Japan, Group-decision making style is most suitable because here stakeholders seek opinions of others and then decide whether they shall agree with something or not. The final decisions are always presented in front of the team to seek their feedback before implementing anything.
Data sources influencing the decision-making: When examining data from a variety of sources, decision-making processes are required to be used. In one feature of this system, researchers look into data on the list of participating countries and athletes, along with information on essential patrons or departments that are expected to be involved in the event’s planning and execution. They can also collect information on each working team, including the amount of training time necessary by each team member, in order to better understand the causes and solutions to social distance concerns. This information will assist the team in determining how well a game of this nature may be prepared while yet adhering to social distance rules.
- Descriptive analytics: Descriptive analytics includes analyzing all possible key metrics and indicators that can actually fix challenges. It aids in the assessment of all data needed to adjust the budget required to the new COVID-19 related regulations. It aids in pinpointing difficulties and aids in managing potential risks presented by the deadly virus.
- Diagnostic analysis: The diagnostic analysis would be the next step in developing an effective decision. The diagnostic analysis is done after the descriptive analysis. It helps me comprehend the issues better, thereby removing the main source of the issue. The diagnostic analytics can be used to address problems through many walkthroughs. It aids me in making smart decisions by maximizing the available data. It shapes the potential solutions of all possible risks associated with the event (Chris Mishler & CIA, 2016).
- Prescriptive analysis: It is used to suggest potential activities that may assist the stakeholders in resolving future issues. It assists in analyzing the underlying factors that contribute to the complexity of the situation. This enables the managing team to make informed decisions about the proper charge structure.
- Predictive analytics: It is used to take into consideration patterns from the past in order to predict the future accounting trends. It aids me in shaping the potential outcomes and also the goals and objectives of the organizing committee of the event, among other things. The uses of Predictive data assist me in driving the effectiveness of the event according to set criteria in order to successfully streamline the productivity and anticipated outcomes and facilitate the system performance.
Techniques to engage group decisions:
To make successful judgments, numerous factors contribute to make excellent group decisions:
- Decide and communicate: Throughout this procedure, choices are evaluated and then conveyed it to all of the relevant stakeholders that previously worked at such an event. Here, stakeholders seek confirmation from the remaining team as to whether they concur with me or not.
- Decide and broadcast: Stakeholders make decisions and then broadcast them to the remaining team for quick and timely decisions. However, it is virtually always an individual choice.
- Make recommendations an Invite comments: During this group decision-making process, stakeholders communicate the idea to remaining team; they solicit their feedback on the potential good and negative consequences of that decision if it is implemented. It enables them to make more efficient group decisions, but it demands adequate time (Tindale & Winget, 2019).
Emerging tools and technologies for decision making: GDSS/Group Decision-Support-System: It is obvious that decisions cannot be made without data. So, the survey method can be used to gather vital information on the event main issues and challenges. However, there are some procedures that should be taken before employing the GDSS approach as a decision-making tool. After performing all procedures, an appropriate decision-making software tool (electronic questionnaire survey) and instrument (MS Excel) can be used to determine the best & competent decision for the event (Tranberg, et.al, 2016; Kar, 2015).
It is the process of creating decisions that is described by the term “decision-making procedure” It includes the evaluation of numerous options, the compilation of accessible knowledge and data, as well as a systematized evaluation of all conceivable alternative outcomes. The use of the judging tools and techniques will help the team in making much more informed decisions for the company by presenting them with all the required choices and knowledge. This article addresses a variety of technologies that can be used to aid in the construction of a more effective decision-making procedure. The processes for group decision-making were evaluated in this article. Additionally, the application of data analytics in the decision-making process for events is investigated further. Additionally, the several biases that are employed to influence the decision-making processes are examined.
Chandan, J. S. (2005). Organizational Behaviour. Vikas Publishing House.
Ferrell, O. C., & Fraedrich, J. (2015). Business ethics: Ethical decision making & cases. Nelson Education.
Garg, H. (2016). Generalized intuitionistic fuzzy interactive geometric interaction operators using Einstein t-norm and t-conorm and their application to decision making. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 101, 53-69.Chris Mishler, C. M. A., & CIA, C. (2016). Better performance through analytics. Strategic Finance, 98(4), 62.
Goodman, C. (2016). Conversation or consensus: using the Delphi technique to set priorities for ageing research and practice.
Haddou, H. A., Camilleri, G., & Zaraté, P. (2014). Prediction of Ideas Number During a Brainstorming Session. Group Decision and Negotiation, 23(2), 271–298.
Hwang, C. L., & Lin, M. J. (2012). Group decision making under multiple criteria: methods and applications (Vol. 281). Springer Science & Business Media.
Jongsawat, N., & Premchaiswadi, W. (2014). A Study Towards Improving Web-Based Collaboration Through Availability of Group Awareness Information. Group Decision and Negotiation, 23(4), 819–845. Retrieved from
Kaner, S. (2014). Facilitator’s guide to participatory decision-making. John Wiley & Sons.
Kar, A. K. (2015). A hybrid group decision support system for supplier selection using analytic hierarchy process, fuzzy set theory and neural network. Journal of Computational Science, 6, 23-33.
TheDiplomat, (2021). Tokyo Olympic Games Will Go Ahead in 2021. Available from < https://thediplomat.com/2020/10/tokyo-olympic-games-will-go-ahead-in-2021/>. [Accessed on 8th August 2021].
Tindale, R. S., & Winget, J. R. (2019). Group decision-making. In Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Psychology.
Tranberg, R., Alexander, S., Hatcher, D., Mackey, S., Shahid, S., Holden, L. and Kwok, C., 2016. Factors influencing cancer treatment decision‐making by indigenous peoples: a systematic review. Psycho‐Oncology, 25(2), pp.131-141.