Author: Subject Academy

Development Of A Fermentation Process In Lab


A company has isolated a new bacteria strain which can produce a novel antibiotic. The company asked your help to develop a fermentation process for the bacteria in shaking flasks. You need:

  • Find the starting medium recipe for better optimization.
  • List the factors requiring optimizations, and explain why the factors have impact on fermentation?
  • Design experiment to optimize the fermentation factors.


Certain microorganisms are capable of producing some organic compounds which are directly not involved in their growth and development, known as secondary metabolites. These secondary metabolites (e.g., antibiotics) are produced by plants, bacteria, fungi, etc.  Among all these groups, actinomycetes have a dominant place to produce secondary metabolites such as antibiotics. Actinomycetes are basically prokaryotes and gram positive bacteria, but their morphology has resemblance to fungi due to presence of finger shaped mycelia. Actinomycetes are widely distributed throughout the nature. They are present in natural and as well as in manmade environment. Moreover, they exist in freshwaters, soils, lakes, composts, manure and also in plants and food residues.  These micro-organisms are very prominent due to producing high value commercial products, industrially and as well as medically important compounds such as immunosuppressant, antibiotics and chemotherapeutics (Berdy, 2005, Vijayakumar et al., 2010, Bizuye et al., 2013).

Discovery of Pencillin by AlexandarFlemming has introduced a quite different era of medicine and science. Antibiotics has contributed to increase the life expectancy and also to save a huge numbers of lives. Probably, there is no need to repeat how significantly antibiotics have saved the lives and how they contributed to treat the infections and diseases, to decrease the top causes of mortality and morbidity of human (Aminov, 2010).

Actinomycetes produce antibiotics that have application in treating different human infections. They are also known due to their genetic material, because their DNA is enriched with >55% G+C (Guanine + Cytosine) content (González-Franco and Robles-Hernandez, 2009, Gurung et al., 2009, Ogunmwonyi et al., 2010). It was observed that almost 70% of naturally occurring antibiotics are isolated by different genus of actinomycetes. Among these genus, most important genus is Streptomyces for the production of antibiotics. Certain antibiotics such as erythromycin, penicillin and methicillin, they exhibit only one time potent or effective results against infection. Because bacteria has gained resistance against such antibiotics, that’s why they has become less effective(Raja et al., 2010).Isolation and screening of antibiotic producing psychrophilic actinomycetes and its nature from hill soil against viridians Streptococcus sp. (Raja et al., 2010). Then resistant strains of antibiotics were developed such as vancomycin and methicillin. But they cause certain side effects. Antibiotic resistant strains are increasing, so to prevent such happenings, this is a time to immediately develop novel antibiotics to replace these existing antibiotics by finding new approaches to isolate promising bacteria from soil(Ilić et al., 2005). Therefore, development of new antibiotics or using the combined antibiotics has delayed the climax of microbial resistance. There is new possibility to produce synergetic antibiotics to treat microbial infection. Antibiotic synergism is a novel approach between bioactive extracts and along with known antibiotics. By combining antibiotics, potential of drug to treat microbial infection in upgraded (Adwan and Mhanna, 2008). As discussed earlier, some antibiotics have side effects or expensive, thus, finding of novel antibiotics is an important necessity (Bizuye et al., 2013, Retnowati, 2010).  From actinomycetes, we can produce novel and effective antibiotics. The aim of this study is to isolate actinomycetes from soil samples and then screen them for the production of antibiotics.


Isolation and screening of antibiotic producing actinomycetes from soil:

How to isolate and screen actinomycetes?

  • Location of study

We studied different promising areas of India for actinomycetes producing soil and then we just focused on two regions i.e. garbage disposer areas of house kitchen and rhizosphere soil samples of different areas. Microbial community of soil is highly dependent on the status and composition of their soil habitat. Then we took different soil samples with different depths, from these two potent regions for further study.

  • Sampling and isolation of actinomycetes

Samples were taken from two sources, one from garbage disposer and other from rhizosphere soil areas. During this study, 15 sterile samples were taken from 5 sites that have different depth (5, 8 and 11 cm) of the superficial layer from each location. Then soil samples were numbered accordingly and placed them in a sterilized paper sack, thenthese are transferred to Mycology laboratory, after that, homogenization of these samples carried out. Samples were spread out on trays in order to clean them out from leaves, roots and small stems. These samples were sieved in 2mm mesh and air dried them at room temp (i.e. 25°C) for 7 days. Then 5 grams of each sample was taken and poured into the test tubes that already have 10 ml of aseptic physiologic saline (0.9% NaCl) and then mix them for almost 3 minutes. Then incubate them for 15 minutes and then transfer 3 ml of supernatant to another aseptic test tube and then add 1.5 ml of streptomycin and chloramphenicol (0.2mgl/ml) and then stirrer them and  incubate for 30 minutes. This solution was shaken again by using vortex mixer. In next step one drop of sample was added to a Sabouraud’s dextrose agar medium and another drop was added to brain-heart infusion agar. These both media were containing 0.5 g/l of cycloheximide. They were now incubated at 35°C for 2-3 weeks. These colonies were selected and streaked on new plates of prepared culture media. Actinomycetes’ colonies were identified through their color and they were dried, rough with regular and irregular pattern and mentioned as convex colony. These plates were incubated at 35°C and analyzed up to 2-3 weeks for maximum growth. Although several colonies showed their maximum growth in first some days of incubation. In order to purify actinomycetes from other suspicious colonies, streak plate method was used. After that pure colonies were isolated by observing their colonial morphology, color of hyphae and aerial mycelia, and then these colonies were plated on the agar media singly.

Then cellophane tap and cover slip-buried methods were used to analyze morphology of actinomycetes. Light microscopy under oil immersion (1,000 x) was used to analyze the structure of mycelium, color and arrangement of arthrospore on the mycelium. Since a single method could not enough to identify all actinomycete thoroughly; therefore, a combination of different methods were important to identify actinomycetes isolates to the species level. If subdivided and fragile filaments specific of actinomycetes were examined, then they were isolated and inspected for partial acid-fastness by staining with the carbolfuchsin modified acid-fast stain with a weak (0.5-1%) sulfuric acid decolorizing solution. Furthermore, a standard biochemical tests and physiological criteria i.e ability to degrade the different organic compounds like casein, tyrosine, xanthine, hypoxanthine and starch as substrates, the use of urea and different carbon sources as well as growth in 4% gelatin medium were examined in order to get a possible classification to the species level. Gelatin hydrolysis was carried  by stabbing a loopful of organism about 1 cm into a nutrient gelatin tube (BBL), that were incubated at 35°C in air for up to 7 days.

