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BA3000 – ARTS EDGE RESEARCH REPORT

ASSESSMENT TASK 3A: REPORT – LITERATURE REVIEW

Task Brief

This task will involve the production of a literature review addressing the central research question(s) of a research proposal. This report should only briefly include: the background to the intended research; the research questions, aims and objectives; proposed research methods; the significance of the research and its contribution to new knowledge.

Word Count – 2000

LITERATURE REVIEW

“Racism” considering Townsville in Australia

Background of the study

Racism is an extensive problem in the world that has far-reaching belongings on people, groups, and cultures. This study emphasizes Townsville, a flourishing Australian city in Queensland, to look into the attendance, languages, and belongings of racism there. Australia is frequently commended for its multiculturalism and variety, but racism still exists there (Gatwiri & Moran, 2023). Townsville proposes a characteristic site for this research by acting as a miniature of the greater Australian setting. The context of this study is entrenched in the rising sympathetic to discrimination’s undesirable effects on people’s mental and bodily health, communal coherence, and financial disparity. The populace of Townsville is diverse, with people from many dissimilar racial and ethnic upbringings, including immigrants, settlers, and Indigenous Australians (Bargallie, 2023). It is critical to comprehend how racism impacts both these varied communities and society as a whole.

However, it is important to recognize that racism is not limited to Townsville. Australia has struggled with racism on several fronts, including historical prejudice against Indigenous Australians, contentious immigration laws, and racial tensions in different parts of the country (Ben, 2023). Therefore, the Townsville study intends to provide insights into a national issue by acting as a case study that can show how racism permeates Australia as a whole.

Research questions

  • What forms and symptoms of racism are present in Townsville, Australia, and how do they impact residents and communities there?
  • What roles do the historical setting and regional demography play in Townsville’s prevalence and type of racism?
  • How might this understanding influence anti-racist initiatives at the local, state, and federal levels?
  • What are the recommendations to overcome racism in Townsville, Australia?

The research aims and objectives

The research aims to analyse different racism practices in Townsville, Australia.

  • To examine the frequency and extent of racism in Townsville, Australia, and how it affects people and entire communities.
  • To evaluate how the demographics and local context of the area affect how racism manifests itself in the community.
  • To determine how anti-racism measures both nationally and internationally, including locally in Townsville.
  • To provide recommendations to overcome racism in Townville, Australia.

Proposed research methods

A deductive research approach will be used in this study to thoroughly examine racism in Townsville. The deductive approach will mainly help to analyze the cause and effects taking specific concepts and variables of the study. There will be also an application of descriptive research design for gathering accurate information for the specific problem of racism.  Surveys will be part of the quantitative component, which will be conducted among the Townsville population. The survey results will be mainly analyzed after collecting responses and percentages in the form of a pie chart. The responses in the form of percentages will mainly help to analyze the data with concern to research aims. In the sampling technique, there is applying of the random sampling method, marks the specific time of probability sampling in selecting the subset of participants from the population. 

All participants will be asked for their informed consent, emphasizing their ability to revoke at any moment. The participants’ identities will be protected by anonymity and confidentiality. The study will abide by ethical standards and secure the required ethics approvals from pertinent institutions. Moreover, they will be abiding by the Data Protection Act 1998.

Significance of the research

This study on racism in Townsville, Australia, has broad implications and is essential for tackling a significant social issue. For Townsville to become a more welcoming and peaceful town, it is essential to comprehend the nature and prevalence of racism in the city (Bargallie, 2023). The research can help local governments develop policies, programs, and interventions to fight racism, enhancing citizens’ quality of life and fostering social cohesion. Townsville acts as a microcosm of larger racial dynamics in Australia. This study’s findings can help inform national discussions and strategies aimed at combating racism, discrimination, and inequality by illuminating the magnitude of racism throughout the entire nation (Cornelius & Cornelius-Bell, 2022). This research encourages marginalized groups to share their stories and struggles by magnifying the voices and experiences of those who have experienced racism, perhaps increasing awareness, empathy, and support.

The research findings can be a useful tool for organizations fighting racism in Australia as well as policymakers and activists. Data supported by evidence can be used to promote anti-racism efforts and policies that are more successful. By increasing knowledge of the numerous manifestations and effects of racism, the study can support educational initiatives. It can encourage open discourse and offer community organizations like schools instructional resources.

