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Month: October 2020

Organization Behaviour Essay

Introduction:

Mr Simon is a line manager in a retail organization. He has been serving the organization at the same post for the past 12 years. During this period, he has twice been considered for promotion, and rejected in favour of other candidates due to better formal qualifications, despite having considerably more experience. Recently, he was rejected for promotion for the third time. This has completely wrecked his morale and lost all desire to work for the organization any more. He was overheard discussing with his colleague by his team leader that his career has become completely stagnant in this organization and its time to move on for the sake of his career(Erdem & Ozen, 2014). The team leader, as well as the whole team[l1] , are worried about the potential loss of Mr Simon as he is an integral part of the team. He is highly regarded by the members of the staff as well.

In this essay, we will understand and address the case of Mr Simon in the most effective way possible. The major issues arising here, such as negative perception and hurting the spirit of teamwork, will be addressed(Chong & Wolf, 2010).

Perception:

Perception is defined as the process of experiencing the world surrounding us and all the elements in it via our sensory organs. The unlimited sources of information around us emit unlimited amounts of information that we can interact with, with the help of our sensory organs. These sensory organs supply us with ‘sense’(Homberg, McCarthy, & Tabvuma, 2015).

Featuresof Perception:

Perception is a complex psychological as well as physiological process that mainly possesses the following features:

  • It is a process of intellectual form that via which a person chooses and selects the information from its sources, organizes and extracts sense out of it.
  • It is a cognitive process that indicates that the actions, thoughts, and emotions of people are directly influenced by their perception of subjects.
  • It is a subjective process. It may slightly or greatly vary from person to person(Badubi, 2017).
Organization Behaviour Essay

The process of Perception:

  1. Inputs of Perception – The first stage where a person comes across various types of data and information around him. The process of perception starts as soon as the person starts interacting with this information. These informational objects can be objects, ideas or people.
    1. Implementation of Perception – It is the second stage where the selection, organization, and interpretation of stimuli take place. The selection of stimuli is selecting the one particular stimulus to respond to, out of an infinite number of it. The organization of stimuli is the categorization and prioritization of information on the base of perceptual grouping(Hsieh, 2016).
    1. The output of Perception – After the observation, organization, and processing of stimuli, the final output comes out, it can be in the form of an action such as the formation of an attitude, belief, opinion, etc. about the stimuli(Morteza, Abbas, & Salahshour, 2013).

Perception in the case of Mr. Simon:

The situation of Mr. Simon clearly highlights a change of perception from productive, motivating and positive to the exact opposite. He started out and carried on his job diligently for over a decade. This clearly highlights his positive perception of his job. He clearly felt he deserves a promotion which a rightful expectation for an employee of his quality. But then his promotion was rejected for the first time, on the basis of comparatively lesser formal qualifications. This must-have affected his perception, although not by much but to a limited extent. Then he carries on his job diligently and in the next few years, applies for promotion again(Seejeen, 2020). This time his promotion is rejected as well, based on the same reasoning. Now, this was bound to have hurt his positive perception and demotivated him as well. A hint of negativity also spread among his team members. He still kept himself together and carried on doing his job carefully. Now, for the third time, his promotion has been rejected for the same cause, despite him serving for over 12 years with a clean and commendable record. This has clearly created a perception of negativity, depreciation, and stagnation of his career(Im & J. W., 2013). He is completely demotivated and even discussing his departure from the organization. He won’t be able to carry on his job with the same determination and industry, naturally. His team members, who acknowledge his skills and specialization, are also worried about the same treatment in their careers. This has hurt the morale of all the members of the team. This could lead to a lack of teamwork and ultimately, a loss for the organization. But what is teamwork? How it affects the performance of an organization? Let us find out(Andersen J. A., 2010). [l2] 

Motivation and Atitude

Motivation and attitude are two key points that go hand in hand. Motivation comes when there is apprication of work which in return changes the attitude of the person. If the work of an employee is not appreciated his attitude gets affected. In the case an employee who was rejected thrice his attitude changed from positive to negative and after surving the company for 10 years he considered leaving the job which agin reflects negative attitude, demotivation and  dissatisfaction(Andersen & Kjeldsen, 2013). [l3] 

Types of attitudes:

1) Explicit attitude – These are the attitudes that you are fully aware of and influence your behaviour towards the subjects. You are consciously aware of these factors that directly affect our beliefs. For example, you meet a new person through your friends, and they are wearing a jersey of your favourite football team, you automatically form a likeable opinion about the person since you both support the same team. This attitude is explicit in nature i.e. this formation of a likeable opinion was deliberate (Beier, C., & Kanfer, 2018) . Now relating the same to the case as Mr Simon dedicated his 10 in the company he had fored a likeness towards the company this was reflected from the behavior that we applied three time for the promotion.

2) Implicit attitude – These are the attitudes that you are not consciously aware of but still greatly influence your behaviour towards the subjects. You have no conscious awareness of your actions and behaviour but they still influence your beliefs(Kang, 2014). For example, you are walking down the street on a Saturday night. You see a person wearing a mask advancing towards you. You automatically form a feeling of danger from that person. The person could be wearing the mask to keep the cold out, but you will still unconsciously develop an opinion about that person. This attitude is implicit in nature as this was not a deliberate action, but an unconscious opinion you formed (Coile& Levine, 2011). In the case  Mr Simon discussed the issue with other employee and this might have affected perception of that another employee the attitude changed and it might have made him feel that this could happen to him as well.

The theory states about the what employee expect from the organization and what he receives can bring dissatisfaction in the employee. Mr. Simon epected a promotion based on experience which as his expectation but was denied on the base of qualification and here the theory was violated and affected the employess satisfaction(Caillier, Satisfaction With Work-Life Benefits and Organizational Commitment/Job Involvement: Is There a Connection?, 2012).

The theory states that the employee inputs his effort and expects a positive response in the form of rewars that brings satisfaction in them. In the case of Mr. Simon’s he was not rewared for his work.