Detection of hydrolysis was done by keeping the tubes at 4°C for 15 min and then tilting each tube at a 45° angle. The test was only viewed positive if the gelatin was liquefied.

For hydrolysis of urea, a heavy loopful of bacteria was suspended in 0.5 ml of a medium containing 1 g urea and 1 ml of a cresol red solution (0.5% [wt/vol]) in 100 ml phosphate buffer (0.005M, pH 6). Tubes were incubated at 35°C and checked after 1 and 2 days for a pink color shift showing a positive reaction.

  • Primary screening

Actinomycetes isolated and analyzed from different soil samples, further samples were screened for the examination of their antimicrobial spectrum. Different test bacteria were used for primary screening, these bacteria were S. aureusATCC2923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27857 (P.aeruginosa),Escherichia coli ATCC25922 (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumonia ATCC7000603 (K. pneumonia) and Salmonella typhi ATCC9289 (S. typhi). To ensure the Anti-fungal activity of actinomycetes, Saccharomyces cerevisiae(S. cerevisiae) was used as test organism. Activities were examined by using nutrient agar for culturing of bacteria and potato dextrose agar for fungi. Each plate was streaked with each isolated colony at the midpoint of a plate and incubated at 37 °C for 7 days. Then, fresh sub-cultured test organisms were perpendicular streaked to the actinomycete isolate. Then the plates were incubated for 24 hours at 37 °C for bacteria and incubated 48 h at 28 °C for fungi.After incubation, the zone of inhibition was measured and recorded.

  • Fermentation and extraction of crude extracts

So, it is proved that solid state fermentation was fitter for the production of pigment by the strain D10 when it compared to submerged fermentation. And in this study, solid state fermentation was used for the production of crude pigment. Solid stat fermentation uses the solid substrates i.e bran, bagasse, and paper pulp. The major benefit of using these solid substrates is that nutrient-rich waste materials can be easily reused and recycled as substrates. In this technique of fermentation, the substrates are used very slowly and immoveable manner, so the same substrate can be utilized for long fermentation periods. Hence, this technique provides controlled release of nutrients.Based on the zone of inhibition in primary screening, actinomycetes isolates ( represented as Ab18, Ab28, Ab43) that have likely antimicrobial activity were selected for solid state fermentation and extraction, and then the crude extracts were analyze through agar well diffusion methods. In these study cultures of actinomycete isolates were grown in starch casein broth (200 mL) at 37 °C for 7days. Finally  10% of cultured broth was inoculated into sterilize Erlenmeyer flask that containing natural media (40 g wheat grain and 20 mL milk) on thermostat water bath at 37 °C for 7days. In order to concentrate the antimicrobial metabolite produced from isolates, equal volume of ethyl acetate (200 mL) was added in each solid state fermented cultures for 1 hour in thermostat water bath shaker at 37 °C. Then the active metabolite containing ethyl acetate was isolated from the solid residue with Whatman No.1 filter paper and extracts were concentrated through the help of rotavapour. The crude extracts collected from each isolates were dissolved in ethyl acetate (76 mg/mL) and utilized as stock concentration and ethyl acetate is used as control for the determination of actinomycetes activity against test pathogens. The wells (6 mm diameter) were cut using a sterile cork

Borer on Muller Hinton agar and potato dextrose agar. Twenty four hours young culture of S. aureus ATCC2923, methicillin resistant S. aureus (clinical isolates), E. coli ATCC25922, S. typhiATCC9289, K. pneumonia ATCC7000603, S. boydi ATCC9289) and 48 h young culture of Candia albicans (C. albicans, clinical isolates) these cultures were swabbed with sterilized cotton swab on the surface of prepared Muller Hinton agar for bacteria and potato dextrose agar for fungi. Sixty micro liters of dissolved crude extract was loaded into each well and left for 30 min unless the metabolite was diffused. Then the plates were incubated for 24 h at 37 °C for bacteria and 48 h at 28 °C for fungi. After incubation, the zone of inhibitions were measured and recorded.


Optimization factors for maximum product output:

As the organisms under consideration are bacterial strains, so following factors must be taken into account during the growth optimization to obtain maximum quantities of the desired antibiotic.

  • Carbon source:

The primary nutrient to run bacterial metabolic machinery is the carbon source and more specifically glucose. Glucose kick starts the process of glycolysis which is the cardinal growth sustaining pathway in all life forms. Normally LB medium used for bacterial culturing and fermentation contains Tryptone and yeast extract, which directly are not source of carbohydrates and only provide scant quantities of glucose. So in order to compensate this, 1-4 g/L of glucose is added to the medium recipe wherever  high metabolic activity is required especially in fermentation processes.

  • pH value:

pH value has been categorized as of major interest for bacterial growth by (Juwarkar et al., 2006). For optimal bacterial growth, a steady pH value of 6-7.4 is recommended by nature protocols. The importance of this factor is of major interest because optimal pH is directly proportional to the growth of bacteria. The enzymes involved in bacterial division for example DNA polymerases work best at the perscribedpH. Any shock to the pH hinders the bacterial cell division or blocks it altogether. The key point to be noted here is that pH value determines the enzyme activity in all life forms. A drift in pH value can cause a serious damage to multiple metabolic processes if not stop them altogether. Therefore it is always advised to check the pH of the medium recipe prior to inoculation so that it can be adjusted.

  • Temperature:

Another key factor is the temperature of incubation of bacterial cultures. The standardized temperature for optimal bacterial growth is 37 degrees celscius. However depending upon the type of bacteria and the environment from where it is isolated can also dictate the optimum temperature standards. For example bacteria that are isolated from dry harsh and warm regions can show optimum growths at even 50 degrees Celsius. The temperature is directly linked to the enzyme activity in bacteria. The more the temperature moves away from the optimal points the lesser the activity of enzymes is observed. However, unlike pH bacteria show increase in growth patterns as temperature is gradually increased up to a certain limit depending upon the type of bacteria after which it gradually declines.