Contribution to new knowledge

This study on racism in Townsville, Australia, makes several important contributions to new understanding. This study contributes a distinctive local perspective to the overall understanding of racism in Australia by investigating the specific experiences of racism in Townsville. With insights that might not be immediately obvious in national or international studies, it reveals the subtleties of racism within this particular group (Gatwiri & Moran, 2023). The heterogeneous makeup of Townsville, which includes Indigenous Australians, immigrants, and refugees, offers a rich framework for researching racism. The results provide a comprehensive knowledge of how various racial and ethnic groups perceive and react to racism. This study contributes to comparative analysis by examining how the Townsville experiences link to larger Australian racial dynamics, giving a foundation for understanding how racism manifests in other regions of the nation.

Overall, this research contributes to a deeper understanding of the problem and informs targeted measures to combat racism locally and nationally by providing a localized, diversified, and comprehensive perspective.

Literature review

Causes of Racism Practices in Australia

A complex mix of historical, social, and economic variables is to blame for racism in Australia. The abuse and eviction of Indigenous Australians left a lasting mark on colonialism’s historical legacy, resulting in systematic racism that still exists today. Racial tensions are also a result of immigration and the nation’s heterogeneous identity. Economic and social disadvantages might cause people to vent their grievances toward minority groups, which can feed resentment and prejudice (Howard-Wagner, 2019). Political rhetoric and media depictions of particular communities in a bad light reinforce prejudices and biases. Racism can arise from apprehension and misunderstanding of the strange or unknown, especially when there is a lack of exposure to and understanding of different cultures.

As opined by Bargallie (2023), indigenous Australians experience gaps in health, education, employment, and the criminal justice system as a result of historical and current racism. Minority populations, particularly those who are immigrants and refugees, may experience social exclusion and prejudice during political or economic discussions (Lecture notes, The Global Human Rights system, pg-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            11). Minority ethnic and religious groups, including those from Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and other regions, must deal with racism. The issues faced by the LGBTQ+ community can be made more difficult by the interaction of racism and other forms of prejudice. As stated by Cornelius & Cornelius-Bell, (2022), racism can have a lasting impact on a child or young person’s development and well-being since it can affect them both as the target and as the adopter of discriminating beliefs. Fostering a more inclusive and fair Australian society depends on identifying and resolving racism’s root causes and the effects they have on different racial and ethnic groups.

Impact of racism practices on the youth of Townsville and Australia

The effects of racism on Australian and Townsville adolescents are strong and pervasive, appearing in many different ways. Psychologically, it causes emotional stress, which feeds isolated, fearful, and low self-esteem feelings. This emotional burden might impede both academic success and personal development (Howard-Wagner, 2019). Additionally, racism’s effects can be seen in the physical world. Racial discrimination’s stress can cause health inequalities, such as greater incidence of hypertension and other stress-related illnesses among young people.

Racism restricts young people’s chances on a societal level, particularly in terms of employment and education (Briskman, 2014). Their academic performance may suffer, and discrimination may prevent them from accessing certain services and social networks (Durey, Naylor & Slack-Smith, 2023). Additionally, racism can have an impact on young people’s social and cultural identities, isolating them from their ancestry and making them feel marginalized in their larger community.

This prevalent problem, which affects youngsters in Townsville and Australia, not only stunts individual potential but also poses a threat to the country’s social cohesiveness and inclusivity. To protect the welfare, growth, and future opportunities of young people as well as to promote an equal and peaceful society, it is crucial to address racism and its effects.

Overcoming racism in Townsville, Australia

The fight against racism in Townsville is a vital and continuing endeavour that necessitates a multifaceted strategy involving the neighbourhood, institutions, and people as a whole. Racism may be destroyed through education, starting with thorough anti-racism instruction in classrooms and community initiatives. Early development of empathy, cultural sensitivity, and tolerance is crucial (Brooks et al. 2023). Equally important is community involvement. Events, workshops, and talks regarding racism can be held in Townsville, encouraging locals to share personal stories and extend their horizons (Lecture notes, Townsville mayor condemns racism poll, pg- 2). In addition, laws and policies prohibiting racial discrimination ought to be strictly upheld in places like public services, housing, and workplaces.

To motivate the next generation and develop a feeling of community among all citizens, diverse leadership and role models ought to be encouraged. Collaboration between residents, community organizations, and local government is crucial (Luke et al. 2022). Townsville can work together to build a welcoming, accepting, and peaceful community where diversity is cherished and racism is vehemently opposed (Lecture notes, Steeping up racism fight [Townsville Edition], pg- 2). In the end, combating racism requires cooperation from all spheres of society, as well as persistent dedication and active engagement.