[l4] 

Teamwork:

Teamwork can be defined as the collective effort put forth by a group of coordinated members. In the world of business, almost nothing can be achieved without collective efforts of a team, or simply, teamwork. Organizations employ hundreds, thousands, and even millions of employees that work in groups to achieve the goals of the organization. The members of such teams are required to possess some specific skills and qualities to able to work efficiently in a group(Caillier, Does public service motivation mediate the relationship between goal clarity and both organizational commitment and extra-role behaviours? , 2014). Let us understand the importance of teamwork in a more elaborated manner:

Teamwork

Importance of Teamwork:

Targets are achieved faster – This is the primary benefit of teamwork. It is naturally apparent that a group of skilled members will complete a task at a much higher pace than an individual. The responsibilities get delegated and workload gets distributed accordingly to relieve the pressure and improve working accuracy. When the workload gets shared and individual targets highlighted, the overall work gets done in a much quicker manner. This is the reason behind such a serious implementation of teamwork throughout the world of business(Cantarelli, Belardinelli, & Belle, 2015).

Efficiency and effectiveness – No business organization can run successfully without sufficient profits. And pending work is not going to generate profits. It is instrumental to deploy teams specializing in different fields to get as much work done as possible on time. The approaches to the accomplishment of goals can be discussed before and through the process to minimize doubts and delays.

Work is always the priority – For example, John is an accounting assistant in his organization, but he fell prey to serious illness and will be unable to attend office for four weeks. Now the work John was supposed to be doing will be delayed for as long as he is out. This is where teamwork rescues the day. Another member of his team will step up and share his workload to continue the work. This is a crucial aspect for any business organization, letting such incidents hurt the performance of the organization is not an option. Teamwork is the way to go(Chordiya, Sabharwal, & Goodman, 2017).

Professional development of staff – Teamwork leads to sharing and learning of various skills, abilities, and qualities among the members of the group. This works in favour of all by cultivating positive characteristics among the team members, improving the quality of staff for the organization, ultimately leading to better performance and profits.

Development of competitive spirit – A healthy competition is a positive sign for any group as it drives the members to better than one another, ultimately elevating the overall quality of the team.

Development of team spirit – When a group of people works together for some time, sharing their authority and abilities, leads to the formation of a strong bond that is based upon trust and reliance. This results in the formation of team spirit which often leads to long-term retention of staff for the organization.

Self-assessment of members – Teams do not require any specialist eye of supervision as members of the team act as supervisors to one another. This is a total benefit situation for the organization(Chu & Lai, 2011).

Theory of Teamwork:

Teamwork isn’t a modern concept. In fact, it’s not even a medieval concept, it’s been around for centuries. Alexander the great, the Macedonian king who conquered every place he marched to, relied heavily upon the teamwork of his army. A further peak into this will clear up the doubts further–

  1. Scientific management theory – This theory was put forward by Frederick Winslow Taylor. He was an engineer for a firm called Bethlehem Steel in 1889. He started observing his workers who were tasked with the unloading of iron off rail cars and loading steel. He found out that they were deliberately working under capacity. He approached this observation scientifically and found out that the workers were currently loading 12.5 tonnes of metal in a day, while they were easily capable of loading 47.5 tonnes of metal per day(Fernandez & Moldogaziev, Employee empowerment and job satisfaction in the U.S. federal bureaucracy., 2013). He decided to motivate his workers by motivating them with the help of substantial incentives. He announced increased wages in return for higher metal loading goals. This scheme worked successfully. His research provided these crucial observations-
  2. Work should be scientifically analyzed to find out the best method to perform it.
  3. Staff selection should be carefully conducted in order to get the best employees.
  4. There should be co-operation among the managers and sub-ordinates. This promotes understanding and clearer communication among the employees.
  5. Management should focus on preparing plans and approaches for the workers to execute them efficiently.

This theory shows us the significance of having hard-working employees in an organization to maximize the outputs with minimum inputs ultimately resulting in greater profits(Fernandez, Resh, Moldogaziev, & Oberfield, 2015).

Teamwork in the case of Mr Simon:

As discussed earlier, the potential departure of Mr Simon from the organization has already caused a strong wave of discomfort among the members of his team. This is certainly going to hurt the individual as well as collective performances of the members, ultimately hurting the performance of the organization. Mr Simon, who is held in high regard by his team members, is seriously considering his future at the organization and even has discussed his intention to leave the firm as he feels his denial of promotion has halted his career progress. Every member of the team is bound to empathize with him, and hypothetically imagine the same scenario for themselves, leading to a strong feeling of insecurity for their future. The morale of the team will be down the hill and you can not expect unhappy employees to perform well. This is going to be a disaster for the organization(Frampton, 2014). [l5] 

Solution suggested:

Diligent, loyal and determined employees are a precious commodity to any organization. Mr Simon definitely fits the description of such an employee. His third successive rejection of promotion is forcing him to make the ultimate decision of leaving the organization for his own good. There is no doubt that Mr Simon deserves the promotion to the next level. The organization themselves will greatly benefit by having such a high-quality staff member at a higher post with greater responsibilities. This is will further motivate him to work harder. The doubts among his team members will also be addressed leading to better performances and higher profit for the organization. So, the top management should discuss the issue with Mr Simon, and duly promote him. They should also fix their promotion policy to prevent any future incidents of this nature(George & Pandey, 2017).

Conclusion:

The case of Mr Simon has shown us a common scenario in the corporate world. He served as a trusty workhorse for the organization and expected a promotion as any other employee in his shoes would. But due to a faulty promotion policy,he wasn’t promoted. The theories discussed have helped in highlighting the issues as well as provided the ways to remedy it. One should always remember, a happy employee will always perform better than an unhappy employee.[l6] 

References

Andersen, J. A. (2010, Dec 24). Public versus private managers: How public and private managers differ in leadership behavior. . Public Administration Review, 70(1), 131–141. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6210.2009.02117.x

Andersen, L. B., & Kjeldsen, A. M. (2013, Aug 15). Public service motivation, user orientation, and job satisfaction: A question of employment sector? International Public Management Journal, 16 (2), 252–274. doi:10.1080/10967494.2013.817253

Baba, V. V. (2012, May 25). Toward a theory of evidence-based decision making. Management Decision, 50(5), 832–867. doi:10.1007/s10551-018-3955-6

Badubi, M. R. (2017, Aug 3). Theories of Motivation and Their Application in Organizations: A Risk Analysis. International Journal of Innovation and Economic Development, 3(3), 44-51. doi:10.18775/ijied.1849-7551-7020.2015.33.2004

Caillier, J. G. (2012, May 8). Satisfaction With Work-Life Benefits and Organizational Commitment/Job Involvement: Is There a Connection? Sage Journal, 33(4), 340-364. doi:10.1177/0734371X12443266

Caillier, J. G. (2014, Nov 26). Does public service motivation mediate the relationship between goal clarity and both organizational commitment and extra-role behaviours? . Public Management Review, 18(2), 300–318. doi:10.1080/14719037.2014.984625