  • Inducers:

Inducers are the natural or synthetic biochemical entities that upregulate the production of a certain metabolite or gene product. These inducers interact with the specific metabolic pathway regulatory elements in such a way that the particular process keeps on producing the desired product without any inhibition at a multiple fold rate. The most common inducer used for protein production in bacteria is T7 RNA polymerase/ RNA promoter system. Among many other advantages, it has a wide variety of hosts and can easily be incorporated in diverse range of bacterial strains. As it is based on the promoter activation principle which entails that over activation of promoter of a metabolic pathway gene sequence will up regulate the expressive gene production which inturn will increase the quantities of the desired protein product.

  • Medium additives:

Media additives vary according to the purpose of bacterial growth and desired product. As mentioned earlier, tryptone, yeast extract andNaCl dissolved in distilled water according to standard protocols is enough for a regular bacterial growth in broth medium. However, when the purpose is the production of a secondary metabolite, the metabolism of bacterial cell is enhanced for that an additional carbon source glucose/ dextrose is added as a supplement. Some studies have also shown that when specifically producing antibiotics, addition of 0.05% K2HPO4 significantly enhances the quantities of antibiotics produced by bacterial isolates(AL-GHAZALI and OMRAN, 2017).

  • Aeration:

Aeration is also an important factor especially when aerobic bacteria are under consideration. It has been observed through various studies that an increase in the oxygen mass transfer coefficient can significantly increase the bacterial growth and the production of desired antibiotic up to 30 percent. The logic behind it is that the major  metabolic processes of an aerobic bacteria are driven by aerobic respiration. An increase in the index of available oxygen means an increase in the rate of aerobic respiration which in turn enhances the metabolism leading to an increased production of secondary metabolites and antibiotics(Wang and Zhang, 2007).

  • Growth time:

Normally bacterial cultures start to show maximum growth within 8 hours which is also termed as growth or log phase. At this point the bacteria attain a maximum number of divided cells and shift towards a growth dormancy state also known as lag phase in which the number of newly grown cells decreases gradually. This behavior is an indicator that now a greater mass of bacterial cells is shifting from primary metabolism to secondary metabolism in which bacteria shift from rapidly growing phase to a survival mode. Once the bacterial cultures have attained the stationary phase, the production of secondary metabolites experiences a boost. This happens because now the bacteria are spending less energy in synthesizing peptidoglycans, primary proteins and nucleic acids. This residual energy and the capacity of bacteria to be less susceptible to the antibiotics in stationary phase are used for the production of secondary metabolites and other antibiotics. Normally this cycle starts after 8 hours of inoculation and attains a maximum productivity in 16-24 hours of initialinoculation.

Query 3

Experimental design for optimization of fermentation factors:

Normally for such experiments, that involve optimization of a process, the output production index dictates that what set of combined conditions must be applied to obtain maximum desired product rather than the standard values of protocols. In our case, we have 7-8 influential factors. Our next step is to determine significant factor/s that may affect the output production by Plackett-Burman method. Optimization of each studied factor is described following:

  1. The first and foremost step is to screen out the factors that have a negligible effect when range is concerned logically. For example using inducers by standard protocols is acceptable as an increased quantity of inducer does not necessarily mean a higher output as mode of action of an inducer follows a qualitative pattern either an inducer induces an effect or it does not.
  2. The second step involves the listing of all primary influential factors that will determine the direction of the experiment. In this case temperature and pH etc are the factors that will determine the optimum response.
  3. The third step involves the determination of ranges. This step requires literature review to determine that what experimental ranges have been used in similar experiments for identical outputs. For example in our case the optimum temperature range can be 32-42 degrees Celsius, pH can be 6.6-7.6, added glucose concentration can be 0.5-4 g/L and growth time can be 16-24 hrs and so on. Once the experimental factors and their range values are established, it becomes easier to narrow down the set of conditions that can give the maximum output.
  4. This step involves the intervention of biostatistical tools based on significant factors determined by PlackettBurman method. The specifications of our experiments are fulfilled by the Response Surface Methodology model (RSM). RSM uses a set of very specific tools which when combined determine the combined ranges of the experimental factors that can possibly give the maximum output i-e maximum quantity of produced antibiotic. RSM also rules out the factors that have a secondary role and do not significantly determine the output. The models which qualify the test of significance that is(P < 0.05) are then put to wet lab experimentation. A rough example for our experiment using RSM can be given as:
RunsTemperature (Celsius)pHGlucose (g/L)Growth time (hrs)O2 mass transfer coefficient (h−1 )Predicted Output
  • Finally the results obtained from the statistical analysis will be used as the experimental ranges. Once the experiment is conducted and the quantity of antibiotic produced by each run is determined, a standard can be established by comparing the statistically predicted output and the actual output of the wet lab experiment. Such a technique will standardize the protocols for similar experiments that are to be conducted in the future(Wang et al., 2008).


ADWAN, G. & MHANNA, M. 2008. Synergistic effects of plant extracts and antibiotics on Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from clinical specimens. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 3, 134-139.


AMINOV, R. I. 2010. A brief history of the antibiotic era: lessons learned and challenges for the future. Frontiers in microbiology, 1, 134.

BERDY, J. 2005. Bioactive microbial metabolites. The Journal of antibiotics, 58, 1-26.

BIZUYE, A., MOGES, F. & ANDUALEM, B. 2013. Isolation and screening of antibiotic producing actinomycetes from soils in Gondar town, North West Ethiopia. Asian Pacific journal of tropical disease, 3, 375-381.

GONZÁLEZ-FRANCO, A. C. & ROBLES-HERNANDEZ, R. 2009. Actinomycetes as biological control agents of phytopathogenic fungi. Tecnociencia Chihuahua, 3, 64-73.

GURUNG, T. D., SHERPA, C., AGRAWAL, V. P. & LEKHAK, B. 2009. Isolation and characterization of antibacterial actinomycetes from soil samples of Kalapatthar, Mount Everest Region. Nepal Journal of science and Technology, 10, 173-182.

ILIĆ, S. B., KONSTANTINOVIĆ, S. S. & TODOROVIĆ, Z. B. 2005. UV/VIS analysis and antimicrobial activity of Streptomyces isolates. Facta universitatis series: Med Biol, 12, 44-46.

OGUNMWONYI, I. H., MAZOMBA, N., MABINYA, L., NGWENYA, E., GREEN, E., AKINPELU, D. A., OLANIRAN, A. O., BERNARD, K. & OKOH, A. I. 2010. Studies on the culturable marine actinomycetes isolated from the Nahoon beach in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Afr J Microbiol Res, 4, 2223-2230.

