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Healthcare Report


The current report has focused on evaluating the impact of diabetes mellitus on the health condition of indigenous and non-indigenous people living in Australia. Diabetes mellitus defines the metabolic disease that leads to an increase in sugar level. Poor understanding of health has made indigenous people more vulnerable to diabetes in Australia. However, the sedentary lifestyle and possession of unhealthy possessed food have also increased the chances of diabetes among non-indigenous people living in the country. The current study aims at addressing the impact of diabetes on individual and community members of indigenous and non-indigenous people living in the country. Effectiveness of the health campaign done by the team members has also been mentioned in this context.

Significance of chosen health issue:

Geographical isolation has created a problem for aboriginal people to get fresh and healthy products that effect on their health condition. Possession of unhealthy food products has resulted in increased health issues like diabetes among these people. It is estimated that 39% of aboriginal people belonging to the age group of 55 years has diabetes due to their sedentary lifestyle in an isolated location(AIWS, 2015). Limited availability of advanced health treatment has created a problem to arrange an early diagnosis that creates an adverse impact on their health condition. On the other hand, an adaptation of westernised lifestyle has led 15% of young Aboriginal Islander people aged from 25-35 years to suffer from diabetes due to dietary changes in 2015. The rate of non-indigenous people diagnosed with diabetes mellitus is relatively less in comparison to the indigenous people. However, lack of physical activity has raised the issue of obesity among non-young population which results in raising health issue like diabetes. The genetic disorder is another factor that develops health issues like diabetes among non-indigenous people in Australia.  It is observed that 13.5% of non-indigenous people have been diagnosed with diabetes in 2015(Paul, et al., 2017). Lack of intervention has created a problem in managing the health issue prevalent among the indigenous and non-indigenous people.

Healthcare Report

Impact of a health issue on individual, family and community of indigenous and non-indigenous people:

The health of indigenous and non-indigenous Australians have a stark difference, where it has been observed that generally, the non-indigenous people are whites, have a lesser tendency of suffering from diabetes, and have lesser mortality rates(Creamer & Attridge, 2016). The main difference in how diabetes mellitus affects two separate sections of the Australian population is given below:-

Indigenous Australians:


Individuals from the indigenous population are at higher rates of suffering from diabetes mellitus because they are mostly living in remote areas of Australia, about 79% live in remote areas, and consume junk food on a regular basis(Statista, 2020).


Most of the family members of indigenous Australians have a medical history of diabetes; about 62.7% of the family members from the indigenous population have someone suffering from diabetes mellitus(Statista, 2020).


The community as a whole are more prone to have a sedentary lifestyle with greater consumption of fast food, which has a high concentration of fat, which leads to obesity and diabetes(Jaacks & Siegel, 2016). The community mainly belongs from an economically backward section of Australia, resulting in a greater amount of probability to suffer from diabetes mellitus.

Non-indigenous Australians:


The individuals from the non-indigenous Australians like whites mainly belong to the middle-class Australians who spend most of the time in posh localities of the country(Kelly & Ismail, 2015). It has also been found that they mainly prefer having organic food, do regular exercise, which makes diabetes mellitus have a lesser impact on them.


The family history of the non-indigenous Australians is different, and they have less probability of being diabetic, which helps them be on the safe zone in terms of diabetes(Pérez-Escamilla & Damio, 2015). Also, it is found that only 27% of the families from the non-indigenous Australians are diabetic.


The community is mainly different because there is a presence of health consciousness in the non-indigenous community of Australia(Creamer & Attridge, 2016). Most of the people are regularly habituated to do physical exercise and walking every day as much as possible. Also, fast food and a sedentary lifestyle are avoided. The community avoids alcohol in parties and family gatherings unless absolutely essential, which decreases their chance to have diabetes mellitus to a huge extent.

Identifiable gaps between health issues of indigenous and non-indigenous people:

Health gaps, mainly concerning diabetes mellitus, is clearly visible among the indigenous and non-indigenous population of Australia. The indigenous population consist of the aborigines and the Torres Strait islander who inhabited Australia before the British took over the place. Since that time, they have faced neglect from the government, and the continuous struggle for their economic backwardness has made them have any food that they easily get(Creamer & Attridge, 2016). In modern Australia, the food that is easily found, and at a lower price are non-organic food with high calories and sugar. Most of the non-indigenous Australians don’t consume it due to their health consciousness. However, the indigenous Australians consume it, resulting in their chances of increasing diabetes mellitus associated with other problems like obesity.

The mortality rates of indigenous people are also higher than the non-indigenous people because the non-indigenous people are health conscious and do not follow a sedentary lifestyle(Jaacks & Siegel, 2016). Due to higher levels of employment, the non-indigenous Australians are regularly busy with their work. On the contrary, the indigenous Australians are facing the problems of sitting at home, and no exercise, which increases their chances of diabetes mellitus. The indigenous Australians have also been found to have lesser levels of awareness about diabetes mellitus and health consciousness. Unless there is an emergency, no indigenous members go for a regular check-up in the hospital units. Also, it has been found that the lack of diet control and exercise often results in increasing the probability of indigenous people towards diabetes mellitus.

Brief description of the campaign:

I along with my team members, will focus on arranging a poster campaign on healthy eating to promote the necessity of possessing fresh foods that are essential to protect the health condition of people.The guidance of team member helps to share an idea about the importance of appointing aboriginal instructor to draw the attention of individuals belonging from the aboriginal group(Jansen, 2017). The guidance of trainer regarding the adverse impact of unhealthy diet chart that leads to creating health problems like obesity, high-pressure benefits in making them aware of possessing healthy food items(Brzozowska, et al., 2019). I have also thought about promoting free check-up option during the time of healthy eating campaign for community members living in the aboriginal state. Sharing a proper diet plan after sharing informationabout the current health condition of these community memberswill be beneficial to make them aware of the necessity of participating in this campaign. In case of promoting the healthy eating campaign among the non-aboriginal people, I will focus on mentioning about the sedentary lifestyle that creates an adverse impact on the health condition of non-indigenous individuals. Through the campaign, a community awareness session will also be done to share importation about the healthy diet plan that needs to be possessed by the old age population. Sharing statistical information about the increasing issue of obesity caused due to unhealthy eating will benefit from attracting a large number of indigenous and non-indigenous people towards the healthy eating campaign.

Short description of the target audience and the reason behind selecting your target audience:

I have selected obese people belonging to the age group of 25-34 years living in a community near the Rossmoyne area of Perth, Australia, to progress with the healthy eating campaign. I have selected the young age population as they are leading a sedentary lifestyle which leads to creating health issues like obesity or high-pressure level. The valuable suggestion of health experts benefits in making them knowledgeable choices of food items that need to be considered by them to avoid health issue(Timpel, et al., 2019). The guidance of experienced healthcare professionals increases the chances of sharing proper information about the physical activities that need to be performedto reduce the issue of obesity.

Effectiveness of the campaign to deal with the issue:

Successful promotion of the healthy eating campaign will benefit in controlling the possession of unhealthy food products that results in developing health problems like cholesterol or diabetes mellitus. Sharing of valuable information about the benefit of availing fresh food items will assist in protecting the problem of diabetes among the aboriginal group of people. Promoting the healthy eating campaign in urban location has supported in addressing the importance of avoiding a sedentary lifestyle to prevent diabetes among non-aboriginal people. The campaign will also support in addressing the importance of regular check-up that is highly essential to diagnose the problem of diabetes in order to proceed with the treatment.


The present study has detailed aboutthe impact of diabetes mellitus on the health condition of an aboriginal and non-aboriginal group of people. Considering the adverse impact of this health issue has influenced the importance of promoting healthy eating campaign that is essential to make people aware of the possessing fresh foot items to avoid health issue likeobesitywhichhelps in controlling the chances of diabetes.


AIWS, 2015. Diabetes. [Online] Available at: https:// www. aihw.gov.au/reports/diabetes/diabetes-compendium/contents/deaths-from-diabetes [Accessed 20 April 2020].

Brzozowska, M., Havula, E., Allen, R. & Cox, M., 2019. Genetics, adaptation to environmental changes and archaic admixture in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus in Indigenous Australians. Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders, 20(3).

Creamer, J. & Attridge, M., 2016. Culturally appropriate health education for Type 2 diabetes in ethnic minority groups: an updated Cochrane Review of randomized controlled trials. Diabetic Medicine, 12(7), pp. 169-183, DOI: 10.1111/dme.12865.

Jaacks, L. & Siegel, K., 2016. Type 2 diabetes: A 21st century epidemic. Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 30(3), pp. 331-343, DOI: 10.1016/j.beem.2016.05.003.

Jansen, C., 2017. Developing persuasive health campaign messages. Information Design: Research and Practice, 24(2), pp. 669-684.

Kelly, S. & Ismail, M., 2015. Stress and type 2 diabetes: a review of how stress contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes. Annual review of public health, 15(6), pp. 441-462, DOI: 10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031914-122921.

Paul, C. et al., 2017. Testing for type 2 diabetes in Indigenous Australians: guideline recommendations and current practice. Medical Journal of Australia, 227(5), pp. 206-210.

Pérez-Escamilla, R. & Damio, G., 2015. Impact of a community health workers–led structured program on blood glucose control among Latinos with type 2 diabetes: the DIALBEST trial. Diabetes Care, 16(5), pp. 197-205, DOI: 10.2337/dc14-0327.

Statista, 2020. Diabetes in Australia – Statistics & Facts. [Online] Available at: https://www.statista.com/topics/3132/diabetes-in-Australia/[Accessed 4 April 2020].

Timpel, P. et al., 2019. What should governments be doing to prevent diabetes throughout the life course?. Diabetologia, 23(2), pp. 1-12.

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Evidence Based Nursing Assignment

According to the Registered Nurse Standards for Practice (2016), what is the role of evidence based practice in the nursing profession? (100 words±10% , 4 marks). Needs referencing.