Cantarelli, P., Belardinelli, P., & Belle, N. (2015, March 31). A meta-analysis of job satisfaction correlates in the public administration literature. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 36(2), 115–144. doi:10.1177/0734371X15578534

Chong, E., & Wolf, H. (2010). Factors influencing followers’ perception of organisational leaders. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 402-419. doi:10.1108/01437731011056434

Chordiya, R., Sabharwal, M., & Goodman, D. (2017, Feb 27). Affective organizational commitment and job satisfaction: A cross-national comparative study. Public Administration, 95(1), 178–195. doi:doi/abs/10.1111/padm.12306

Chu, L.-C., & Lai, C.-C. (2011, jan 1). A research on the influence of leadership style and job characteristics on job performance among accountants of county and city government in Taiwan. Public Personnel Management, 101–118. doi:10.1177/009102601104000202

Emirza, S., & Katrinli, A. (2019, Nov 4). The relationship between leader construal level and leader-member exchange relationship: The role of relational demography. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 845-859. . doi:10.1108/LODJ-02-2019-0084

Erdem, F., & Ozen, J. ( 2014, Nov 14). Cognitive and affective dimensions of trust in developing team performance. Team Performance Management, 9 (5/6 ), 131 – 135. doi:10.1108/13527590310493846

Fernandez, S., & Moldogaziev, T. (2013, Nov 6). Employee empowerment and job satisfaction in the U.S. federal bureaucracy. The American Review of Public Administration, 45(4), 375–401. doi:10.1177/0275074013507478

Fernandez, S., Resh, W. G., Moldogaziev, T., & Oberfield, Z. W. (2015, March 31). Assessing the past and promise of the federal employee viewpoint survey for public management research: A research synthesis. . Public Administration Review, 75(3), 382–394. doi:10.1111/puar.12368

Frampton, J. S. (2014, Jan 31). Commentary: Public sector job satisfaction: A conversation with impact. . Public Administration Review, 74(3), 396–397. doi:10.1007/s11115-020-00465-6

Frank, J. d. (2018, July 2). Ethics and Behavioural Theory: How Do Professionals Assess Their Mental Models? Journal of Business Ethics volume, 2(19), 933–947. doi:10.1007/s10551-018-3955-6

George, B., & Pandey, S. K. (2017, March 15). We know the yin—But where is the Yang? Toward a balanced approach on common source bias in public administration scholarship. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 37(2), 245–270. doi:10.1177/0734371X17698189

Homberg, F., McCarthy, D., & Tabvuma, V. (2015, July 31). A meta-analysis of the relationship between public service motivation and job satisfaction. Public Administration Review, 75(5). doi:10.1111/puar.12423

Hsieh, J. Y. (2016, Jan 11). Spurious or true? An exploration of antecedents and simultaneity of job performance and job satisfaction across the sectors. Public Personnel Management, 45(1), 90–118. doi:10.1177/0091026015624714

Im, T. C., & J. W., &. C. (2013, Sep 18). Revisiting confucian bureaucracy: Roots of the korean government’s culture and competitiveness. Public Administration and Development, 33(4), 286–296. doi:10.1002/pad.1656

Kang, H. J. (2014, Oct 23). The impact of supervisory support on organizational commitment, career satisfaction, and turnover intention for hospitality frontline employees. Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism,, 14(1), 68–89. doi:10.1080/15332845.2014.904176

Morteza, R. D., Abbas, R., & Salahshour, S. (2013, June 21). Effects of Motivational Factors on Job Satisfaction: An Empirical Study on Islamic Azad University’s Faculty Members . World Applied Sciences Journal, 21(6), 894-901. doi: 10.5829/idosi.wasj.2013.21.6.2034

Seejeen, P. (2020, Jan 20). Determinants of the Job Satisfaction of Public Officials: Testing the Mediation Effect of Organizational Commitment. Public Organization Review, 1-20. doi:10.1007/s11115-020-00465-6


Organization Behaviour Essay by Subject Academy

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Role of Elephants in Ecosystem

Elephants are important to Ecosystem but there are many threats associated with them and we should start taking measures to protect them.

 Significance

As we are aware that all species play a vital role in our ecosystem same is the case with elephants. They are the most intelligent species with a very strong emotional consciousness. They are also the keystone to maintain the biodiversity of the ecosystem.

 It is belied the huge animal provides water for various other species, during the dry season they use their trunk to dig for water and this not only helps the elephants to survive in dry seasons but the water source is also used by other spices as well.

The animal is feared due to its huge size but this species has its own way to contribute towards the environment. Its major role is not mass destruction but their action eventually leads to some benefits as well. Likewise when they eat they create huge gaps in the vegetation which people might think is the destruction of plantation but these processes allow new plants to grow. These gaps also create pathway for small animals. They also help in seed dispersion helping other species to grow.

As the animal feed on fruits and vegetables, so where it leaves its dung that is full of seeds it helps in seed dispersion. Later the seeds are sown and grown into new grasses, bushes, and trees.

Owning an elephant?

This huge animal can also be used for business purposes like tourism etc. In some places, they are used for safaris. Some people use them to lift heavy logs. In India where people worship these animals, the elephant owners take a huge amount of money from worshipers just to touch the huge beast. Though the animal is really huge it is really cool-headed and it will not harm you until it senses danger around. In the southern part of India, they are the source of amusement as these animals are used for transportation. People who visit these parts enjoy animal safaris. Not only has this elephant also been an attraction of various circuses.

Role of Elephants in Ecosystem

 Impact of their existence

As already discussed earlier this animal has also been an essential element of our ecosystem. They have played a very vital role in the environment’s balance.  History has been quite evident of the fact that these animals have played a very vital role in construction work whether it was carrying the heavy logs and stones or changing the route of rivers. We have also learned that these animals have also been the part of wars in ancient history. This beast is also hunted for its ivory tusk which has led to decrease in population of this animal.

Savanna Elephants

They are known as largest subspaces of elephants and they are easy to distinguish as this beast has very large ears which radiate excessive heat and their front legs are comparatively larger than their hind legs. They are found in Africa. In Savanna, these species are further grouped in which there are 10 females and their cub the males associated with the group only during the mating timing. Sometimes in order to form a clam, the members of other group or herd mingle with other groups or herds. As the Savanna’s are grassland these animals are found gazing the grass but they also feed on wide variety of plants and fruits.  They feed more on grass during the rainy season than during the dry season. (T.R Mc Clanahan, 1996)

Threats for them

Though the animal is facing many threats the biggest threat is the human race. Due to the increasing population, most of the forest area or green lands are being converted into widely populated areas thus leading to deforestation and pollution which means encroaching their habitat and disturbing their lifestyle. There is a huge conflict between the humans and elephants as the human has encroached their grassland these beast move into the populated area or they sometimes enter the fields and destroy the crops due to which sometimes they get shot for raiding crops.