RAJA, A., PRABAKARAN, P. & GAJALAKSHMI, P. 2010. Isolation and screening of antibiotic producing psychrophilic actinomycetes and its nature from Rothang hill soil against viridans Streptococcus sp. Res J Microbiol, 5, 44-49.

RETNOWATI, W. 2010. Identification of Streptomyces sp-MWS1 producing antibacterial compounds. Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease, 1, 82-85.

VIJAYAKUMAR, R., MURUGESAN, S. & PANNEERSELVAM, A. 2010. Isolation, characterization and antimicrobial activity of actinobacteria from point calimere coastal region, east coast of India. Int Res J Pharam, 1, 358-365.

WANG, Y.-H. & ZHANG, X. 2007. Influence of agitation and aeration on growth and antibiotic production by Xenorhabdus nematophila. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 23, 221-227.

WANG, Y. H., FENG, J. T., ZHANG, Q. & ZHANG, X. 2008. Optimization of fermentation condition for antibiotic production by Xenorhabdus nematophila with response surface methodology. Journal of applied microbiology, 104, 735-744.

Assignment on Development of a Fermentation Process in Lab by Subject Academy

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Clinical Uncertainty in Nursing


The main clinical uncertainty discussed here is an inconsistency in the matter of wound dressing, where some nurses have been found to use the sterile dressing method, and some other nurses have used the method of clean dressing for the purpose of wound healing. The sterile dressing consists of covering the wound by a bandage or a tape for stopping any further injury and avoiding contact with the air for healing. On the other hand, clean dressing is washing the wound from time to time, and keeping it in the open for the healing procedure. The main research question that is answered throughout the research is whether clean wound dressing is a safer option for surgical wounds or not. The research question has been formulated by comparing the two options for the treatment of surgical wounds, which is the sterile procedure and the clean dressing procedure. The intent of the research was finding out the better or, the safer option, and hence, the aforementioned question has been formulated.

The research strategy that is used for answering the question is that it is action-based research where the information in relation to the research question has been collected from six specific journal articles, and the specific information related to the surgical wound care has been considered. The research strategy has been developed by searching for those articles, which are within the last seven years, from 2013 till 2020 for the research strategy to focus on the latest information. The paper that has given both qualitative and quantitative evidence has been selected for the research study. The approach of research helps in deriving the inference at the end of the research, and it is of two types, inductive and deductive. In the present research, the only deductive approach has been chosen for the research because it is directly related to the development of understanding about the answer to the question of research, and generates one inference at the end.

The selected studies for the research are:

Clinical Uncertainty in Nursing

The first study is related to the comparison of sterile and clean dressing technique for postoperative surgical wound infection within Chinese Healthcare. It helps in understanding how far wound healing is possible by using both the techniques related to operational wounds.

Clinical Uncertainty in Nursing

The study mainly focuses on the use of clean or sterile dressing technique for wound infection. The study mainly focuses on the subject of infection and helps in understanding which technique is better to stop the infection from spreading.

Clinical Uncertainty in Nursing

This study is based on wound dressing and compares the data concerning its effectiveness. The focus of the article is on whether the wound dressing in a sterile method is more effective or the clean dressing method.

Wound Dressing Procedure

The study focuses on the acute surgical wound dressing procedure, which involves the description that involves validation and development in relation to an observational metric. The study has helped in the creation of an observational metric that is useful for measuring whether the clean dressing or the sterile dressing technique is suitable.

Clinical Uncertainty in Nursing

The study is mainly dependent on the practice and principles of wound dressing, and the way by which the practice and principles of wound dressing are managed. It helps in furthering the answer to the question by understanding whether the clean dressing principle is better than the sterile dressing principle.

Wound Dressing

The study is mainly related to the treatment of wounds and the wound healing process. This study is chosen because it investigates about healing the chronic wound and managing the caring of the wound treatment process.

Main Body:

The paper, (Huang, Zhang, Guan, & Liang, 2016), says that with the increasing antimicrobial resistance, it is always required to have suitable techniques for wound dressing for decreasing the process of infection, and for decreasing the time of healing to consider the factors of patient safety. In order to achieve this, the paper had chosen a population of 130 patients, within which 70 are males, and 60 are females. It has been found to be important for the surgery in the Affiliated Hospital of China, and their wound healing process is observed. It has been observed that 12 patients who had got their wounds treated by the sterile process have got an infection; however, the size of the wounds was larger. On the other hand, for the wounds of smaller size, it has been found that the sterile treatment of wounds is more effective as the covered wound is treated faster than the clean dressing procedure.

In the paper, (Kent, Scardillo, Dale, & Pike, 2018), it is seen that the use of clean dressing technique is an effective medical intervention in the case of chronic wounds for reducing the infection. The search strategy that is used in the research is done by the trained librarian of a university, which had helped in the extraction of information from 473 articles from different sources. However, it is also seen that the research cannot conclude the type of dressing technique that is the best for chronic wounds due to the lack of evidence for the entire process. Hence, it has been inferred from the article that the research shows sterile wound treatment is suitable for chronic wounds, and the clean dressing process is suitable for the smaller wounds.

The paper, (Sood, Granick, & Tomaselli, 2014) is focused on collecting the data about the effectiveness of various wound healing techniques. It has found that the clean wound dressing has been more effective for chronic situations rather than the sterile wound dressing. It has also been found that there are other methods of clinical wound dressing from the journal like hydroconducive dressings, biological dressings and skin substitutes. The journal helps in understanding the methods of clinical dressing processes and helps in understanding that the future direction of clinical wound dressing is mainly related to the clean dressing rather than the sterile dressing process

The paper, (Hegarty, et al., 2019), states that this study was mainly for developing the observational metric, which can be used for understanding the practitioner’s performance for completing the right wound dressing process by using the aseptic non-touch technique (ANTT). The research is conducted by the help of a group of medical practitioners, researchers and academics that came together for developing the observational metric by means of a six-step method that culminated into a Delphi panel. The final metric constitutes three different phases, which has 31 steps, 18 mistakes and 27 errors in the sentinel. It has been shown from the research process that the sterile would treatment procedure is more effective in reducing infection, but it is expensive. On the contrary, it is also found that the clean dressing process is comparatively cheaper for the dressing of wounds.