Evidence based practice (EBP) holds the future of effective health care that support more probability of greater health and well being of the public(Mazurek Melnyk, 2016). EBP is crucial to the nursing profession because it bridges the gap between what nurses know and what they can do to do to provide effective care to the patients. Currently, a gulf of difference exists between the nursing practice and decision making that result the nursing care. EBP in nursing is aimed to empower the decision making which is supported by the best case practices in order to mitigate the fatalities that can be avoided. EBP brings a paradigm shift in improving healthcare effectiveness and creates a platform of knowledge sharing and learning in order to improve the quality of care given to patients.  

How can the Evidence Based Practice Model enhance nurses’ clinical decision-makings? (100 words±10%, 4 marks). Needs referencing.

Evidence based practice model brings transparency and accountability in the nursing sector. The clinical decision-making process is complex and involves a high risk of patents safety and wellbeing as well as the professional career of the nursing practicians. EBP model aims at integrating the research evidence with that of clinical experience and pays attention to the individual care strategy of the patients. Clinical decision making based on evidential based practice also takes into account the patients preferences in terms of a right-based approach. Evidence-based practice model support culturally safe healthcare practices and promotes clinical decision making as per the safe cultural limits of Aboriginal and native peoples which are often the most vulnerable to receive the quality healthcare.

One of the components of Evidence Based Practice is consideration of the patient’s values and preferences. What does this mean? Using an example, explain the importance of this component (100 words±10%, 4 marks). Needs referencing.

EBP is a part of new nursing guidelines which demands a balance in decision making from healthcare concern as well as patients preferences in the care system. Understanding the patient’s values and preferences and integrating them in the clinical decision making means giving value to the patients viewpoint about the his health condition, understanding the circumstances from the patient and his family in order to do good with the care provided to the patient(Siminoff, 2013). Integrating the patient preferences in action-based care is the ideal process of creating a shared decision-making framework where information and awareness of the patient’s condition are crucial. EBP, when integrated with the patient preferences, results in improved understanding of the risks enhances the communication between nurses and patients and gives positive hope to the patient about the quality of the care received by patient(van der Weijden, et al., 2010).

Reflecting on your last clinical placement or clinical work experience, explain four barriers and four enablers to the implementation of evidence-based practice in the clinical settings? (100 words±10%, 4 marks).

EBP based practice in clinical settings is a challenging task. There are challenges and motivators to the EBP framework listed below from the personal experience:


  • Lack of communication and trust-building between patient and nursing staff.
  • Lack of desired change management in the clinical settings w.r.t EBP(Mathieson, Grande, & Luker, 2018)
  • More focussing towards learning from research rather than evidence-based learning’s.
  • EBP face challenges from the patient preferences, as well as the patient’sfamily and friends.


  • Healthcare equality can be achieved using EBP.
  • Enhanced patient-centric care.
  • Foster individual development of clinical staff.
  • EBP promotes international quality care

Why are randomised controlled trials considered to be ‘higher level evidence’?  (50 words±10%, 1.5 marks). Needs referencing

Randomised controlled trials are assigned a higher value because of their credibility to be free from systematic errors. During a clinical trial, using the RCT, the participants can be randomly assigned to one or more than one clinical interventions(Mazurek Melnyk, 2016). It is one of the most scientific and rigorous methods of formulating the research hypothesis feasibility during the testing.

Can you trust the results of this study? What are the strengths and weaknesses of this paper? (Hint: refer to the CASP for randomised controlled trials to guide you in the critical appraisal of this study) (200 words±10%, 9 marks). 

The result of this study clearly shows that music has a positive side which brings numerous changes in the emotional and anxiety level of the person suffering from the disorder. The Random control trails method was also an important part of ensuring scientifically valid results were achieved. Music therapy is considered to be a crucial part of standard care for the peoples with mild, moderate and severe depressive experiences. From the results, it shows that music therapy is a successful cost-effective standard care(Siminoff, 2013). Strong empirical research evidence was given by this study in favour of the depressive peoples.

The primary weakness of this research was the lack of defined clinical procedure to be used on the RCT’s who were given music therapies. The random control trials participants were not considered on the diversity of their age and gender. Thus, it is appropriate to say that the main weakness is the research methodology which further questions the results. Using the RCTs for the music therapy groups gives rather unique and rare results which are questionable from certain points such as it lacks the connection between the clinical methods for the control group and music therapy group. Also, the use of quantitative research methods does not ascertain the clinical methods conventionally used for the depression based research.

Was music therapy effective in treating the depression of the patients? (Hint: present and interpret the results for depression outcome- see Table 2 for the summary of the results- you need to consider the results for intervention and control groups, whether the difference between these groups is statistically significant, and if the estimation of the results for the wider population is precise (100 words±10%, 5 marks)

Table 2 is documenting the changes in primary and secondary outcomes within the music group and the control group for the baseline period of 3 to 6 months. The results of Table 2 clearly show that music therapy was successful in treating depressed patients. Table 2 signify that results outcomes for the music group were far greater and significant as compared to the control arm in the indicators of MADRS, HADS-A, and GAF scores.Also, the graphical analysis from Table 2 showsan odd ratio (OR) = 2.96 highlighting the greater results in the music group when 3-month period is analysed for all the psychiatric levels.

Would you recommend music therapy for patients with depression? (Justify your answer taking into consideration the benefits, harms, and the cost of the intervention) (100 words,±10%  3.5 marks) 

Depression is one of the most common disorder creating wide-reaching impacts related to social disorder, degraded quality of life and increased mortality. The recommendation of the music therapy is beneficial to the peoples having the depressing disorder as the therapy involves the music which helps calm the emotional mood and expression as well as for the purpose of therapy personal communications needs to be established. The positive impacts of music therapy include reducing depressivesymptoms and controlling anxiety. The music therapy is also a skill-based activity which is available in cost-effective charges.

Evidence Based Nursing Assignment


Mathieson, A., Grande, G., & Luker, K. (2018). Strategies, facilitators and barriers to implementation of evidence-based practice in community nursing: a systematic mixed-studies review and qualitative synthesis. Primary health care research & development, 6(2), 34-67, doi.org/10.1017/S1463423618000488.

Mazurek Melnyk, B. (2016). The Doctor of Nursing Practice Degree= Evidence‐Based Practice Expert. Worldviews on Evidence‐Based Nursing, 13(3), 183-184, doi/abs/10.1111/wvn.12164.

Siminoff, L. (2013). December. Incorporating patient and family preferences into evidence-based medicine. . In BMC medical informatics and decision making, 53(13), 56.

van der Weijden, T., Légaré, F., Boivin, A., Burgers, J., van Veenendaal, H., Stiggelbout, A., . . . Elwyn, G. (2010). How to integrate individual patient values and preferences in clinical practice guidelines? A research protocol. Implementation Science, 5(1), 10, doi: 10.1186/1748-5908-5-10.

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Global Food Quality Management Systems

What is personal hygiene?

  • Personal hygiene is the process and practice in which we care for our body.
  • This process includes washing our hands regularly, brushing teeth taking bath and much more.
  • Personal hygiene important especially within food and beverage industry manufacturing process.
  • Food and beverage industries especially involved in the production process are bound to provide products which are safe to eat for the customers by maintaining hygiene and sanitation practices.
  • Hygiene and sanitation practice therefore forms an integral part of workplace hygiene.
  • Here every employee would be encouraged to follow sanitation practice like washing hands before entering the production unit and other process.

Global Food Quality Management Systems

Bringing the change and improvement

  • To start with regular training sessions would be created in order to provide insight of personal hygiene under Quality planning approach.
  • The hygienic policies which would be formulated would also be demonstrated to the employees.
  • Ever new hiring will have the training process mandatory and hygiene week would be followed to improve the quality of hygiene.
  • Proper monitoring compliance and regulations check would be provided by the management as a part of quality control.

Parameter for measuring the effectiveness

  • The effectiveness would be measured with three fold monitoring process.
  • The supervisors and the line managers would provide monthly report to the higher department regarding the safety measures which are followed.
  • They would also report the employees who have filled to abide with the compliance.


  • Personal hygiene within workplace is an important element for food and beverage production unit.
  • The current scenario resulted in non-maintenance of proper hygiene factors.
  • Hand swab test resulted into satisfactory outcomes and need to improve the hygienic policies were seen.
  • The new hygienic policy would ensure washing hands, using protective equipment’s, and regular medical check-up of employees.
  • Proper monitoring process for the overall hygienic policy would also be implemented which includes the supervisors.
  • Trainings would be provided to the employees.
  • Rewarding policies and penalties are to be introduced in order to maintain the motivation among the employees.
  • The parameter for measuring the effectiveness would be the rate of response from the customers, the supervisors and from the employees themselves.
  • Further improvements would be ascertained based on the response received.


  • Nwudu, V., Fletcher, A.M. and Bauer, M., 2018. Patterns and predictors of personal protection compliance and workplace hygiene behaviors among workers with elevated blood lead levels in New York State. Journal of occupational and environmental hygiene15(9), pp.654-663.
  • Trafialek, J., Drosinos, E.H. and Kolanowski, W., 2017. Evaluation of street food vendors’ hygienic practices using fast observation questionnaire. Food Control80, pp.350-359.
  • Moerman, F., 2017. Personal Hygiene and Good Maintenance Practices for the Servicing of Food Processing Equipment. In Food Protection and Security (pp. 267-327). Woodhead Publishing.
  • Gamble, J.R., Brennan, M. and McAdam, R., 2017. A rewarding experience? Exploring how crowdfunding is affecting music industry business models. Journal of business research70, pp.25-36.
  • Borggaard, G.A., Google LLC, 2019. System and method for rewarding customers who invite other customers to a business. U.S. Patent 10,318,977.