Sometimes these animals are hunted for their ivory tusk. Though the elephant tusk selling is prohibited it has a huge value in the black market and that is the most frequent hunting of these animals.

Not only this they are also hunted for their meat. It is quite evident that the threat is not just to this huge beast but human population is becoming a threat to every species. We are disturbing the balance of the ecosystem. (K.N. Ninan, 2007)

Conservation Acts

National park and Reserves

Though the national park and reserves are there to protect these wild animals the space is not enough and is too isolated for these wild beasts. These are the reason why these animals wander in the populated area and destroy the vegetative land.

Tourism

African government has taken strong steps to protect the species due to rising significance of the tourist trade to their economies. Every year Kenya alone receives 50 million dollars from tourism alone. (Kasnoff, 1996)

Prohibition of Trade

The decline of the species has been a big concern and due to this, there was a complete ban on ivory in 1990. All trade of elephant species was prohibited, some countries have built up strong laws to stop poachers but still in some parts illegal trade is still done. (T.R Mc Clanahan, 1996)

Conclusion

The only threat to these wild species is the human population. We humans have grown so greedy that we are ready to scarify the entire species in order to fulfill our greed, unnecessary needs and demands. Though the elephants are huge they are very emotional and friendly animals. As they are already aware of their huge size they are very gentle towards their surroundings. Whenever we think of an elephant we image a huge animal that moves slowly and is cool and calm most of the time.

It is believed the elephants were tamed in the Indus valley around 4000BC. They play a very important role in both Hindu and Buddhist religion. In Hindus lord Ganesha has an elephant head, he is believed to remove all the obstructions from your life. In Buddhism lord has spoken a lot about the elephants in his teachings.

Bibliography

K.N. Ninan, S. (2007). The econony of biodiversity Conservation. earthscan in the UK and USA.

Kasnoff, C. (1996). Bagheera. http://www.endangeredspeciesjournalist.com/ .

T.R Mc Clanahan, T. Y. (1996). East African Ecosystem and their conservation. Oxford university press.

K.N. Ninan, S. (2007). The econony of biodiversity Conservation. earthscan in the UK and USA.

Kasnoff, C. (1996). Bagheera. http://www.endangeredspeciesjournalist.com/ .

T.R Mc Clanahan, T. Y. (1996). East African Ecosystem and their conservation. Oxford university press.


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Compensation and Benefits in an Organization

Assessment of the compensation system of Simply Literature Production

The compensation system of Simply Literature Production is unsystematic. There is no official system for compensation and benefits of the employees of the firm. There is no regular record-keeping for the performances of the employees. There is no performance analysis and no systematic arrangement of employees. Despite employing 120 people, there is a complete lack of methodical and structured employment as most of them are made to work in production. A small number of supervisors who are puzzled about their job are often contradicting each other. How are they supposed to “supervise” their subordinates if they are themselves disorganized and ill-informed about their jobs? The employment of relatives despite their inability to perform well shows bias, appointment of only one book-keeper for over a hundred employees is bound to result in confusions and conflicts, the dearth of specialists in any field shows a complete deficiency of specialization in the firm, the lackadaisical distribution of leaves shows no ambition for the organizational goals and, lastly, the jumbled bonus system will sure to hurt the morale of the employees. In short, there’s a total lack of a systematic approach throughout the management of the firm which is bound to failure.(Long, Strategic Compensation in Canada: Evaluating Individuals, 2018)

Compensation and Benefits

The reason behind the high turnover of new employees

Considering the highly unorganized nature of the management of the firm, it is not a surprise that most of the employees end up resigning in a short passage of time and are replaced by the new ones. The major reasons behind this are:

  • The supervisors have to work in the management as well as the production. They have confused about their job profile. How can one expect them to control and supervise their subordinates? This leads to poor management and creates chaos among the employees. Ultimately, they leave and the vacancies are filled by recruits.
  • There is no proper program for employee compensation and benefits. They are given bonuses based on the owner’s memory of them every Christmas. This will demotivate the employees and ultimately force them out of the firm. The basic concept of motivation by monetary incentives is absent.
  • The lack of organizational goals and objectives has led to a mix-up of employees in various tasks. Supervisors are working in production, only one bookkeeper is handling the books of 120 employees and most of the recruitments are biased in favour of the owner’s relatives. There are no organizational or personal goals outlined.
  • There is no performance review and analysis, no salary and compensation audit and no appraisal program on a timely basis. The new employees are on the mercy of the owner’s memory. The older ones are always well-paid since the owner considers them loyal no regards to their performance whatsoever. This will alienate the new employees instead of welcoming them, ultimately forcing their hand to pen the resignation.
  • There is no delegation of decision making power, authority and responsibility throughout the firm. Everyone is clueless about their powers and ultimately come to the owner for the solution. This will unnecessarily prolong a simple decision and also create a sense of low self-esteem among the employees since they hold no authority to make even a simple decision.
  • The noticeably larger difference among the bonuses distributed among the employees is bound to create discontent among them. This will spread disharmony among the employees resulting in their resignations one after another.
  • Lastly, the complete lack of a systematic operation of the firm will fail in the retention of the employees in the long term.(Long, Strategic Compensation in Canada : A Behavioural Framework for Compensation, 2018)
  • Concepts of Compensation and Benefits that are violated here are:
  • A positive and natural reward system – Completely absent in this case. Irregular rewards harm than good.
  • Alignment of organizational goals with individual goals – There are no organizational objectives outlined and no relevance of individual interests.
  • Integrated reward system – The employees are rewards only on Christmas with no relation to their actual performances.
  • Faulty recruitment – The recruitment is biased towards the relatives of the owner with no regard to their actual suitability for the organization.
  • Performance review – There is no performance analysis and review system. No appraisals for well-performing staff and no periodic audit for salary compensations.
  • Staff retention – The owner is least bothered about staff satisfaction and the fact that there is a high of new employees.
  • Fairness and Effectiveness of the compensation system:

The compensation system applied here is neither effective nor fair. The bonus is distributed once a year based on the owner’s memory and personal opinion with no regard to their actual performances. The absence of a formal compensation system further deteriorates the situation.