The paper, (Vowden & Vowden, 2017), focuses on the practice and principles that are related to the cost-effective technique of wound dressing and clinical management. The journal has helped in understanding whether the sterile wound dressing or the clean wound dressing is more cost-effective. The journal has been able to evaluate that it depends on the type of wound that is in process, and the researchers inferred that in the case of smaller wounds, the clean wound dressing method is required to be followed because it has helped in reducing the amount of infection. On the other hand, it has been found that in the case of larger wounds, the sterile method is more suitable because the plaster over the wound gets it healed faster.

The paper, (Powers, Higham, Broussard, & Phillips, 2016), mainly focuses on wounds resulting from the treatment of chronic ulcer operations, and the wounds that take time to heal for the diabetic patients. It always leads to significant morbidity and mortality of the population. In this study, it has been found that a mix of sterile wound healing and the clean wound healing process helps in avoiding infection. It has been found that when the wound is highly infectious, or during the initial stage, the sterile process is followed, which leads to avoiding the infection. However, the clean wound healing is done at regular intervals for the sake of avoiding infection from non-exposure and cleans the wound for another plaster.


The study concludes that the wound healing process is clinically always applied when the bruises or wounds cannot be healed automatically, and it requires antiseptic for healing and avoiding infection. It has also been found that the sterile wound healing is covering the entire wound by plaster for avoiding infection. On the contrary, the clean wound healing is exposing the wound to air, washing it, and applying antiseptic from time to time. When the research question focuses on which one is safer, it is found that no conclusion can be reached because it depends on the type of wounds. When the wound is large, it is found that the sterile process of wound healing is useful to avoid infection. On the other hand, for treating smaller wounds; the process of clean dressing is useful.

It has also been found in the study of six journals that for a person who is going to stay out of the hospital in relation to the treatment of wounds, the sterile dressing is more effective because it stops the dirt and dust from entering the wound. On the contrary, for long hospital stays in case of chronic wounds, the clean dressing method for wounds is more effective.


Hegarty, J., Howson, V., Wills, T., Creedon, S., Mc Cluskey, P., Lane, A., et al. (2019). Acute surgical wound‐dressing procedure: Description of the steps involved in the development and validation of an observational metric. International wound journal , 16 (3), 641-648, DOI: 10.1111/iwj.13072.

Huang, X., Zhang, J., Guan, S., & Liang, W. (2016). Comparison of sterile and clean dressing techniques in postoperative surgical wound infection in a Chinese healthcare facility. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 15 (2), 415-419, DOI: 10.4314/tjpr.v15i2.27.

Kent, D., Scardillo, J., Dale, B., & Pike, C. (2018). Does the use of clean or sterile dressing technique affect the incidence of wound infection? Journal of Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nursing, 45 (3), 265-269, DOI: 10.1097/WON.0000000000000425.

Powers, J., Higham, C., Broussard, K., & Phillips, T. (2016). Wound healing and treating wounds: Chronic wound care and management. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 74 (4), 607-625, DOI: 10.1016/j.jaad.2015.08.070.

Sood, A., Granick, M., & Tomaselli, N. (2014). Wound dressings and comparative effectiveness data. Advances in wound care, 17 (7), 511-529, DOI: 10.1089/wound.2012.0401.

Vowden, K., & Vowden, P. (2017). Wound dressings: principles and practice. Surgery (Oxford) , 35 (9), 489-494, DOI: 10.1016/j.mpsur.2017.06.005.

Clinical Uncertainty in Nursing Assignment by Subject Academy

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Hotel Industry & Tourism Challenges


The hotel industry is a combination involving service providers, quality service and customer relations. It aims to serve and satisfy both physiological and psychological needs of the customers. The hotel industry truly encompasses the social, economical and environmental factors in a holistic way and thus faces pressures from all directions. The competitiveness in the hotel sector is drastically shaped by the dynamic internal and external factors. Tourism and its economic impact is one of the major drivers of the hotel industry. World heritage cities and sites are a constant source of tourism-based revenue generation that propels the hotel business in numerous countries. Recently, the investors and hotel management have been increasingly worried about the negative impacts from social and environmental factors affecting the hotel business. There is a huge pressure to integrate the better technology-oriented services to the customers ranging from online booking to better living ambiances. Cost reduction, need to streamline the practices based on sustainable development are other challenges hotel management are dealing with (Borralha, Jesus, Pinto, & Viseu, 2016). The dynamic nature of the hotel business and changing customer preferences is making the hotel business tough and challenging. It is imperative that this easy will be looking for the said challenges and dynamic external factors which are at present leading the change management strategies in hotel industry. The essay will bring forth the challenges at a global level and propose recommendations in light of management theories and frameworks.       

Main body: challenges

Global factors shape the national and local business environment. Tourism, aviation, employment, foreign capital is some of the interrelated factors which get easily impacted by global adversaries. Disasters, pandemics such as COVID 19, war and political instability at the global level are some of the factors which negatively impact the business relying on global customers. Hotel industry is one such sector which is based on the customer’s demand. Customers can be divided into domestic types (those traveling within the native country) and foreign customers (tourist and business purpose travelers going from one country to another) are the primary factor of revenue in the hotel industry.    

Hotel Industry & Tourism Challenges

The hotel industry has certainly come a long way from challenges ranging from human resource shortage to new emerging markets needing expansion of the hotel industry (Chiang, Birtch, & Cai, 2013). Technology and its allied applications such as social media marketing and promotion offer new competitive edges and a dire need for hotel businesses to evolve. Apart from the technical aspect, the basic challenges faced by the hotel industry in the global sector are mainly the demand from the tourist and customers. Low turnout of the tourist in any city or country would mean that hotel business will face concerns of business revenue generation and thus, need to reduce the operating cost and shed the extra employees. A full cycle of dependant sectors such as employment, revenue, and taxation relies on the booming hotel sector, which can result in economic hardships for any city. An economic recession such as of 2008 can also impact the hotel industry is a great deal impacting the financial budget involving the fixed cost, operational expenses, and profit margins. Seasonal fluctuations are also secondary level shocks impacting the hotel industry but a season-related shortage of demand is an internal factor and depends largely on the local tourist and business diversity.