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Poor Water Quality in Christchurch

1.  Introduction and Research Background

The water is harmful to the people if the presence of chlorine is above the 5 mg/ litter because it causes health diseases like kidney failure (Coakley, Bridgen, Bates, & Douwes, 2018). The water chlorination damages the functions of the water heaters. This research incorporatesan investigation to identify the mitigation measures to reduce the chlorine composition. Hence, this research selects a case of Christchurch where they aregetting water supply with the presence of a high percentage of chlorine. Water testing team of theChristchurch government has tested their supplied water, where they found a percentage of chlorine of 0.2 to 1.2 parts per million (CCC, 2020). The high presence ofchlorines damages the water heater pipes that cause the sudden breakdown of those machines. The government of Christchurch has decided that the rainfall is lower in December and January that reduces the underground water level. The absence of rainfall increases the margin of chlorine within the groundwater (CCC, 2020). As per standards of New Zealand drinking water, the H level of the water should be seven and presence of Escherichia coli2 should be less than one in 100 ML samples (Health, 2020). The high pH level addressed as the presence of alkaline composition likechlorine in the water that is harmful for human consumption.

The high presence of chlorine is addressed as the Alkalosis(Rosenblum, Zaffiro, Adams, & Wendelken, 2017). The alkalosis characteristics of water signify the availability of highly chlorine composition, which is principiated presence of heated copper that destroys its function(CCC, 2020). The people of Christchurch using the cooper water heater where the water is wormed presence of copper immersion rod made with the cooper. When the copper materials are heated up in the presence of the chlorine than chlorination chemical reaction happens that precipitates the chlorine from the water (Newsline, 2020). The precipitated chlorine is stored in the water pipes, which damages the functionality of the cooper water heater. This research focuses on the mitigation measures on the poor Christchurch water quality. Christchurch has actively participated in making closely monitor the stream level of banks of the peninsula to the betterment of the quality of water by stabilisingthe pH level (Newsline, 2020). The installation of purifying machinery in the water supply station might be a potential solution to purify the water, eliminating chlorine and deliver pure water to the people Christchurch.

2.  Research problem and Problem Statement

The problem statement is the poor quality of water in Christchurch due to the presence of highlychlorine composition that damage the function of the copper water heater.

Copper is the most efficient elements to heat up the water. The people of Christchurch uses this water heater at a margin of 79.8% to heat up water to purify impurechemicals from the water, and they influenced to use that purified water safely (Health, 2020). The research problem is that the presence of the chlorine composition in the groundwater of Christchurch. The presence of alkaline composition in water that dismantles the functionality of copper water heater by precipitin chlorine. The copper water heater is used for purifying the alkaline chemicals and use the water safely. But the alkaline materials like chlorine is found 61 stations of Christchurch which supplies the people of Christchurch.

The working principle of the copper water cylinder is heated by using the copper immersion rod. The presence of heat like 60 to 70 dree temperature destroys the immunity of impure biological materials which reduces the impurity from the water. The Christchurch city council distributed the water supply in 68 service station, where 53 number of stations areusing the well to supply the water (Newsline, 2020). The usage of well increases the margin of chlorine. The microbiologicalcomposition getsa chance to make a chemical reaction in the water of stored contained that improves the composition of water. that damages the copper water heaters. The copper electrodes are used within the water heater to purify the water. Chlorines are precipitated in the presence of the heated copper electrode due to this reason, approximately 45 number of cylinders have been changed by the Christchurch city council authority (Health, 2020).

The Christchurch city council claimed that the exchange of the copper water heater consumes high financial assets. Therefore, the CCC avoids this solution of replacing the copper cylinders to resolve the poor-quality issues (Newsline, 2020).

As per the standards New Zealand drinking water, it is identified that the small water supply follows 4-9 contain the microbial, chemical and radiological compliance within the drinking water to provide pure water to their people of Christchurch. This characteristicis not present within the drinking water that signifies the violation of the standards of the New Zealand drinking water (Newsline, 2020). The New Zealand government is unable to provide pure drinking water to the citizen, which consists ofa potential risk of health issues like kidney failure. The mitigation strategies are the concern of this research which help Christchurch city council to improve the quality of water and supply to their customers (Stuff, 2020). The revision of the regulatory policy of drinking water is essential that facilitates them to maintain permanent chlorination. Chlorination is the process of reducingthe percentage of chlorine from the water.

3.  Research Aim

The aim of this research is to identify the mitigation measures for poor Christchurch water quality.

4.  Literature Review

  1. International and National Standards of Water

As per the international standards of drinking water is that the people must get the soft water for drinking. The pH level lies of drinking water must be lies between the 6.5 to 8 that addressed asa smaller presence of alkaline composition like chlorine in the water. This pH level slandered signifies as the soft water that is essential for the drinking water (WHO, 2020). As per the drinking water standard of World Health Organisation (WHO), it is identified that the percentage of chlorine must present at an amount of 0.08mg at 1 to 2-degree temperature water at the presence of the pH level of 7 to 8.5 (WHO, 2020). The presence of the micro chloramine must present in the drinking water at a margin of the 94 mg/ litter water presence in 1 to the 2-degree temperature of the water. Moreover, the percentage of monochloramine is present within the drinking water at the amount of 278 mg/litter at the presence of a pH level 6 to 9 (WHO, 2020).

As per the standards of the WHO it is identified that the Ozon and UV irradiation treatment process is significant to reduce the presence of an excessive margin of alkaline and acidic materials from the drinking water. This chemical and biological characterises must present within the drinking water as per the drinking water standers of WHO. The presence of these characteristics is signifying as the drinkable water for the people.  The presence of low alkaline materials like 0.08mg chlorine and 94mg monochloramine along with the pH level of 6 to 8.5 signifies the pure and drinkable water as per the drinking water guidelines issued by WHO.

According to On, et al. (2019), the microbial determinants including Escherichia coli, pathogenic protozoa arecharacterised that water as adrinking water. Based on section 2.2 of standards of drinking water of New Zealand,it is identified that the presence of Escherichia coli at a range of less than 100 mL of sample (Health, 2020). The presence of a low amount of microorganism is signified aspure water as per the drinking standards of the ministry of health of New Zealand. The total pathogenic protozoa must be present in the water at arange of 00 cysts per 100 L of sample3 that signifies as the pure drinking water (CCC, 2020). As per the health ministry standards of NZ, it is identified that the chlorine level must be present below the range of 5 mg/ litre. Moreover, the presence of chromium and chromium is between the 0.8 and 0.05 mg/ litter that signifies as a drinking water.

  • Issues associated with drinking water

Water pollution is significant in the groundwater level that hampers the percentage of the Escherichia coli, pathogenic protozoa from the drinking water. As stated by Coakley et al. (2018), the excessive margin of chlorine-like above 5 mg/litter signifies as the polluted water, which could be drinkable by the human being. People of Christchurch getting the poor quality of water which hasa high presence of chlorine at a margin of 9.2 to 10 and a pH level of 8.2 (Stuff, 2020). The presence of a high margin of chlorine destroys the functions of the copper water heater functionality. The copper is used in the water heater because its thermal conductivity is 399 W/(m*k). Copper is widely used for heating and purifying the water from the harmful germs present within the water.

Drinking Water

According to Zia et al. (2020),the presence of chlorine is a high percentage precepted in the presence of heated copper. The precepted copper creates a layer on the heater cylinder that destroy its functions. As an example, 75% of people Christchurch is facing this issue with their copper water heater where it destroys the functions due to high precipitation of chlorine (Newsline, 2020). For example, 68 water supply stations are present in Christchurch, where 53 number of water supply stations store and supplied water from the well (Newsline, 2020). Hence, the consumption of water enhances the percentage of chlorine due to the reaction between the microbiological organism. Therefore, the people of Christchurchis getting water with high chlorine that destroyers the function of their water heater.

  • Mitigation measures on poor water quality

The water supply department of the city council must follow the guidelines of international standers for the drinking water. This guideline is important to maintain the purity of the drinking water by reducing the presence of the chlorine (Newsline, 2020). Christchurch city counciltaking initiatives to change the regulatory policy for drinking water as per the international standards of drinking water proposed by the WHO. Moreover, Christchurch city council is seeking to the exception for the Lyttleton harbour basic water supply to maintain permanentchlorination and provide the pure drinking water (Newsline, 2020). According to Batley & Simpson (2020), the Christchurch eliminate the temporary chlorine dosing solution and implement a purifying system to reduce the costing for repairing copper heater cylinder and provide chlorine-free water. Therefore, the puffing system implementation is the potential solution to reduce the chlorineof 5 Mg as per the international standards and reduce the chances of destroying the function of copper water heater function.

5.  Research Significance and Limitation

  1. Research significance:

This research is significant because it incorporates investigation on a social issue of Christchurchwhere people are getting impure water presence of chlorine composition. Due to this reason, the functions of their copper water heater isdestroyeddue to precipitation of chlorine from the water that consumes huge cost to repair or replacement. This research is significant because it investigates the reason behind the presence of a high margin of chlorine withinthe drinking water. This research is alsoinvestigatingthe reasons behind the presence of chlorine in drinking water that destroys the functionality of the copper water heater by precipitating chlorine in the cylinder of the heater. The research is significant to make research on the international and New Zealandstandards of drinking water. This investigation is beneficial for identifying the mitigations measures to implement permanent chlorination to betterment the purity of the water by reducing chlorine composition.

  • Limitations:

This research willbe investing the water issues on a particular location like Christchurch instead of considering the overall of New Zealand. This research will not consider the primary source of data so that this research will not project the practical experience of the citizen of Christchurch. This research will consider the secondary source of information so that only theoretical and conceptual measures will be highlighted. It reduces the authenticity of the information related to mitigations measures for Christchurch water qualitybecause it collected from the secondary sources.

6.  Project Design

The research methodology is a process of collection of data from the data sources to meet the objectives of this study(Humphries, 2017).