  • Changes that should be introduced:
  • Proper and systematic recruitment of the staff. The bias towards the relatives of the owners despite their unsuitability for the job should be stopped.
  • Clear job descriptions and work-allotment. All fields should be given equal attention, from production to supervision to book-keeping.
  • A systematic performance analysis and review program.
  • A systematic approach to the compensation and benefits offered.

Establishment of a link between the personal goals of employees to the goals of the organization.(Long, Strategic Compensation in Canada :A Road Map to Effective Compensation, 2018)

Compensation and Benefits

Recommendations:

The company should carefully consult a Human Resource consultancy to create an effective compensation and benefit system. The recruitment process also needs help from professional hiring agencies. The job profiles and the corresponding compensation packages must be highlighted in the job descriptions. The appointment and work-allocation of the employees must be based on their qualities. There must be a balanced focus on all the necessary fields of the firm instead of focusing only on the production. The compensation and benefits provided to the employees must be linked with the organizational goals of the firm to create a sense of accomplishment among the employees. A fair, just and satisfactory compensation system goes a long way in securing the best employees for the long term future of the firm.A happy employee will always contribute in the growth of the company.

References

Long, S. (2018). Strategic Compensation in Canada : A Behavioural Framework for Compensation. Nelson.

Long, S. (2018). Strategic Compensation in Canada :A Road Map to Effective Compensation. Nelson.

Long, S. (2018). Strategic Compensation in Canada: Evaluating Individuals. Nelson.


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ADNOC Abu Dhabi National Oil Company

1. Introduction:

ADNOC is considered as one of the largest energy company of the world both in case of reserves and production. Ruwais and Umm Al Nar are two oil refineries operated by the company. These two oil refineries are having 18 subsidiary companies at upper level and under it at down level stage of production. The company gas fields at both onshore and offshore level. To increase the supply of local electricity and water utilities, the company export Liquid natural gas. The company provide electricity and water services to petrochemical plants.

Headquarter of ADNOC is located in Abu Dhabi. The building of the company contains sustainable technologies. There are more than 65 floors with an office tower in overall building complex which consists ofcrisis management center, a heritage museum, and other support facilities.

1.2 Objectives of the company:

The primary focus of the company is on strategic areas:

  • Investing in the people
  • Enhancing the company’s performance
  • Increasing profitability
  •  Optimizingefficiencies

1.3 Services of the company:

  • Exploration and production of oil and gas

Abu Dhabi Company for Onshore Petroleum Operations (ADCO)

In Abu Dhabi, ADCO works onshore and in shallow coastal water. The original name of the company was Petroleum Development. The first concession was given to the company on 11 January 1939 but its geological operations did not begin until after World War II. The first oil discovery of oil was made at Bab in 1960. In 1962, the company was renamed the Abu Dhabi Petroleum Company. Then the company started its exports on 14 December 1963. Then in 1973, 25% equity was acquired by government.And it was increased to 60% in 1974. This name Abu Dhabi Company for Onshore Petroleum Operations was adopted by the company in 1978.

Generating new job opportunities:

The company has clear motive of generating new job opportunities working towards the research and development and contributing towards growth in employment rate. Since 1971 they have created thousands of job for the people of Abu Dhabi and they have driven the growth of a diverse knowledge-based economy they also play a key role in the county’s global emergence. Not only this have they also contributed in education sector as well like an engineering education and energy industry Research College and a K-12 school.

Enhancing the company’s performance

The company strives towards success and continuous growth. It has been notice that over the years the company has become one of the leading industries. From past 45 years the company has played a major role in Abu Dhabi’s economic growth and development and also keeping on mind the preservation of hydrocarbons reserves of   the Emirate’s. They also provide operation and management of seaport and also offer oil and gas technical training services in order to enhance services. They are the leading energy producers in the world and the main reason behind Abu Dhabi’s development, growth and diversification. The work has had a positive and lasting impact on the quality of millions of lives. As for the contribution towards society is concerned so since 1971 they have created thousands of job for the people of Abu Dhabi and they have driven the growth of a diverse knowledge-based economy they also play a key role in the county’s global emergence. (OGJ, July 10)

Increasing profitability

They are the leading energy producers in the world and the main reason behind Abu Dhabi’s development, growth and diversification. The company across the entire natural oil chain creating huge network of businesses which is only possible by  including  exploration, distribution, storage ,production and refining to the development of a wide-range of petrochemical products in the industry.

As we all are aware that the company strives for excellence and is continuously working on the growth and development of the country as well as the company itself. (Anon., Oct. 16)

ADNOC

Energy Management Systems structure of ADNOC

As mentioned above the company focuses on overall growth. As stated by the Director Energy Manage Sponsor as large suppliers and consumer of energy the EnMS enables to deliver long-term gas plans under effective and cost effective way. The company has gained benefits of 6% from ENMs. So far the improvement has gone to 6% from the baseline since 2014

Optimizing efficiencies

The cumulative cost savings of US $150 million has been observed and reduction in emission of 3.1 million metric tons of carbon dioxide. The company’s midterm target is to reach to an improvement level of 10% by 2020 almost making the saving of about US $1 billion.

Now they strive for new and innovative ways to maximize the value of pioneering those approaches, the resources and technologies that will make sure that the company is able to meet the demands of every business market and will work towards the contribution of Abu Dhabi’s economy for coming future.

ADNOC

Services

  • Oil

Crude oil production

  • Gas

Gas oil, kerosene, fuel gas, LPG

  • Sulphur and marine transportation
  • Manufacture of petrochemicals

Polypropylene, ethylene, and polyethylene

  • Distribute petroleum products

Marine fuel, gasoline, jet fuel and lubricants.

  • Other services

Oilfield services and oil shipping

Convenience stores

The ownership and operation of gas stations

ADNOC

They provide services like drilling, crude oil production, natural gas, sour gas and liquefied natural gas, refined petroleum products like gasoline, gas oil, kerosene, fuel gas, LPG, liquid and granulated sulphur. Not only this the company also worked in the manufacture of petrochemicals which including polypropylene, ethylene, and polyethylene. Moving on to intermediate chemicals it including liquid and gaseous oxygen and nitrogen, xenon and krypton, some agriculture products include granular urea and ammonia.