Two of the main challenges impacting the hotel industry in current times as well as going to be the key concern to devise any solution oriented management framework is elaborated below: 

 Environment and climate change

 Environment sustainability has now pitched as a global hallmark of consorting the business. Supply chain stakeholders, service providers, and customers are increasingly aware of the need to conduct business, provide services and prefer the services of only those organizations having a good reputation and creditable ratings in keeping the environmental concerns at the forefront of business management. Currently, environmental sustainability and climate change concerns have become the biggest global factor impacting all and every business. The ripple effect phenomenon of climate change impacts is going to matter in terms of local, national and international levels. The climate change is directly impacting the tourism sector which in turn is closely connected with the profitability and sustained operations of the hotel business (Tsalis & Nikolaou, 2017).  In order to understand the gravity of impact from climate change in the hotel sector, it is equally important to understand the relation of climate change factors and how the hotel business operates.

There are no immediate concerns from climate change which the hotel industry can fight off. Climate change and environmental sustainability is a long term business strategy that is going to be very important in the coming years (Hong, 2018). The current functions of the hotel industry do not pollution which is not controllable and containable. The frontline environmental concerns such as using the non-renewable energy sources for operations creating kitchen waste and wastewater is going to be effectively managed by the current waste management and energy solutions. Also, the important part of the hotel industry is the logistical and supply chain support. In order to address the concerns of environmental sustainability, all the logistical and supply chain stakeholders need to comply with the green business practices. The support system providing the food, paper, water, and other support also runs on energy and produces waste which again can be tackled by effective management strategies. The only problem is the nature of climate change and the preparedness of the hotel industry depending upon the cost and scale of the business (Anansiriprapha & Wu, 2016). Climate change factors are largely causing a rise in temperature, leading to a global rise in sea level. The nature of the global scale is such that the majority of the cities located on the coastal lines will be inundated if the climate change impacts won’t be checked. This has to be with all the business along with the hotel industry. But, the precursor to the global rise in temperature is also contributed by the release of greenhouses gases. The other major pollution caused by the hotel is related to the noise, smoke, chemical pollutants. But, the release of the CFC’s is likely to be the main contributor to the overall climate change implications.

The example of “Flight shaming” which is about the public shame in using the airlines to commute from one place to another because of the increased carbon emission by the airlines has already started showing its impact on major airlines operating between European cities (Aboulafia, 2019). The concept of flight shaming was propelled by young Swedish activists, Greta Thunberg promoting the people to shun the air travel. Major cuts on the airline customer flow will go to impact the travel flows and thus the impact will go on to impact the hotel industry as well (DiScala, 2019).      

Technological challenges for marketing and promotions

There is a major disruption in the hotel industry due to technology implications. Dynamic change in technology is forcing hotelier management to think and redraw the management and marketing strategies more often than any other challenge (Mathews, 2019). The customer demands the advanced technology and the hotel preference in technology matters has forced the hotel management to look into the change in the infrastructure of hotel interiors. The need for change in the hotel industry has made the hotel management frame technology agile, nimble and flexible strategies (Perini, 2011). The rise in social media use of the technology has challenged the hotel industry to work out the human resources hiring and implant the technology gadgets as a primary service demand of customers.     

The hotel management is facing problems in terms of ease of installations and software integrations. The website is the primary information face of the hotels of international and local reputes. The website of hotels holds great capabilities in terms of exciting features in the integration of the software. The property management system for large hotel establishments is primary a communication and integration tool that needs to get enhanced. Any delay in integrating the customer’s preferences and online tools such as hotels CRM, CRS, POS, social media, etc. small hotel business are unable to integrate their PRM with that of technology because of low operational cost (Gonzalez, Gasco, & Llopis, 2019).

Another issue of technology linked issues in the hotel industry is the lack of centralized solution providers. Offering guest-centric services to the customers does require a customized approach of technology which is currently a centralized human-controlled approach. With the use of technology a robust portfolio is required that can offer efficiencies, visibility and control of organizations (Guzzo, Abbott, & Madera, 2019). Marketing and promotion platforms based n the social media is also offering competition for new innovative hotel businesses. The worldwide approach of social media is making the business tough field and marketing options in terms of flexibility offered by competitors such as Airbnb is posing a threat to the hotel business. 


Climate change strategy requires the hotel management to plan for the effective building management system based on green practices. The management plans need to work on the effective building controls which are creating the temperature rise and can offer green living. The economic benefit of offering the environmental friendly stay in the hotels will be charged from the clients as a green tax (Xie, Zhang, Zhang, Singh, & Lee, 2016). The minimization of the waste materials, enhancing the use of recycled utensils and equipment, using the paperless office working patterns and using the online monitoring systems with sensor-based equipment; the reduction in energy usage will certainly garner more customer likability.   

Technology is a great source of marketing and business integration. The hotel business is a customer-oriented business where technology can impact very positively. Technology and sensor-based monitoring equipment will also help the building management system to work more energy-friendly and as per the needs of the customers (Viglia, Minazzi, & Buhalis, 2016). Social media sites are a great source to revamp management strategies as per customer feedback and likability. It is an excellent customer relations application where frequent travelers and guests can be offered a high-value service enhancing business loyalty and retaining the clients. Managing the roosters, working shifts of the teams working in a hotel can also be effectively created and shared and managed by integrating the technology into operation management. 

Strategy in Various Stages

The first strategy is to control the contribution of carbon emission and GHG’s. The strategy includes following stages:

  • Assessment: Current practices of business in hotel industry as well as any individual hotel premises needs to be put on assessment regarding the use and type of resources involved.
  • Identify: Once the assessment of energy intensive products and process is done, correct identification is to be made on the various level of danger and priority of changing or alternatives.
  • Alterative: Once, the identified process or gadget is noted, the alternative process and gadget is to be put to use replacing the original energy consuming process.

The second strategy will also follow various stages of software integration involving:

  • Identifying the current needs and customer base as well as an assessment of the current service is to be done along with the trend in customer preferences.
  • Social media platforms need to be created by creating a separate team of one or two person under a manager tasking to work on a social media marketing strategy.
  • Integrate the CRM and test it before operating.


The hotel industry is going through a drastic change. Technology innovation and disruption is a constant agent that seeks to impact the hotel business. Changing customer preferences and technological changes have been a constant cost investment for the hotel business. The small hotel business is dealing with the pressure of technological-based customer demands but also using the cost-effective website and online booking solutions to reutilize the operation cost. Climate change and environmental concerns are not an immediate threat that would usher the change in daily operations of the hotel industry, but it is a clarion call for the entire business line and allied activities to reassess the current business trends to a minute level of detailing and refocus to contribute to the fight against climate change and environmental challenges.  Technology is a challenge only for that hotel having low budget investment and reducing profit margins whereas the hotel chains focusing on the larger customer service and operational strengths can still use technology to its own benefit.  