  1. Research design

Research design is a set of method to analyse the variables are associated with the research problem to find out the answer tothe research question(Cuervo‐Cazurra & Mudambi, 2017).  Research design is segmented as a type of exploratory, explanatory and descriptive. This study will be following the exploratory research design to create a link between the two variables named mitigation strategy and poor water quality of Christchurch. During this investigation, the reason behind the poor water quality is identified by reviewing the research paper related to mitigation measures of poor quality of water. The identification of the reason behind the poor water quality will also influence to make research on the variable like mitigation strategy.

  • Research philosophy

Research philosophy identifies a way to accomplish the research to meet the objective(Ledford & Gast, 2018). the positivism philosophy will be suitable for the poor water quality is social issues which require mathematical information like pH level to define it. Hence, positivism philosophy will instruct to the researcher to draw the inference on mathematic information and identify the reason behind the delivery of poor quality of water. It also instructed to collect information related to mitigation measures to implement permanent chlorination that purifies the drinking water supplied to people of Christchurch.

  • Research approach

The research approach is a set of instruction that help to identify the inference of variables associated with the research topic(Quinlan & Babin, 2019). The research approach iscategorised in mainly two types, including inductive and deductive approach. The inductive approach will be adopted by this research to investigate the mitigation strategies of the poor water quality of Christchurch. The inductive approach will provide a scope to generate inference based on the investigation of the reason for the poor quality of water in Christchurch. This mitigation strategy will help to identify the reason behind destroying the functionality ofcopper water heater. The inductive approach helps to identify the inference based on the mitigation techniques like revising the water policy, repairing the copper water cylinder to resolve the issue.

  • Research strategy

The research strategy is a technique to investigate the research problem associated with the topic(Saunders & Bezzina, 2015). Ethnographic, case study, narrative, and grounded theory are the type of strategies are commonly used within the research. Case study methods will be followed in this study because it helps to develop the collect examples of different mitigation measures by reviewing the website of the Christchurch city council. This investigation will help to develop the meet the research objective by delivering appropriate measures to improve the quality of drinking water. The case study approach will help to collect secondary information related to international and domestic water standards. The knowledge gathering regarding water standards will influence to identify the proper solution to establish permanent chlorination.

  • Data collection

Data collection is a process of gathering relevant and authentic information from the data sources(Taylor & Bogdan, 2015). The primary and secondary method is followed by research studies to collect information to meet the objective of the research study. The secondary data collection process will be followed in this study to collect facts, figures and regulations of water pollution rate in New Zealand. Moreover, the secondary data will be collected from the relevant, recent and authentic journal and news article. The collection of secondary information associated in relation to the mitigation measures to provide permanent solution about the colonisation.

  • Data analysis

Data analysis is a process of analysis of the collected statistical and theoretical information to provide an answer to research questions(Flick, 2015). The thematic analysis process will be followed by this research that enables them to prepare code, the theme from the collected secondary information. The analysis of theme helps to identify the measures that help to provide a better quality of water to their people of Christchurch by implementing a permeant solution of the chlorination.

  • Ethical consideration

The ethical consideration is associated with the collection of secondary information from the authentic journal and news articles. This ethical consideration will support to collect authentic information regarding international and New Zealand standards of water and suggest mitigation measures for permanent chlorination. The ethical standardswill include the rules of selection of journal articles above 2015 to implicate authentic information regarding thereason behind the poor water quality of Christchurch. Moreover, the collected information will be used for academic purpose only.

7.  Conclusion

This research concludes that the chlorine composition is increased in water due to reaction with the microbiological determinants. The drinking water supply with chlorine composition destroys the functionality of copper water heater by precipitated the chlorine in the presence of heated copper immersion rod. The people of Christchurch getting water highly presence of chlorine composition. Whiling heating water the chlorine composition is precipitated in the presence of heated copper rod. The installation of the purification system for establishing permanent chlorination is essential to mitigate the impurity related to chlorine composition and deliver purified water to the people of Christchurch.

8.  References

Batley, G., & Simpson, S. (2020). Short‐term guideline for chlorine in marine waters. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 1(1), 1, DOI: 10.1002/etc.4661.

CCC. (2020). Where we have chlorinated. Retrieved April 29, 2020, from https://ccc.govt.nz/services/water-and-drainage/water-supply/water-chlorination

CCC. (2020). Water quality and monitoring. Retrieved April 29, 2020, from https://ccc.govt.nz/services/water-and-drainage/water-supply/quality-and-monitoring/water-quality-and-monitoring

Coakley, J., Bridgen, P., Bates, M., & Douwes, J. (2018). Chlorinated persistent organic pollutants in the serum of New Zealand adults, 2011–2013. Science of the total environment, 615(1), 624-631, DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.331.

Cuervo‐Cazurra, A., & Mudambi, R. (2017). Research methodology in global strategy research. Global Strategy Journal, 15(6), 233-240, DOI: 10.1002/gsj.1164.

Flick, U. (2015). Introducing research methodology: A beginner’s guide to doing a research project. London: Sage, ISBN: 0792349156.

Health. (2020). Drinking-water Standards for New Zealand 2005 (Revised 2018). Retrieved April 29, 2020, from https://www.health.govt.nz/publication/drinking-water-standards-new-zealand-2005-revised-2018

Health. (2020). Drinking-water Standards for New Zealand 2005 (Revised 2018). Retrieved April 29, 2020, from https://www.health.govt.nz/publication/drinking-water-standards-new-zealand-2005-revised-2018

Humphries, B. (2017). Re-thinking social research: anti-discriminatory approaches in research methodology (Vol. 3). London: Routledge, ISBN: 9781315244280.

Ledford, J., & Gast, D. (2018). Single case research methodology: Applications in special education and behavioural sciences (2 ed.). London: Routledge, ISBN: 9781315150666.

Newsline. (2020). Level 4 water restrictions for parts of Banks Peninsula. Retrieved April 29, 2020, from https://newsline.ccc.govt.nz/news/story/level-4-water-restrictions-for-parts-of-banks-peninsula

Newsline. (2020). The word on water: Latest on chlorination. Retrieved April 29, 2020, from https://newsline.ccc.govt.nz/news/story/the-word-on-water-latest-on-chlorination

On, S., Althaus, D., Miller, W., Lizamore, D., & Wong, S. (2019). Arcobacter cryaeropHilus isolated from New Zealand mussels harbour a putative virulence plasmid. Frontiers in microbiology, 10(1), 1802, DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.01802.

Quinlan, C., & Babin, B. (2019). Business research methods (3 ed.). London: South-Western Cengage, ISBN: 9781473760356.

Rosenblum, L., Zaffiro, A., Adams, W., & Wendelken, S. (2017). Effect of chlorination by-products on the quantitation of microcystins in finished drinking water. Toxicon, 138(1), 138-144, DOI: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2017.08.023.

Saunders, M., & Bezzina, F. (2015). Reflections on conceptions of research methodology among management academics. European management journal, 15(7), 297-304, DOI: 10.1016/j.emj.2015.06.002.

Stuff. (2020). Chlorine levels in some Christchurch water might be enough for swimming pools. Retrieved April 29, 2020, from https://www.stuff.co.nz/the-press/news/103631494/chlorine-levels-in-some-christchurch-water-might-be-enough-for-swimming-pool

Taylor, S., & Bogdan, R. (2015). Introduction to qualitative research methods: A guidebook and resource (2 ed.). London: John Wiley & Sons, ISBN: 1446244776.

WHO. (2020). Drinking-water quality guidelines. Retrieved April 29, 2020, from https://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/water-quality/guidelines/en/

WHO. (2020). Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality. Retrieved April 29, 2020, from https://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/gdwq0506.pdf

WHO. (2020). INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS FOR DRINKING-WATER. Retrieved April 29, 2020, from https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/205104/205104_eng.pdf;jsessionid=4202C0271A1E24AD862C08DB2688CA1D?sequence=2

Zia, Z., Hartland, A., & Mucalo, M. (2020). Wastewater treatment in New Zealand: zeolites as a potential low-cost solution for heavy metal removal. In The International Symposium on Macrocyclic and Supramolecular Chemistry, 1(1), 26, DOI:10.1016/j.desal.2007.02.022.

Research Report on Poor Water Quality in Christchurch by Subject Academy

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The Impact of FinTech on Firm Performance in the UAE


As one of the most competitive financial centers in the Middle East Africa and Southeast Asia (MEASA) region, the Dubai International Financial Centre is transforming the forthcoming era of monetary services and corporate performance in the UAE and beyond. Recent work in the financial industry has revealed that Fintech is an important element in the present revolution. We have chosen this company as it is a fast emerging as has innovative means of achieving greater financial inclusion. They also have proven goals of inclusive growth by improving speed, efficiency, and convenience of the financial services (Lukonga, 2018).

Financial technology has opened up a world of vast opportunities for the financial industry and the business world by supporting the delivery of more innovative services, transforming the traditional business models, and generation of better profits. Fintech has brought forth a major impact on the current and future of the corporate world, which implies that businesses need to explore in their Fintech investmentsto provide users with greater value, yield higher revenues, lower funding costs, increased efficiency, risk evaluation, which ultimately improve the firms’ performance.

Across the UAE, Fintech is rapidly coming of age with the UAE government and regulators examining about the impact on firm’s performance and the economy. Today, the company is ranked as number 1 in the region and top 10 Fintech hubs globally, therefore, this literature review considers how Fintech is well positioned to drive higher growth and act as a platform for accessing vast opportunities, which, enhances theperformance. Majority of the firms are still facing challenges in the acceptance and adoption of Fintech, but the most recent progresses have radically transformed various activities by offering viable solutions to the age-old problems, which have a profound impact on businesses.


The theoretical framework of this review will be based on the theory of unified acceptance. We will look at how the company has adopted newer information systems and how it has impacted their business (Howard, Restrepo, & Chang, 2017). In addition, this review focuseson three business areas that have been transformed by the use of Fintech: payment processes, low funding costs, and the customer engagement. 