They also distribute petroleum products that include marine fuel, gasoline, jet fuel and lubricants. The other services provided are oilfield services and oil shipping, convenience stores, the ownership and operation of gas stations, not only this they also have contributed in education sector as well like an engineering education and energy industry research college and a K-12 school, they also provide operation and management of seaport and also offers oil and gas technical training services in order to enhance services. (Oxford Business Group, 2015)

2. Contribution

2.1 Responsibilities Creation

They also have contributed in education sector as well like an engineering education and energy industry Research College and a K-12 school, they also provide operation and management of seaport and also offers oil and gas technical training services in order to enhance services.

They are the leading energy producers in the world and the main reason behind Abu Dhabi’s development, growth and diversification. The company across the entire natural oil chain creating huge network of businesses which is only possible by  including  exploration, distribution, storage ,production and refining to the development of a wide-range of petrochemical products in the industry.

Responsibilities Modification

As the company works towards its growth and achievements it also understands its responsibilities towards society and these are the reasons why the company is working on providing employment, education and research opportunities. The company looks for its betterment but it also works for the betterment of the society. They are the leading energy producers in the world and the main reason behind Abu Dhabi’s development, growth and diversification. (Molina, 2014)

The company across the entire natural oil chain creating huge network of businesses which is only possible by  including  exploration, distribution, storage ,production and refining to the development of a wide-range of petrochemical products in the industry.

ADNOC Abu Dhabi National Oil Company

Preconceived view of assignment

The six week internship provided a huge amount of knowledge and experience. According to my view this was the best way gain practical knowledge. I feel privileged to be a part of ADNOC internship team.

The internship was a golden opportunity to learn new thing from one of the biggest company.

Learning of the Internship

  • Introduction to Finance support manager function structure and role of responsibilities.
  • Checking the invoice uploaded by supplier at the end of the month.
  • Month end closing activities.
  • Contract review process.
  • Handling General ledgers
  • Cash Management
  • Providing cash forecast budget

The company’s contribution:

  • The company is making its strategy related to a Human resource by having in view the development and formation of mission, vision, and strategy of the business.
  • The company also ensure that there should be proper implementation of plans so that business targets can be achieved.
  • The company also motivate the employees time to time by providing those bonuses and appraisal.
  • It recommends a proper organizational structure to Human resource department so that all the resources can be properly utilized and communication should be proper. (Wilson, 1980)
  • There is proper arrangement of meetings, campaigns and conferences time to time to promote the plans for achievement of the desired target.
  • The company manages the recruitment strategy as well. There is proper structured interviewing of candidates, psychometric tests before hiring them.
  • The company ensures human resource department to make a timely budget for all the plans so that no budgetary issues should be there.
  • It ensures personal development plans for all the employees for their personal growth.
  • Training and development programs are organized time to time for growth of employees.

Explore new methods for learning new techniques which will augment the training process for the purpose to successfully train and develop personnel and improve organizational effectiveness.

This internship would be very beneficial for the future and placements. The experience of the industry would make me the right candidate for the job.

  • Can also apply in ADNOC
  • Practical knowledge hold great value.
  • Made my CV valuable

4. Impact on career

ADNOC Abu Dhabi National Oil Company
  • Contribution of College towards organization and career
  • The college provided the opportunity to work with the organization and gain experience.
  • Internship programs help students learn more and practically implement their knowledge.
  • Focuses on professional growth and development.

Contribution of college towards organization and your career

  • As the college provides these internship programs to the students thus paving the path of great success for the students.
  • Such programs provide job opportunities to the students.
  • Internship programs help students learn more and practically implement their knowledge.
  • Focuses on professional growth and development (Anon., Nov. 15)

Before hiring the employees, company need to have a match of individual and organizational needs. The company also focus on performance and appraisals time to time to motivate the employees. It’s the responsibility of Human resource manager to make sure for proper fit among employees and organization. Thus under career planning practices of the company, main considered facts are:

  • Matching of Individual-Organization before hiring employees
  • Identification of Career Opportunities and Requirements
  • Assessment of potential of employee
  • Instituting Career Development Initiative

The six week internship provided a huge amount of knowledge and experience. According to my view this was the best way gain practical knowledge. I feel privileged to be a part of ADNOC internship team.


ADNOC Abu Dhabi National Oil Company Research by Subject Academy

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Market Analysis of Woolworths

Introduction:

Woolworths is a chain of grocery stores and supermarkets in Australia. It was founded in 1924 and is owned by Woolworths group. Woolworths and Cole Supermarket Australia, or simply known as Coles, together forge a near-duopoly of Australian supermarkets. They dominate the market with almost 80% of the Australian market. They deal in the provision of household groceries such as vegetables, fruits, meat, packaged foods, etc. and other household products like DVDs, magazines, pet foods, baby products, stationery and so on. According to calculations on August 2019, 981 Woolworths supermarkets and 43 Woolworths convenience stores. They also run an online home delivery service by the name of Woolworths online. (Roy Morgan 2019).

Background:

Woolworths Limited (currently Woolworths Group) was founded by five Australian entrepreneurs – Percy Christman, Stanley Chatterton, Cecil Scott Waine, George Creed, and Ernest Williams. It was founded on 24 September 1924 but its first store was inaugurated on 5 December 1924 in Pitt street of Sydney’s Imperial Arcade, named “Woolworths Stupendous Bargain Basement”. At the spearhead of innovation in the Australian market, Woolworths stores became the first variety store in the world to install receipt printing cash register in 1926. Since then, they have never looked back and grown at a rapid pace while adopting newer technologies every year. (mpk732t22016clustera. 2019).

Market Analysis of Woolworths

Acquisitions:

American supermarket giant Safeway Inc. arrived in Australia in 1982 as Australian Safeway Inc. They were bought and acquired by Woolworths in 1985. Before this acquisition, Australian Safeway Inc. had 126 stores across Victoria, Queensland and New South Wales. All these stores were rebranded as Woolworths stores by 2017. (Woolworths Corporate Website 2017)

Entry to India

Their entry into one of the largest consumer-based market in the world, India, will lead to further expansion of Woolworths supermarkets and will provide a much needed wider variety of household products. This will also result in stronger international trade relations between the two nations. (Mishra, 2009)

The PESTLE Analysis:

Political Analysis – The company possesses an organized performance-driven political atmosphere in Australia and New Zealand. A strong political base and background ensure smoother present and future operation of the company while meeting and fulfilling the political factors as they greatly influence the performance of the firm. Woolworths has always followed the policy of political analysis to fortify its business stably with an optimum platform for future growth. This also ensures that there are no major unexpected losses that will greatly impact the company. Woolworths will follow the same approach in India, comply with all legal requirements and building a strong foundation that will last forever. Case48. (2019).