Aboulafia, R. (2019). Flight Shaming Threatens To Take Air Travel Industry Down Tobacco Road. Retrieved April 17, 2020, from Forbes website: https://www.forbes.com/sites/richardaboulafia/2019/07/11/are-air-travelers-fated-to-join-smokers-as-social-pariahs/#497207aa325c

Anansiriprapha, P., & Wu, X. (2016). Economic Factors on the Tourism Industry in Thailand. SSRN Electronic Journal. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2858937

Borralha, S., Jesus, S. N. de, Pinto, P., & Viseu, J. (2016). Hotel employees: A systematic literature review. Tourism & Management Studies12(1), 120–126. https://doi.org/10.18089/tms.2016.12112

Chiang, F. F. T., Birtch, T. A., & Cai, Z. (2013). Front-line Service Employees’ Job Satisfaction in the Hospitality Industry. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly55(4), 398–407. https://doi.org/10.1177/1938965513514628

DiScala, J. (2019, October 11). The Flight Shaming Phenomenon Is Here: Business Travelers Should First Consider These 4 Factors Before Flying. Retrieved from Inc.com website: https://www.inc.com/john-discala/the-flight-shaming-phenomenon-is-here-business-travelers-should-first-consider-these-4-factors-before-flying.html

Gonzalez, R., Gasco, J., & Llopis, J. (2019). ICTs in hotel management: a research review. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management31(9), 3583–3609. https://doi.org/10.1108/ijchm-07-2017-0470  

Hong, J. (2018). Rise of the Sharing Economy and the Future of Travel and Tourism Industry. Journal of Business and Hotel Management07(02). https://doi.org/10.4172/2169-0286.1000180

Mathews, B. (2019). The Unique Technology Challenges Faced by Large Hotel Chains (Part 1 of 2 Part Series) | By Binu Mathews. Retrieved April 17, 2020, from Hospitality Net website: https://www.hospitalitynet.org/opinion/4095059.html

Perini, V. (2011). What are the three big technology issues for the hotel industry? Retrieved from www.phocuswire.com website: https://www.phocuswire.com/What-are-the-three-big-technology-issues-for-the-hotel-industry  

Tsalis, T. A., & Nikolaou, I. E. (2017). Assessing the Effects of Climate Change Regulations on the Business Community: A System Dynamic Approach. Business Strategy and the Environment26(6), 826–843. https://doi.org/10.1002/bse.1953

Xie, K. L., Zhang, Z., Zhang, Z., Singh, A., & Lee, S. K. (2016). Effects of managerial response on consumer eWOM and hotel performance. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management28(9), 2013–2034. https://doi.org/10.1108/ijchm-06-2015-0290

Viglia, G., Minazzi, R., & Buhalis, D. (2016). The influence of e-word-of-mouth on hotel occupancy rate. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management28(9), 2035–2051. https://doi.org/10.1108/ijchm-05-2015-0238

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Economic Theory and the 2020 Crisis

A Public Health Emergency was declared on 30 January 2020 which was of international concern. A case of pneumonia with an unknown cause was identified in Wuhan, China and was reported to WHO (World Health Organisation). The outbreak was named as COVID-19 by WHO which took the form of a pandemic (WHO, 2020). This crisis, due to the outbreak of COVI-19 pandemic has led to an economic crisis due to lockdown in the affected countries globally. This study will highlight the macro-economic and micro-economic effects of pandemic COVID-19 on Canada.

Impact of COVID-19 on the four macro-economic factors

Economic Theory and the 2020 Crisis

Figure 1: Current GDP Growth in Canada Source: (Trading Economics, 2020)

Based on the above diagram, it is observed that the country expected to enrich its GDP at 1760 USD billion by the end of 2020 (Trading Economics, 2020). In January, the GDP rate of the country is also raised by 0.1% before coronavirus pandemic hit the country (Global News, 2020). In March 2020, the GDP rate of the country is also decreased by 9% due to the amid COVID-19, and that also affect the country’s overall production line especially in three industries such as manufacturing, financial, transportation and warehouse (Global News, 2020). For example, the contribution of the sectors in the country’s GDP reduced by $174 billion from the manufacturing industry, $142.7 billion from the financial sector (Trading Economics, 2020).

Economic Theory and the 2020 Crisis

Figure 2: Current Inflation Rate in Canada Source: (Trading Economics, 2020)

The expected rate of inflation in Canada is around 2.73% by the end of 2020 (Trading Economics, 2020). Whereas, the inflation rate of the nation faces a downfall of 1.2% due to amid COVID-19 highly affected the economy of the country. The biggest factor of that situation is that the less demand for oil and travel in the country. In addition, the lowest interest rate of the Central bank, which is around 0.5% is another reason for the economic slump of the nation (Global News, 2020). Due to the effect of amid COVID-19, the Government took that initiative to extend lockdown in the whole region of the nation which disrupts the supply chain of the nation.         

Post the outbreak of COVID-19, many sectors in Canada like manufacturing, retail, hospitality, transportation, etc., is at risk. The Business Barometer of Canada has identified that the business index has fallen from 60.5 in Feb 2020 to 30.8 in March 2020 (Hillnotes, 2020). The Labor Force Strategy has declared that the outbreak of the pandemic has reduced the employment ratio has reduced by 5.5% within one month. The employment rate fell by 1 million or 5.3% in March, which has been recorded as the lowest rate since 1997 (CBC, 2020). The figures stated above implies that there has been a significant increase in the rate of unemployment in Canada.

The novel (COVID-19) has affected the operations of Canadian companies. The outbreak of the virus has implied temporary restrictions at the borders, which has affected the developmental activities of the business (Tradecommissioner, 2020). However, Canada is committed to keeping the supply chain open and lower down the excessive strict measures on goods, especially medicines. Hence, the international trade of Canada has also been affected except for the necessities.