Application of Fintech in the UAE Companies

2.1. Smart Payment Processes

In the recent past, the payment industry has experienced several great modifications largely due to the Fintech revolution by combining financial services, online-based transactions and pioneering analysis capabilities. The financial technology solutions prevent firms and consumers undergoing the cumbersome and time-consuming processes of cash and card payments. These transactions are easily completed online using the mobile banking applications,alternative payment methods such as digital wallets, blockchain technology (Arslanian& Fischer, 2019). 

Smart Payment Processes

At present, Fintech wholly modifies the manner in which consumers and businesses engage in managing and operating payments. Though, while majority Business-2-Business (B2B) consumers appear to know the designation of the term, the private consumers in the UAE still do not haveform of general knowledge. Therefore, this study is unique in the sense that it delves further by investigating how UAE firms can increase their performance by increasing the uptake of the Business-to-Consumer (B2C) Fintech enterprises that target the wider audience, public consumers.

Various studies have examined the impact of the Fintech on transforming the payment processes used by companies and customers. Kang (2018) looked at the inclinations of mobile-based Fintech payment services and categorized them based on their service types to aid in delivering better and securer payment services in the future. The author postulated that as the market for mobile payments is activated and payment frequency by users rises, there is a need to develop simplified payment processes for all users. Overall, the study has laid down information that is applicable to UAE firms as they have laid down the requirements that Fintech payment services must provide. It has also detailed the security challenges that these services will face in the view of mutual authentications, availability, authorizations, integrity, and data privacy. Overall, Kang puts forward the notion thatthis platform when provided on mobile will develop into much safer services in the long run.

Broom (2015) discusses that by examining the developing capabilities of Fintech in both wholesale-corporate and consumer-retail payments processes and discussing the Fintech’s monumental role – as well as solutions it offers – will play in influencing the course of the UAE’s payments industry. Similarly, several studies have also discussed how Fintech can create value for firms in the UAE. Leong & Sung (2018) argue convincingly that numerous Fintech applications are based on payment, advisory, financing and compliance services that generate value for businesses. In the study, it was found that in terms of payment processes, the cashless payments are one of the biggest development trends in Fintech because companies have devised payment processes for customers. In summary, from a business viewpoint, the latest developments of financial technologies, expand business progression, like improving sales, automating of services, as well as customer retention. In the future, propose further planssuch as data transmission technology, safety measures, better customer experiences, and data analysissystems (Leong & Sung, 2018). Some of the issues faced by older payment systems is signature-based receipts, paper receipts, checks and the security threats to our credit cards (Wile, 2014).

Thus, based on preceding literature the first hypothesis (H1) states: The current Fintech revolution will resolve the age-old payment problems faced by firms in the UAE.

Ease of access and sourcing of funds

Budding entrepreneurs experiencenumerous impediments such as access to funding in establishing new business once they identify opportunities or expansion of existing businesses to increase their capacity and firm’s performance. One of the most key challenges is raising funds to launch new venture or grow existing businesses. Traditionally, firmssought capital from banks, angel investors, friends’ contributions and venture capitalists. Freedman & Nutting (2015) postulated thatone of the key solutions provided by Fintech is crowdfunding, which allows entrepreneurs to appeal to the public using online platforms tosupport innovative ideas and grow businesses.

A study by Wati&Winarno (2018) was conducted to analyze the functioning of the crowdfunding model as one of the differentfinancingsources for SMEs in various countries. They found that themostfunding was attained by the equity crowdfunding model, where the funding targets, total of backers as well as minimum investment sum has a positive impact on the realization of crowdfunding.This shows that due to the use of FinTech, the crowdfunding model was successful in raising the required amount of money for the venture. This could be used by budding entrepreneurs to source the required funds for setting up their company.

Li, Spigt&Swinkels(2017) aimed at clarifying the importance of FinTech digital firms throughout the financial industry by examining the impact of the start-ups funding on stock returns of retail banks. The study shows that the financing of the new businesses that are in the digital banking sector has a positive impact on the stock returns which is a signal of higher firm performance.

Therefore, based on previous literature the second hypothesis (H2) states: The ability to source funds through the use of FinTechis much easier and efficient compared to other platforms.

2. 3. Interactive Consumer Engagement

In the last few years, Fintech has disrupted conventional financial services by focusing on the customers first to deliver a seamless consumer experience through increased automation and individualization. Most older technologies make use of a lot of effort to engage with customers personally. This has been resolved by Fintech as it uses SMS as well as other communication tools aimed at reducing the costs and efforts of engaging with consumers. The tools have contributed towards the achievement of an interactive customer engagements by resolving complaint, gathering feedback, and disseminating information, which fosters greater sales andcustomer loyalty.

Tonder&Beer (2018) presented the new views on the relevance of customer satisfaction as well as obligation in promotion of consumer citizenship behaviors. One of the findings of their study is that banks are well aware of the different kinds of developments in the fintech environment,but they need to emphasize on beneficial partnerships in order to deliver the digital deal. Banks are making hefty investments in IT systems in a bid to meet customer expectations and guarantee a hassle free transaction banking and other digital solutions.

Larsson (2017) has studied Swedish bank management perceptions of FinTech’s impacts on digitalization and consumer e-loyalty. The study shows that Fintech has altered the classical interactions between thefirms and their consumers using computers or smartphones. In the study, they also explored the challenges that FinTech companies have posed to Swedish banks with regard to securing higher customer loyalty by conducting interviews with managers of different banks. The study has found that the FinTech expansion has encouraged the traditional banks to accelerate digital transformation to generate a distinctive profile of customers and meet their expectations.

Along with the fast development of Fintech, it has been observed that information technology can be applied to financial services by focusing on extensive application methods including influencing mechanisms behind the implementation of Fintech services. Hu et al. (2019) proposed a better technology acceptance model, which incorporates innovation, governmental support, image of the brand, as well assupposed risks as the core trust determinants by investigating how consumershave adopted Fintech. With respect to the consumer, thestudyreveals that the perceived ease of use does not have an impact on the attitudes towards adopting Fintech services. The ease of use is used to refer to the extent to which customers feel relaxed and their efforts in learning how to use the Fintech services that provide better services and improved customer experiences for customers, by firm’s personalization of customers’ needs.

Therefore, based on literature the third hypothesis (H3) states: The Fintech revolution has improved customer engagement in the companies that have adopted this system.


Arslanian, H., & Fischer, F. (2019). The future of finance: The impact of FinTech, AI, and crypto on financial services. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Broom, D. (2015). Innovation in Payments: The Future is Fintech. The Bank of New York Mellon Corporation.

Freedman, D. M. & Nutting, M. R. (2015). Equity crowdfunding for investors: A guide to risks, returns, regulations, funding portals, due diligence, and deal terms. Wiley publications.

Hu, Z., Ding, S., Li, S., Yang, S., Hu, Z., Ding, S., Li, S., … Chen, L. (March 01, 2019). Adoption intention of fintech services for bank users: An empirical examination with an extended technology acceptance model. Symmetry, 11, 3.

Leong, K. &Sung, A. (2018). FinTech (Financial Technology): What is It and How to Use Technologies to Create Business Value in Fintech Way? International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology, 9, 2, 74-78.

Li, Y., Spigt, R., &Swinkels, L. (2017). The impact of FinTech start-ups on incumbent retail banks’ share prices. Financial Innovation, 3, 1.

Lukonga, I. (2018). Fintech, Inclusive Growth and Cyber Risks: Focus on the MENAP and CCA Regions. Imf Working Papers, 18, 201, 1.

Howard, R., Restrepo, L., & Chang, C.-Y. (2017). Addressing individual perceptions: An application of the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology to building information modelling. International Journal of Project Management, 35, 2, 107-120.

Kang, J. (January 01, 2018). Mobile payment in Fintech environment: trends, security challenges, and services. Human-centric Computing and Information Sciences, 8, 1.

Teigland, R., In Siri, S., In Larsson, A., In Puertas, A. M., & In Bogusz, C. I. (2017). The rise and development of FinTech: Accounts of disruption from Sweden and beyond. Abingdon, Oxon; New York, N.Y.: Routledge.

Tonder, V. E., & Beer, D. L. T. (March 28, 2018). New perspectives on the role of customer satisfaction and commitment in promoting customer citizenship behaviours. South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences, 21, 1.

Wati, C. R., &Winarno, A. (April 23, 2018). The Performance of Crowdfunding Model as an Alternative Funding Source for Micro, Small, and Medium-Scale Businesses in Various Countries. KNE Social Sciences, 3, 3, 16.

Wile, R. (2014, May 7). The way we buy stuff is totally ridiculous-Here’s what needs to be fixed. Retrieved from https://www.businessinsider.in/tech/the-way-we-buy-stuff-is-totally-ridiculous-heres-what-needs-to-be-fixed/articleshow/34792576.cms

Impact of FinTech on Firm Performance in the UAE by Subject Academy

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Essay on Processed Food

Processed food is mainly considered unprocessed foods. Processed food are foods that are either packaged or boxed and contain artificial colors, flavors or any other chemical substance that keeps it fresh in their containers and they may include shelf life, which means that they are kept on shelves for days or even months and still stay fresh. There are many reasons and side effects of processed food and why they exist.

What are the main methods of processed food and why does is exist?

Processed foods are anything that are bagged, boxed, jarred or canned and has a list label that has the ingredients. Processed food is more convenient, it’s so easy to bake, cook and very fast to use and eat. Thus, the main methods of processed food are also freezing, refrigerating, and aseptic processing (foods that are sterilized or packaged into containers). People eat processed food too, because it makes it easier to make food, more available, safer, and has more nutrients. Processed foods have the advantage of saving time and this makes them tempt to people who have a busy lifestyle and for those who don’t particularly like to cook. Most processed foods come with a very low-price tag that makes people buy more from it and eat more (The Many Risks of Processed Foods, 2019).However, we have to look at the bad hidden costs that it has and how it effects our health badly. Hence, 90% of the money spent on food is used to buy processed food, mostly everyone spends less on organic food rather than processed food, because processed food is cheaper and easier to cook and comes in a bigger quantity than organic foods. I do not blame people who buy processed food, because its tastier and fast to eat and all organic foods are expensive and are double the price of any processed food. The capacity of processed food isn’t a medical issue, but the reactions handled from processed food are deceptive.