Economic Factors:

Every economy suffers from ups and downs with time. A recession hit economy is sure to result in lower sales and financial plummet. During the global recession, Woolworths also suffered from this unfortunate event. It led to shutting down of its retail stores in the UK. This also led to the unemployment of over 30,000 people. Overall sales took a severe hit and it was a financial nosedive for the company. But this where the visionary Economic analysis came in handy. The company was doing well in other markets, like Australia. This helped in saving the company from a major and possibly permanent downfall. India, being one of the fastest-growing economies in the world, is the right platform for the Woolworths group. Their entry in the Indian market will not only expand their business but also help the people of India as well. The provision of a wider variety of products that are best in the class is just the primary objective. But the second secondary objectives are to employ the people, which is a huge problem faced by the Indian economy currently.  (Nandonde, 09 April 2019)

Woolworths Store in Australia

Social Factors:

Social factors include all those factors of the society that influence the performance of a business. The most crucial aspect of society is the customer, who is the major source of revenue for the company. Customer is the aspect that keeps the business running. A business must identify and focus on the target market and the demands of its customers. This requires a futureproof planning process as per the needs and demands of the target market. This ensures sustainable profitability in the long run as well as everlasting customer satisfaction.

For Woolworths Group, the Customer is always the king. They have always been adapting to the ever-evolving social context and provided different products at the lowest prices. They have also established loyalty programs and other ways to keep up with social trends. Such valuable and smart schemes have helped earn the organization over 900000 members. Next is to ensure an effective yet efficient approach to management. Woolworths aims to replicate this model of methodical and structured management in India as well. Since the Indian market is greatly influenced by the socio-economic factors, the long-sighted vision of the company will serve them as well as the customers well. (Suresh Kasanagottu, 2018)

Technological Factors:

These factors refer to innovations in technology that may positively affect the company. This is a very crucial analysis, it includes the following terms-

  • Technological incentives
  • Automation of operations
  • Research and Development
  • Technological innovations
  • Market-specific technological awareness

Deployment of RFID (Radio-frequency identification) has resulted in quick, constant and clear communication among the retail stores. It also ensures that sufficient stock is available for the customers (Orhun, 2012). Woolworths did not stop at this, they went one step further with the incorporation of integrated SOA (Service Oriented Architecture) to aid the technology effectively. The company always strives to adopt modern ways to follow an effective yet efficient approach to management. Indian market is no stranger to technology. The passion to innovate of the company and the technological prowess of the Indian market will go hand in hand. (studocu.com. 2019).

Legal Factors:

Legal factors are a very crucial topic to be addressed for the establishment of a successful business. India has one of the most comprehensive legal infrastructures in the world. These factors act as an extension to the Political factors. Legal factors are more specific to the various laws and judicial requirements for the establishment and operation of the company. The major requirements that are thoroughly studied and met by the Woolworths group are:

Discrimination Laws

  • Anti-trust Laws
  • Consumer Protection Laws
  • Copyright and Patent Laws
  • Health and Safety Laws  

Fulfilment of legal requirements will result in a legal and safe experience for both the company and the customers. (Colla, 2003)

Environmental Factors:

Woolworths consider our natural environment to be the most valuable asset. Environmental factors are very important for a successful business. The unfortunate degradation of our environment over the past decades has led to the following roadblocks for the operation of a company-

  • Scarcity of raw materials
  • Pollution emission targets
  • Carbon footprints set by governments
  • Unhygienic environment for the employees and customers (Joseph Pancras, 2018)

Ecological factors also greatly influence the operation of a company. Weather, climate, environmental offsets and climate change affect the production of goods. This is why these factors are to be taken seriously.

Woolworths Group has always thrived to help our environment on whatever basis possible. In 2018, they made a historic decision to ban single-use plastic bags during checkout. Within the first three months of this initiative, their plastic bag usage dropped by 80%, leading to 1.5 billion fewer bags going to landfill. They also committed to axe out over 180 tonnes of plastic packaging from their products by the year 2018. This shows us their commitment to the benefit of nature. India, being a very naturally gifted country, will greatly benefit from such responsible operators. (Woolworths Annual Report, 2017)

STP Analysis:

This model consists of three steps:

  1. Segment your market
  2. Target your customers
  3. Position your products

Segment: One business cannot meet the requirements of all customers. This is why we need to conduct market segmentation. It is a process of division and categorization of customers. Woolworths apply market segmentation on the following basis-

Demographic basis: This covers personal attributes such as age, income, gender, marital status, education, occupation, etc. Woolworths provides high-quality products for people ageing from 6-65. They provide baby products as well as life easing products. They aim for high-quality product provision without burning a hole in the customer’s pocket. This will be the perfect recipe for Indian markets as it is very vast and diverse.

Geographic: This refers to the geographical location of the business. Woolworths aims to establish its stores accessible to people from different locations, from suburbs to metropolitans. Corporate Finance Institute. (2019).

Psychographic: This refers to categorization based on personality, lifestyle and personal values. As India is blessed with a rich culture, Woolworths will provide satisfactory services to all its customers leading different lifestyles.

Behavioral: This refers to the usage of the product and customer loyalty. Indian consumers are known to be brand loyal. Tata, Maruti Suzuki are two major examples of it. Woolworths aims to form not only a business relationship but also a personal bond with the customers.  (Das Nair, 2018)

Target: In this step, the target market is identified. It is very important to analyze the potential growth and expansion of business in a certain market. Woolworths aims toward a thorough analysis of the Indian market and carefully planting its products to maximize sales while maintaining a pleasant consumer experience. (mpk732t22016clustera. 2019)

Position: In the last step of this process, the goal is to identify the position of the product to target the most valuable customer segments. Creating a value proposition is essential to attract maximum customers. Woolworths aims towards providing unique, high quality and value for money products in the Indian market. This will benefit the business as well as the large Indian market. Bloomberg.com. (2019)

Porter’s Five Forces:

It is a simple yet powerful tool for analyzing and understanding the competitiveness and identifying the potential profitability of a business. These five forces are –

Competitive Rivalry: Estimation and analysis of rivals help in outlining the required strategy to attract the maximum number of customers and form a strong base that is built to last. It is also beneficial for the customers as competitive rivalry pushes the players in the game to provide as better products as possible for as little as possible. E. Dobbs, M. (2014).