Implementation of racist practices

To effectively execute anti-racism policies, society as a whole must adopt a comprehensive and proactive strategy. The first step in combating racism should be education. The development of curriculum encourages cultural competency, diversity, and tolerance, as it is the responsibility of schools, colleges, and universities (Carpenter & Ball, 2012). These organizations ought to actively participate in discussions regarding racism, both historically and currently, to create an understanding of its effects (Durey, Naylor & Slack-Smith, 2023). Strong anti-discrimination legislation and regulations must be passed and implemented by governments. Regardless of a person’s race or ethnicity, these laws should provide equal chances for everyone, including penalties for discriminating behaviour in areas like employment, housing, and public services.

The development of anti-racism depends heavily on regional communities. Events, workshops, and forums should be planned by community organizations and leaders to encourage communication and understanding among various groups. These programs can foster solidarity and cross-cultural understanding. Media organizations have a moral need to refrain from supporting racial biases and stereotypes (Cornelius & Cornelius-Bell, 2022). By challenging prejudiced tropes, responsible reporting may advance accurate and uplifting representations of all populations.

Advantages of removing racism

Racism must be eradicated since it has numerous benefits for people, communities, and societies at large. By tearing down the walls that separate people based on their racial or ethnic heritage, first and foremost promotes social harmony and inclusivity (Howard-Wagner, 2019). Communities that are stronger and more cohesive are the result, allowing people from various backgrounds to live, work, and engage with one another without fear or prejudice. In terms of the economy, eliminating racism encourages creativity and production (Madden, 2011). Unburdened by racial prejudices, a diverse workforce may access a greater range of skills, knowledge, and viewpoints, which frequently leads to improved problem-solving and creativity (Ben, 2023). Additionally, it promotes a more equitable distribution of opportunities, hence minimizing income gaps.

Racial discrimination must be eliminated to improve mental and emotional health. It lessens the psychological strain racism places on underprivileged people, improving the consequences for mental health. Racism’s eradication promotes global collaboration and goodwill on a larger scale (Cornelius & Cornelius-Bell, 2022). It improves diplomatic ties and cooperation while bolstering a country’s standing on the international stage. In summary, the benefits of eliminating racism go beyond moral or social considerations to include economic prosperity, mental health, and intercultural harmony, making it a necessity for a just and progressive society.

References

Bargallie, D. (2023). Indigenous Australian peoples and work: Examining worklife histories. In Sustaining Employability Through Work-life Learning: Practices and Policies (pp. 127-144). Singapore: Springer Nature Singapore. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-981-99-3959-6_6

Ben, J. (2023). “People love talking about racism”: downplaying discrimination, and challenges to anti-racism among Eritrean migrants in Australia. Ethnic and Racial Studies46(5), 921-943. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01419870.2022.2081511

Briskman, L. (2014). Social work with Indigenous communities: A human rights approach. https://researchdirect.westernsydney.edu.au/islandora/object/uws:39415/

Brooks, M. C., Ezzani, M. D., Sai, Y., & Sanjakdar, F. (2023). Racialization of Muslim students in Australia, Ireland, and the United States: cross-cultural perspectives. Race Ethnicity and Education26(2), 164-183. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13613324.2021.1997977

Carpenter, B., & Ball, M. (2012). Justice in society. Federation Press. https://eprints.qut.edu.au/53483

Cornelius, K., & Cornelius-Bell, A. (2022). Systemic racism, a prime minister, and the remote Australian school system. The Radical Teacher, (122), 64-73. https://www.jstor.org/stable/48694842

Durey, A., Naylor, N., & Slack-Smith, L. (2023). Inequalities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians seen through the lens of oral health: time to change focus. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B378(1883), 20220294. https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/abs/10.1098/rstb.2022.0294

Gatwiri, K., & Moran, C. (2023). Reclaiming racial dignity: An ethnographic study of how African youth in Australia use social media to visibilise anti‐Black racism. Australian Journal of Social Issues58(2), 360-380. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ajs4.224

Howard-Wagner, D. (2019). Success in closing the socio-economic gap, but still a long way to go: Urban Aboriginal disadvantage, trauma, and racism in the Australian city of Newcastle. The International Indigenous Policy Journal10(1). https://ojs.lib.uwo.ca/index.php/iipj/article/view/7561

Luke, J., Verbunt, E., Zhang, A., Bamblett, M., Johnson, G., Salamone, C., … & Jones, A. (2022). Questioning the ethics of evidence-based practice for Indigenous health and social settings in Australia. BMJ Global Health7(6), e009167. https://gh.bmj.com/content/7/6/e009167.abstract

Madden, D. L. (2011). Gugu Badhun women on the move: enhancing well-being in an Aboriginal community through the use of ICT (Doctoral dissertation, James Cook University). http://eprints.jcu.edu.au/21334

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