Processed food

What is the difference between Ultra Processed food and Processed food?

However, there is a difference between Minimally Processed foods and Heavily processed food. (Eating Processed Foods Can Cause Many Digestive Problems, Brown, K. June 24, 2019).Minimally processed foods are food that does not change the product at all. Minimally processed food is defined as ‘unprocessed food’. However, heavily processed foods are the changes of regular food to Ultra-processed food which are called ‘Tertiary processing’ (food that are ready and fast, and easier to eat. I also learned about the health risks of heavily processed food and how it increases the risk of cancer, lacking nutritional value, depression, anxiety, and that it is full of artificial ingredients and bad for our health. What we actually eat has a humungous impact on our health and in a very bad way, and ultra- processed foods like sweets, candy, pizza, soft drinks, and chips don’t contain a sufficient amount of beneficial nutrients. The more ultra-processed foods we eat, the poorer the overall nutritional quality of our diet and health. However, not every food that comes in a box is ultra-processed. Grown-ups whose diet include progressively heavily processed foods like, burgers, ice cream, junk food mainly leads to risks like cardiovascular disease and more often their lives are shorter, because it kills and breaks down your body very fast.

Processed food

What does Shelf life (prolong) food mean and why it exists?

 Thus, Processed food exists, as a result of many reasons that embrace shelf life(prolong) which they place it in an appealing means that grabs your attention that causes you to get additional in a humongous way and doesn’t coast plenty. Processed foods area unit sometimes is less vulnerable to early spoilage than recent foods and area unit higher fitted to long distance transportation from the supply to the buyer, after they were 1st introduced, some processed foods helped to alleviate food shortages and improved the general nutrition of populations because it created several new foods offered to the plenty. As we know, every type of food merchandise remains for a special length of your time and there are a unit variety of things which will have an effect on the time period of an exact food. (Hidden Dangers of Processed and Package Foods What to Eat Instead, 2007).Not purely will the time period of your food rely upon the means during which it’s been hold on reception and also the means it’s been handled, treated and held on before incoming at supermarkets and this additionally plays a task in how long your food can remain.

How to stop eating Processed food and have a healthy lifestyle?

 However, reducing processed food could be a bit hard if your used to it, therefore by time you need to continuously scan the labels, begin slowly to make yourself get used to the routine and food in order to protect yourself and your body and have a healthy lifestyle. (Hidden Dangers of Processed and Package Foods What to Eat Instead, 2007). However, in my opinion it’s much better if you cook your meals at home, to know what you are eating and if it is harmful or healthy for you.

In conclusion, processed foods are very bad and have a humungous negative influence on your health and may lead to many diseases and sickness. However, people do not realize what they are eating is bad for them, but because it tastes delicious and fast to cook and eat, so people should start stopping processed food and go to organic and healthy food in order to have a better health without any diseases and sickness.

Reference list:

  • The Many Risks of Processed Foods. (n.d). Retrieved from


Essay on Processed Food By Subject Academy

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Business Issue: Culture Shock in Business Environment


Businesses are growing globally and thus giving various opportunities to organisations and individuals to grow career-wise. With these global business expansions, an individual gets an opportunity to work abroad or the ongoing projects of the company on foreign land allows these representatives to work with natives. Every culture has its customs and tradition and they are also reflected in our work culture. Various cases reflect that it becomes very difficult for a Chines immigrant to work in American culture or vice versa. The articles listed below focus on various culture shock experienced by these representatives.

Article 1

Shi, L., & Wang, L. (2014). The culture shock and cross-cultural adaptation of Chinese expatriates in international business contexts. International Business Research7(1), 23.

The article focuses on the important causes of cultural shock by “Chinese business representative “and the difficulties they faced in adjusting to the international business environment. To identify the causes of cultural shock a semi-structured interview and an online of 80 Chines business experts who were associated with organizations who did business globally.  The finding of the study highlighted eight major causes of cultural shock were “language, professional communication, religion, time coordination, power distribution, traditions, openness and socialism. The study also concluded that almost all expatriates face the problem of culture shock while doing business internationally and were extremely affected by the mentioned issues. The research further reveals three major problems such as inability to adapt to business communication, languages barriers and the extreme pressure from work duties. On the bases of research conducted various measures are proposed. (Shi & Wang, 2013)

The article has focused on eight major factors of cultural shock which have not been considered in other articles cited below. The study specifically focuses on a particular country which has experience of cultural shock. The study was conducted on the people of China who went abroad for work. The article highlights the major causes of cultural shock and the survey illuminates that almost every individual has experienced cultural shock which has affected the business greatly.  

Culture Shock in Business Environment

Article 2

Selmer, J. (2004). Psychological barriers to adjustment of Western business expatriates in China: newcomers vs long stayers. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 15(4-5), 794-813.

The article focuses on the psychological factor and sociocultural adjustments of western business expatriates working in China. To study the problem a mail survey was conducted and the psychological barriers for adjustment and its impact on socio-cultural and psychological adjustment were studied.  This was an exploratory study and the finding concluded that the continuous incapability and unwillingness to adjust with newcomers have affected various aspects of sociocultural adjustment but it doesn’t affect the emigrants’ psychological adjustment. It has been observed that these factors have not stabilized over time in anyways there are no effects in case of long stayers in China. The study also suggests that in upcoming time both factors of inability and unwillingness towards adjustment may become of some importance. Paper suggests various points for selection of emigrants for job selection in China. (Selmer, 2004)

The article focuses on people who came to China to work and the cultural shock they experienced while doing business. The article focuses on two factors i.e. the psychological factor and sociocultural adjustments and their impact. These factors have been a great part of cultural shock and highlight major issues of cultural shock. 

Article 3

Ruben, B. D. (1989). The study of cross-cultural competence: Traditions and contemporary issues. International journal of intercultural relations, 13(3), 229-240.

The article studies cross-cultural communication skills attained by individuals or people working overseas to cope up with problems encountered by them. Though this paper it was observed there exists cultural shock difficulties, adjustments at the personal level, adaptability with regards to culture and cross-cultural effectiveness. The problem was significant in businesses which came in the form of project failures, the return of workers and loss of time and money. Though the studies it was observed that these problems occurred due to personal adjustment issues or due to lack of cultural participation. It was concluded that they needed a perspective so that the essential needs of the business were met. (RUBEN, 1989)

The article focus on the factor of individual adjustment with regards to culture and cross-cultural effectiveness. It considers the problems caused by these cultural shocks in the business. It highlights the major causes of cultural shock.

Article 4

Kaye, M., & Taylor, W. G. (1997). Expatriate culture shock in China: A study in the Beijing hotel industry. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 12(8), 496-510.

The article explores the existence of cultural shock occurred among emigrant managers in the joint venture hotels in Beijing and China region. The article focuses on factors infusing culture shock. The exploratory study was conducted and a model was proposed that predicted cultural shock which was determined by situations and intercultural sensitivity. The finding reflected a strong relation between cultural sensitivity and cultural shock. It was concluded that Asian expatriates experienced a great level of cultural shock due to inter-culture sensitivity.  (Marianna Kaye, 1997)

The article shares a case of the joint venture of hotel industry where the cultural shock was experienced. The study is a case analysis which has not been studied in any of the previous articles cited. The article highlights the strong relationship between cultural sensitivity and cultural shock.

Article 5

Fink, G., & Holden, N. (2002). Collective culture shock. Contrastive reactions to radical systemic change.

The article focuses on culture shock experienced during organizations moving from one economic system to another or when these businesses undergo expansion. By analyzing various factors it was suggested that culture shock has four components namely “integration, assimilation, separation, and marginalization”. This extension movement results in difficult social adjustments and undergoes an extreme challenge for a systematic way. To demonstrate the collective cultural shock the research was examined in four countries Russia, Europe, South Africa and Japan. The observation reflected that these shocks are the result of economic complexity, specific social and political situations. The article concludes that culture shock is an important factor or tool for managers who are responsible for constructing and evolving international business strategies to understand the complexities of culture shock or to adjust to the change in the traditional system of management. (Gerhard Fink, 2002)

In this article, the cultural shock is studied on the economical aspect which has not been considered in any other article. The article studies cultural shock in four countries Russia, Europe, South Africa and Japan and results conclude the causes of culture shock. The article highlights that is a key factor responsible for constructing and evolving international business strategies.


From the above cases, we could conclude that immigrants have faced a lot of difficulties while doing business on foreign land. The culture shift has been one of the reasons for that has affected various business tremendously. Due to the cultural shock organisations have undergone huge losses.The language barrier, adaptability and pressure of work duty timing and cultural difference have been a major reason for these cultural shock which can be overcome by giving initial training to the representatives about language and culture.


Fink, G., & Holden, N. (2002). Collective culture shock. Wien: Research Institute for European Affairs.

Kaye, M., & Taylor, W. (1997). Expatriate culture shock in China: a study in the Beijing hotel industry. Journal Of Managerial Psychology12(8), 496-510. DOI: 10.1108/02683949710189102

Ruben, B. (1989). The study of cross-cultural competence: Traditions and contemporary issues. International Journal Of Intercultural Relations13(3), 229-240. DOI: 10.1016/0147-1767(89)90011-4

Selmer, J. (2004). Psychological barriers to adjustment of Western business expatriates in China: newcomers vs long stayers. The International Journal Of Human Resource Management15(4-5), 794-813. DOI: 10.1080/0958519042000192951

Shi, L., & Wang, L. (2013). The Culture Shock and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Chinese Expatriates in International Business Contexts. International Business Research7(1). DOI: 10.5539/ibr.v7n1p23

Assignment on Culture Shock in Business Environment by Subject Academy

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Analysis of Demand Forecasting

Enforcement methods used and forecasting the demands

The enforcement method used is the Trend Project method. This method is the most classical business forecasting method that considers the movement of variables about time. It is the quantitative method that requires secondary data. The data should be long-time serial data that can help in predicting the demand for a product. This is only applied to long term series data.