Impact of COVID-19 on one microeconomic factor

Economic Theory and the 2020 Crisis

Figure 3: Demand and Supply Trend Source: Author

Based on the above diagram, it is observed that the demand for necessary products in the country is highly decreased. The demand for necessary products such as consumer goods, equipment and furniture are also reduced due to disrupting in the supply chain within the nation. In that context, lower demand for products also decreases the price of products which affecting the economic stability of the nation (Global News, 2020). Moreover, the quality of the supply of products is also reduced due to that pandemic situation for COVID-19. The prices of gasoline in the country is also reduced by 7.8% which is the biggest factor for the slump in the economy of the nation and that also affecting supply chain of the nation (Global News, 2020).    

Identification of remedial measures to preserve and protect the economics from recession

Based on the current economic situation of the country, it will be suggested that the Central bank of the nation requires to finance more money for public debt in order to infuse the collapse. In April 2020, the Central bank is also decided to lower the interest rate by a huge margin for the public debts. In that context, the Central Bank will require to purchase a huge margin of Corporate Bonds to support the Government with financially. The Government will require to take health caution measures to prevent this pandemic situation. The financial support from Central Bank will influence the Government to deal with ongoing recession towards the capital market.              


Based on the above calculation, it is observed that COVID-19 is highly affecting the supply chain of the nation, which made its impact on the inflation and GDP growth rate. Low quality from the suppliers decreases the demand for necessary products within the country, which are the main reason for GDP growth fall down of the nation by 9%.  


CBC. (2020). Nova-scotia-employment-numbers-drop-covid. Retrieved from Nova-scotia: https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/nova-scotia/nova-scotia-employment-numbers-drop-covid-19-1.5529444

Global News. (2020). Global News. Retrieved from Canada’s GDP up just 0.1% in January, before coronavirus hit: https://globalnews.ca/news/6755652/canadas-gdp-januray-2020-before-coronavirus/

Global News. (2020). Global News. Retrieved from Canada’s GDP shrank by 9% in March amid COVID-19: StatCan: https://globalnews.ca/news/6820197/canada-gdp-march-covid-19-statscan/

Hillnotes. (2020). Impacts-of-covid-19-on-selected-sectors-of-canadas-economy. Retrieved from Hillnotes.ca: https://hillnotes.ca/2020/04/08/impacts-of-covid-19-on-selected-sectors-of-canadas-economy/

Tradecommissioner. (2020). Commerce-international-COVID-19-international-trade.aspx. Retrieved from Tradecommissioner.gc.ca: https://www.tradecommissioner.gc.ca/campaign-campagne/commerce-international-COVID-19-international-trade.aspx?lang=eng

Trading Economics. (2020). Trading Economics. Retrieved from Canada GDP | 1960-2019 Data | 2020-2022: https://tradingeconomics.com/canada/gdp

Trading Economics. (2020). Trading Economics. Retrieved from Canada Inflation Rate1915-2020 Data | 2021-2022: https://tradingeconomics.com/canada/inflation-cpi

WHO. (2020). Novel-coronavirus-2019/events-as-they-happen. Retrieved from WHO.int: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/events-as-they-happen

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Mission Impossible


This article title of which is “Mission Impossible” is based upon the strategies of reducing the emergence of global climate change due to increment of Greenhouse gas emission. Considering the extreme heat waves as well as flooding and wild fires, in the year of 2017, the Author of this article named Dr. Peter D. Carter and Elizabeth Woodworth has presented the case scenario of climate disruption. Through the writing, this study has compared the global population, mainly the young people as the victims of the “Unprecedented Crime” as they are the key people who will have to experience the consequences of climate change in a broader sense Further, this article has also identified that being increasing Greenhouse gas emission which is the main cause for rapid global climate change, fossil fuel; industry is entirely responsible by being denial and collusion.

Key concept of the study

The key concept of this article is to draw attention of world population towards take global emergency response for reducing the rapid global climate change for safeguarding people from experiencing natural disasters which may hinder the entire population. In order to reduce the rapidity of climate change, this study has firstly suggested that it is needed to lead GHG emission reduction fast as climate gets bitterly hampered due to the existence of CO2, NO2 and methane.

Mission Impossible -Global Climate Change

Main points of the argument

Climate change is leading people to experience an average atmosphere with ever-increased rate of warming. Considering the increasing rate of global warming, this study has stated to introduce “Negative Emissions Technology “which would be able to remove a large number of CO2 from atmosphere. On the other hand, Long term carbon storage is also observed as an alternative strategy which would make the agriculture industry to increase its sustainability through store CO2 in soils for long time trough reducing agriculture waste. In order to turn “Mission possible” of reducing global warming to “Mission possible” this study has statistically presented the increment of fuel usage and its impact on temperature increment in last two years.

Opportunities for initiating the transition process

The section presents the opportunities that exist in the journey of getting transformed into green earth. One of the opportunities is that, since 2014, the CO2 emissions have remained static. The forecast of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions says that the emissions will decline to zero by 2050 (Carter, pp. 201-224). The plan for 100 % conversion of fossil fuel to renewable energy is also a significant opportunity for achieving zero GHD emission goals. Opportunities, thereby include a target for zero combustionand resisting the CO2 emissions.

The agricultural perspective of greenhouse gas emission

The section introduces the engagement of agriculture in GHG emissions. The plan for achieving zero combustion levels includes the transformation of existing agricultural practice from the usage of chemical fertilizer to biodegradable ones. Production of meat leads to deforestation of tropical bushes, which is also a threat to a sustainable earth. The chemical-intensive fertilizer used in fields acquires the prime cause of greenhouse pollution. Heavy CO2 emissions that result in using chemical fertilizers extensively contributed to GHG pollution. Chemical fertilizers, meat production, and emission carbon dioxide during farming are liable for GHG emissions.

Funding for rescuing the earth

The paragraph presents global funding related to controlling greenhouse gas emissions and providing a balanced environment. Expenses for preserving global energy is about USD 2 million annually. Along with such investments for global energy, an additional $ 300 billion is invested for renewable energy building. The American budget or funding for the mission of restoring balanced earth is very high compared to neighboring 8 countries. Public financial bodies such as The European Bank and African Development Bank have remained engaged in developing finds for the global energy mission. The USA has been noted as the highest investor for preserving green earth.


Global Climate change has raised as the world’s largest concern, as the emission of greenhouse gases has reached its height. However, there are still opportunities, as the CO2 emissions have remained constant since 2014.

Works Cited

Carter, D. P. (2018). Unprecedented Crime: Climate Change Denial and Game Changers for Survival. London: Clarity Press ; ISBN:9780998694740.

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