Forecasting the demand

As discussed the Trend Perfect method uses the data that is in series, so to forecast the demand sales data of the previous year and current year is used to predict or forecast the upcoming demands.

The sales report of a current and previous session can help to identify the market demands in the past and the demands in the current year. With the predictive analysis, it can be observed hat would the demands in future. To conduct the predictive analysis, secondary data would be used and various techniques of analysis can be applied for future prediction.

Forecasting Accuracy

As the prediction is based on market trend the accuracy is expected to be high. The sales reports from the previous year’s give the idea about the market trends and the sales report from current year reflects the ongoing trend. On comparing both present and past trends it becomes easier to forecast the upcoming trend. This in turns results in maximum accuracy.

 It is essential studies the past demand and ongoing demands to get the accurate forecasting rate. This plays a vital role in predictive analyses as it affects decision making. 

Analysis on Demand Forecasting

Overcoming and Improving Challenges

Although this analysis is considerate to be highly accurate there are still gaps in the analysis which can cause a major loss to the company. Incorrect data collection, wrong application of analysis tools could be some of the challenges. These challenges could be overcome by understanding the market and its changing patterns. This could be done by continuous monitoring of the ups and downs of the market.

The technological method used for forecasting

Exploration techniques are used for forecasting. It is mainly the process of searching for economical depth. This is conducted over a wide area and on prolonged duration to predict the upcoming trend.

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Social Media Related Challenge


It is believed that online media communication is the trending topic among practitioners handling public relations for various organisations(David Phillips, 2009).The digital media mainly focuses on mobile phones, satellite, television and the internet used as means for Internet marketing. In recent years Social Media Analytics have become a booming topic. This is mainly associated with the operational challenges, managerial issues and advantages which increases the implementation and uses of social media for promotional activities, entertainment, communication etc. Social Media is a platform for communication. It has reduced the distance between two individuals. Social media has brought down the world to just one click away. A student wanting to learn a particular subject can do the same from any teacher in the world through online tutoring. A farmer can get the information about the weather in order to sow seeds or to reap the field just by a click.

Social Media Related Challenge

Mostly companies these days make use of various social media platforms so as to build customer base and to earn profit. The report contains the description of social media and how it is different from concepts that are related i.e. web 2.0 etc. On the bases of the definition social media is further classified into various categories like blog, content communities, networking sites etc.(Andreas M. Kaplan, 2010)This report focuses on examining the impact of social media, exploring the new approach and the challenges. To study the importance of social media and its effects with the help of various literatures studied. Empirical observation explained the perception about social media and challenges associated with them.

Literature Review

(Shintaro Okazaki, 2013)Studded thetheoretical concept that is useful in research on social media with reference to international advertising research and they aimed to find further scope with relation to theory building in social media research. The paper derived three key features from the previous work. These features were in regards to theatrical concepts in research that can be used in advertising media for promotional purpose. These three concepts perspectives (networking capability, image transferability, and personal extensibility) is an advantage in case of understanding and acts as a disadvantage for publicity. The gap in the studies is that the international content is still in its beginning, which need the attention. A framework is practically none existing for the gap. 

(John Carlo Bertot, 2012)Proposes theincreased use of social media by government agencies in order to build the connection with those whom the serve. The use of social media involves exchange of crucial information which if leaked may result to greater damage to a nation. These media have provided the advantage of exchanging the information but on the other hand it is also becoming a threat. The paper suggest various challenges with respect to privacy, weak security, data management, governance, accessibility and various other policy issues in regards to information. The continuous adoption of the social media has overtook the supervised framework in regards to information, though the guideline rules behind the framework are still necessary. The paper discusses the regulations of the existing framework and the methods in which they are applicable to social media.

(Andreas M. Kaplan, 2010)Suggests the trends of social media and their adoption in various businesses. Discussed how consultancies and business makers can use these technique for their benefits. YouTube, Wikipedia, twitter and Facebook has become few of the trending platforms of social media. With their bulky content there comes the issue of privacy, security and data management. These are few challenges that are being faced by social media today. It appears that the word social media is partially understood the exact definition and meaning is explained in the paper. Basic concept of social media is explained and difference between them in relation to relative concepts such as Web 2.0. On the bases of the definition provided in the paper classification of social media is done.

(Kristian Tørning, 2015)Suggests social media to be an upcoming field in the academic research and organisation practices. The paper discusses the operational issues, management challenges and advantages of adopting social media platform for the functioning of the organisation. To conduct this study multiple case study were studies and interview were conducted. The empirical finding explains the perception of social media among managers and the managerial challenges directly associated with media production, what’s more, vulnerability about the arrival of venture via web-based networking media exercises.

(José van Dijck, 2014) The paperinvestigates the social media rise in European public service broadcast mainly in the reason of UK and Netherland. The author explores the encounter of “social” and “public” with regards to three levels: professional, institute and content. After deep analysis of these three levels some questions of general like the way general public is coping up with challenges of social media, the way public television earn from social media without adjusting public values are answered. The paper also discusses the challenges regarding the social media content, violation of public values and privacy.

Main body

Generate Multiple Ideas

  1. The uncensored or violent content in social media tends to bring aggressive behaviour in people which affects the mental health of the viewer.
  2. The unnecessary content present on social media engages students and they tend to waste lot of productive time.
  3. There a lot of dependency on social media that student prefers this platform more than books.
  4.  Spending more time on virtual word affect their social life and reduce their public involvement.

Justify why this option was chosen

This topic is chosen because various research shows that in youth of today spend more time on social media which involves high risk of depression, stress and anxiety in them. As they are not physically socialising, these problem are increasing day by day which results in higher rate of suicides amongst youth. 

Research Question: To study the impact of social media and its content on youth.


H0:There is no significant impact of social media and its content on youth.

H1 :There is asignificant impact of social media and its content on youth.

Draw a Journey Map

Journey Map of the interviewed students

The interviews shows that students often tend to waste their time on social media and the reason is its catchy content. The journey map of their problem is as follows:

Journey Map

Empathy Map

Said   It is difficult to censor the content on social media.   There is no option.    Think   This has become an addiction and student think spending more time in real world is waste of time and that’s why they prefer virtual world.
Do   Content censoring is a struggle on social media.Feel   They feel virtual world is making them more advance.


Due to this addiction the students have lost the ability of creativity and decision making and the uncensored content has violated all boundaries. Thus they need to realise to control this addiction. Although this problem cannot be overcome on a large scale but if these social media platform censor their content so that they don’t turn out to be more harmful.

The solution to this problem is strict laws to be implemented to control and censor the content on social media. In case of youth and student there should be a limit on their social media usage. Collages and university should promote book learnings, outer door games, events of interest and gathering in order to socialise more.


Andreas M. Kaplan, M. H. (2010). Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media. Elsevier Business Horizons.

Link: www.sciencedirect.com

David Phillips, P. Y. (2009). Online public relations : a practical guide to developing an online strategy in the world of social media. Philadelphia : London ; Philadelphia : Kogan Page, 2009.

Link: https://trove.nla.gov.au/version/44762970

John Carlo Bertot, P. T. (2012). The impact of polices on government social media usage: Issues, challenges,and recommendations. Elsevier, 30-40.

Link: www.elsevier.com/locate/govinf

Kristian Tørning, Z. J. (2015). Current Challenges in Social Media Management. Research gate.


Shintaro Okazaki, C. R. (2013). Social media and international advertising: theoretical challenges and future directions. emerald.


Van Dijck, J., &Poell, T. (2015). Making public television social? Public service broadcasting and the challenges of social media. Television & New Media16(2), 148-164.

Link: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1527476414527136

Assignment on Social Media Related Challenge by Subject Academy

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Operation and Supply Chain Management

1. Introduction

Operation management and supply chain, both are important aspects of a business. Operation management involves all the activities inside the organization and supply chain management includes the activities related to the supply of products to the market. This report is a detailed analysis of the operation and supply chain management of the company M&M.  M&M has a rich history from the past 100+ years. The company is continuously offering new products and new segments of the business but one thing is common that all the segments act as family members(Abbady, Hessian, & Alaam, 2017). M& M plain chocolate candies were introduced by Forrest E. Mars in the United States. In 1950, the company came up with a new solution to maintain the uniqueness of their products by stamping m letter on every candy. In 1954, the company introduced M&M peanut chocolate candies. In 1960, the company introduced fruit chews. In 1984, the plain and peanut chocolate candies offered by the company became the official snack food of the Olympic Games. In 1989, in the US, the company came up with peanut butter chocolate candies.  The company M&M continued its innovations by introducing caramel candies in 2017 and crunchy mint in 2018.

This report is a detailed analysis of the operation management and supply chain management of the company for its products and services. The first section of the report explains the key products offered by the company. In the second section, the report has discussed the competitive capabilities of the firm. The third section shows the comparative analyses of the company with its competitors through polar chart and dominance frontier. The fourth section of the report is about process calculation analyses. The fifth and sixth section discusses the supply chain of a product and new location of the warehouse of the company. The last section of the report explains how the firm can improve its productivity through mass customization.

2. Key products/ Services and Input-Output process

The company offers various categories of products. The products of the company can be categorized based on the occasion, personalizable products and non-personalizable products. The products of the company are available in different flavours: chocolate, peanut, chocolate peanut and peanut butter(Abbas, 2018). These chocolate and peanut products are available in different colours. In this section, the report has discussed the main products and their input-output process. The company offers different product based on different sizes, chocolates, nuts, spices and herbs, fruits, deserts and colours. Input-output process of products of the company is as follows

Inputs: The main inputs for the process of chocolate and chocolate related products making is cocoa beans, chocolate, milk, electricity, labour, machine and paper.

Process: It includes various processes to prepare the products such as sorting, mixing, grinding, winnowing and roasting.

Output: The main products produced are chocolate products and waste products.

3. Competitive Capabilities of M&M

The chocolate brand M& M offers chocolate products in different colours and sizes. M & M is the sub-company of Mars Inc. There are various competitors of M&M in this industry. But the company has gained a competitive advantage in the food and beverage industry because of its strengths. The main strengthening factors of the company are high brand recognition in all over the world, affordable products, variety of colours which attract the attention of the customers, attractive marketing and advertisement strategy and personalized gifts for birthdays and parties. Hershey is the main competitor of the company which is regularly offering new brands of the chocolates(Dubai, 2018). But M&M has kept eye on them every strategy of its competitors to gain competitive advantage. The tagline of the company “Melts in your mouth, not in your hand” helps the company to attract a large number of customers.

4. Comparison of the company with other companies using Polar chart and Dominance Frontier

In this section, the report has described the comparison of M&M with its close competitor Hershey. The comparative analyses of both these companies have shown through the following polar chart. The comparative analyses of both of these competitors describe that overall score of the company M&M according to Knoji ratings is 3.8 and the overall score of Hershey is 3.9. Hershey is highly recognized as compared to M&M. This brand is globally recognized because of discounts and offers provided by it o its customers.


Low price strategy followed by M&M Company has made it able to compete with the other competitors in the market. One positive factor which attracts more customers towards M&M as compared to Hershey is the variety of chocolate products offered by the company. The company offers chocolate products in different colours and sizes. The products of the company can be categorized based on the occasion, personalizable products and non-personalizable products. The products of the company are available in different flavours: chocolate, peanut, chocolate peanut and peanut butter. These chocolate and peanut products are available in different colours. In this section, the report has discussed the main products and their input-output process. The company offers different product based on different sizes, chocolates, nuts, spices and herbs, fruits, deserts and colours. But on the other hand, Hershey offers limited chocolate products in limited colours.

The above graph explains how the company can make the supply chain and distribution process easy by following the dominance frontier in operation management and supply chain process. This process will help the company to use specialization of skills and to increase productivity. It will also help in overcoming the challenges related to delay in delivery of products.

5. Process Analyses Calculation

Every organization uses flow rate, inventory and flow time as the main units of measure the performance of the workers as well as the overall productivity of the organization. For the process analyses calculation, the organizations use the term flow unit which represents every single activity in the firm(Landry, 1998). All the chocolate products offered by the company are known as flow units. The number of products manufactured by the company in per unit of time is known as flow rates. Flow rate term also represents the speed of delivery of products from the operation department to the supply chain department and its further processing to the customers through the distribution process.

The time taken by the supply chain department to the customers is known as the average flow rate. This stream pace of administrations conveyed to the clients is known as the normal rate. The aggregate sum of time spent by stream units in the business procedure is known as the complete time of preparing. If there should be an occurrence of more than one way, this stream time is determined through the way which is the longest(Wu & Pagell, 2011). The all outnumber of stream units took care of by the business procedure is known as stock. Stock at the organization is determined by separating the stream rate isolated by stream time. Stock can be determined to utilize the speed of conveyance of administrations to the clients and the quantity of clients handles by the office in a specific time. The chiefs for the most part centre on expanding the throughput. Accordingly, they attempt to lessen their cost and attach the speed of conveyance of items to the clients to expand the income of the organization(Zuckerman, 2002). The organization wants to get the input from the clients identified with the administrations offered by the organization to improve the administrations later on. This encourages the organization to build the speed of conveyance of administrations to the clients because the organization modifies their administrations according to the input got from the clients.

6. The supply chain of a product and risks related to supply chain

In this section of the report, we are discussing the supply chain process of M&M peanut chocolates. Supply chain process of the M&M Peanut chocolate consists of various elements for the movement of products. The supply chain of these products starts with the customers and also ends with the customers.

Supply Chain

Customers: This chain starts when the customers start liking the products and demand for these products and finally purchase the products offered by the company through the retail store. The customers’ order for the products as per their requirement and sales department of the company receive the orders to manufacture the products(Stephenson, 2014).

Planning: The next step of the supply chain process of the company is to plan for manufacturing. The planning department is responsible for all these planning to fulfil the requirement of the customers. According to the plans, the company purchases the required raw material.

Purchase: The planning department sends the list of required raw material to the purchasing department. This department further sends the purchase orders to the different suppliers to purchase the materials.

Inventory: Afterreceiving the raw material from the suppliers, quality and accuracy of the products are checked and the material is sent to the warehouses.  After supplying the material, the suppliers also send the invoices to the specific departments from where the material was ordered(Sarkis, 2006).

Production: According to the plan of the production, the raw material is transferred to the specific departments. Using this raw material, finish products are also produced as per the requirements of the customers.

Transportation: After receiving the finished products, the shipping department decides to ship the products to the customers by using efficient methods. When the goods are delivered to the customers the company also sends an invoice for those goods.

Supply chain risks: The Company also faces various challenges in the supply chain process of the products. These risks include supplier failed to deliver the raw material. Although the company gets the raw material from renowned suppliers, yet the risk of poor material or latte delivery of products always exist(Joshi & Rathore, 2013). Other risks can be outsourcing, logistic delays, loss of information, miscommunication regarding orders, risks related to political, economic and natural calamities and risks of theft and terrorism. These risks can affect the supply chain process and production and distribution capability of the organization.

7. New Location for the warehouse or service centre of the firm through the Center of Gravity method

By using the centre of gravity method, the firm can locate a new place, which can increase the productivity of the firm by reducing its cost. Through this method, the company can locate the area which is near to its distribution centres. Less distance between the distribution centres and the operational plants will help the company to reduce the cost of transportation. The following example shows how the company M&M can find a new location using the centre of gravity method.

Operation and Supply Chain Management
Numerical  Data

The above numerical example proves that the company can use this center of gravity method to decide about the location which can help in minimizing the cost of transportation of the company. Center of gravity method is an approach used by organizations to find a new facility which can help in the minimization of the costs of the organization. The main input used in this method is the volume of services offered by the firm(Wu & Pagell, 2011). In this case, we are discussing the services offered by M&M chocolate company. Facility location for every organization is a one-time decision(Stephenson, 2014). This decision cannot be reversed. Overall cost pattern is based on this facility location. This facility location directly affects the sales of the organization. The main factors which influence this plant facility are its distance from the raw material centre, its distance from the market and its facilities and infrastructure

This new location explored using this centre of gravity method will help the company in increasing the speed of delivery of the products. It will increase the satisfaction of the customers of the company as well as it will increase the revenue of the company by decreasing its cost. 

8. Application of Mass customization to the product

Mass customization is known as the production of unique goods on a large scale. Using this technique the firm can serve different requirements of the customers, preferences of the market by producing varied products. Through this technique, the company can easily overcome the challenges related to delayed delivery and the disappointment of the customers. Mass customization can help the company for knowing the choices of the customers so that new products can be able to meet their requirements. This strategy acts as a postponement tactic to attract a large number of customers towards the products of the company(Landry, 1998). The company can also adopt modular design and packaging for its chocolate products through this strategy. In the way, the company will be able to compete with its competitors.The Company also faces various challenges in the supply chain process of the products. These risks include supplier failed to deliver the raw material. Although the company gets the raw material from renowned suppliers, yet the risk of poor material or latte delivery of products always exist.

Other risks can be outsourcing, logistic delays, loss of information, miscommunication regarding orders, risks related to political, economic and natural calamities and risks of theft and terrorism. These risks can affect the supply chain process and production and distribution capability of the organization.  As we have studied previously, the main competitors of the company are Hershey for its chocolate products and it is regularly introducing new chocolate products for its customers. Thus the company needs to adopt this mass customization technique to maintain the interest of their customers in these chocolate products and to attract new customers to gain competitive advantage.

9. Conclusion and Recommendations

­­The study concludes that M&M is a renowned company in the Food and Beverage sector of the United States. The company has covered a large share of the market by introducing a wide range of chocolate products to the customers of the company. Although the main competitor of the company Hershey has gained the largest share of the market in this industry the company has made its recognition through a variety of chocolate products. The report has described the comparative analyses of the company with its close competitor Hershey through Polar chart from the aspects of quality, price, taste, packaging and variety. The report has also explained the supply chain process and supply chain risks of the company. The only risk faced by the company is related to the delay in delivery of products to the customers. The new location facility explained that the company can overcome this risk by finding a new location near its distribution plants through the centre of gravity method. This new location explored using this centre of gravity method will help the company in increasing the speed of delivery of the products. It will increase the satisfaction of the customers of the company as well as it will increase the revenue of the company by decreasing its cost.

10. References

Gerhard F. Knolmayer, P. M. (2009). Supply Chain Management Based on SAP Systems: Architecture and Planning Processes. Springer Science & Business Media.

Hodges. (2012). Supply Chain Management. Net Library inc.

Hugos. (2011). Essentials of supply chain management. Willey publications.

Joshi, & Rathore. (2013). On Supply Chain Competitiveness of Indian Automotive Component Manufacturing Industry. International Journal of Production Economics, 21-35.

Landry. (1998). Supply Chain Management. Harvard Business Review.

Laudon. (2010). A New Supply Chain Project Has Nike Running for Its Life. In Essentials of Management Information Systems: Managing the digital firm. sixth edition Pearson Education.

Sarkis, J. (2006). Greening the Supply Chain. Springer Science & Business Media.

Snippet, V. (2015). Supply chain development. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 2 (1), 311-325.

Wu, & Pagell. (2011). Balancing priorities: Decision-making in sustainable supply chain management. Journal of Operations Management, 65-78.

Zuckerman. (2002). Supply Chain Management. Kingdom: Capstone Publishing.

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