Supplier Power: This includes potential suppliers, their frequency of increasing price of supplies, and how will they deal with the firm in the long run.

Buyer power: Production is worthless if there’s no customer for it. Analyzing the buyer power is necessary to establish a healthy exchange of power between the producer and customer. Competition, H. (2019).

The Threat of Substitution: This refers to the likeliness of substitutions for a service. An easily replaceable product will not hold a strong position in the market.

The threat of  New Entry: To run a successful business, it is essential to establish a futureproof business that will not sink once the new players enter the market. Cdn2.hubspot.net.(2019) Regular research and analysis of the target market and it’s varying demands are paramount here. The downfall of smartphone giant Nokia is a classic example of how to manufacture rigidity can be fatal.

Woolworths group follows through all these theories and guidelines thoroughly to establish a successful business in the Indian market. Bruijl, (2018).

Executive Summary:

Woolworths Group is aiming to establish an empire in one of the most potent economies in the world, India. Their business plan is to provide the highest quality of daily usage products at reasonable prices among all types of customers. They aim for not only initial product quality but also a pleasant after-sales experience to leave an impression that will last forever. They aim to provide:

  • The highest quality of products
  • Reasonable pricing that justifies the quality
  • A pleasant post-sales service
  • The rapid expansion of stores across the country to reach as many people as possible

After all, their supermarket slogan is “Fresh Food People”.

A very encouraging financial report of 2019 is given below:

After a challenging first half, the Woolworths group delivered a commendable growth of 3.4% and 5.0% for the whole year.

These statistics highlight the financial planning, strength and potential of the Woolworths group that will expand its business in the Indian market not solely from a business point of view, but also to establish a long term bond with the country and its people. (Target Corporation Website, 2017).

 References

  1. Bruijl, (2018). The Relevance of Porter’s Five Forces in Today’s Innovative and Changing Business Environment. SSRN Electronic Journal. 10.2139/ssrn.3192207.
  2. Bloomberg.com. (2019). Bloomberg – Are you a robot?. Retrieved 26 December 2019, from https://www.bloomberg.com/profile/company/WOW:AU
  3. Competition, H. (2019). Analyzing the Competition with Porter’s Five Forces. Retrieved 26 December 2019, from https://www.businessnewsdaily.com/5446-porters-five-forces.html
  4. E. Dobbs, M. (2014). Guidelines for applying Porter’s five forces framework: a set of industry analysis templates. Competitiveness Review, 24(1), 32-45. doi.org/10.1108/CR-06-2013-0059
  5. Corporate Finance Institute. (2019). Industry Analysis – Top 3 Methods to Assess and Analyze an Industry. Retrieved 26 December 2019, from https://corporatefinanceinstitute.com/resources/knowledge/strategy/industry-analysis-methods/
  6. Roy Morgan. (2019). Woolworths and Aldi grow grocery market share in 2018. Retrieved 26 December 2019, from http://www.roymorgan.com/findings/7936-australian-grocery-market-december-2018-201904050426
  7. Cdn2.hubspot.net.(2019).Retrieved26 December 2019, from http://cdn2.hubspot.net/hubfs/125770/Michael_E._Porters_Five_Forces_Model_E-Book_From_Wikipedia.pdf?t=1446668543121
  8. Case48. (2019). BCG Matrix and VRIO Framework for Woolworths Limited. Retrieved 30 December 2019, from https://www.case48.com/bcg-matrix/627-Woolworths-Limited
  9. studocu.com. (2019). Retrieved 30 December 2019, from https://www.studocu.com/en/document/curtin-university-of-technology/strategic-management/other/group-assignment-sample/1744814/view
  10. mpk732t22016clustera. (2019). Topic 4: Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning – Page 2 – T2 2016 MPK732 MARKETING MANAGEMENT (CLUSTER A). Retrieved 30 December 2019, from https://mpk732t22016clustera.wordpress.com/category/topic-4-segmentation-targeting-and-positioning/page/2/
  11. Mishra, S. (2009). GIS in Indian retail industry-a strategic tool. International Journal of Marketing Studies1(1), 50. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.1007.9579&rep=rep1&type=pdf
  12. Nandonde, F. A. (2019). A PESTLE analysis of international retailing in the East African Community. Global Business and Organizational Excellence38(4), 54-61. https://doi.org/10.1002/joe.21935
  13. das Nair, R. (2018). The internationalisation of supermarkets and the nature of competitive rivalry in retailing in southern Africa. Development Southern Africa35(3), 315-333.https://doi.org/10.1080/0376835X.2017.1390440
  14. Kasanagottu, S., & Bhattacharya, S. A REVIEW OF METRO, TARGET, & WOOLWORTHS GLOBAL BUSINESS STRATEGY. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/326928843
  15. Colla, E. (2003). International expansion and strategies of discount grocery retailers: the winning models. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 31(1), 55-66.https://doi.org/10.1108/09590550310457845
  16. Woolworths Corporate Website – About US”, Retrieved from http://www.woolworthsgroup.com.au/page/about-us/ (Accessed 15August 2017)
  17. Woolworths Annual Report, (2017), pp. 4, 54, 65,Retrieved from https://www.woolworthsgroup.com.au/icms_docs/188795_annual-report-2017.pdf (Accessed 28August 2017)
  18. Target Corporation Website – Culture”. Available at https://corporate.target.com/careers/culture (Accessed 9August 2017)
  19. Pancras, J., Sriram, S., & Kumar, V. (2012). Empirical investigation of retail expansion and cannibalization in a dynamic environment. Management Science58(11), 2001-2018. https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.1120.1540
  20. Orhun, A. Y. (2013). Spatial differentiation in the supermarket industry: The role of common information. Quantitative Marketing and Economics11(1), 3-37.

Market Analysis of Woolworths by Subject Academy

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Mezlai: The first Emirates Food Restaurant

1. Introduction

Having a dinner outside, especially with family or with loved ones is really a great experience. On 5 November 2017 my parents made a plan for dinner outside. After so much discussion, we decide to go to the Mezlai restaurant, first Emirati restaurant in Dubai. We reached them at 10 pm. After a long time, my father came from abroad and to have a celebration, we wanted to have a dinner outside. Thus we went to Mezlai restaurant.

Mezlai first Emirates Food Restaurant

2. Product Strategy

•    The menu was there on the table, I started analyzing the menu. It was very attractive from outlook. They are having different sections for main course, appetizers, chicken, salad and sweet dish. Their special product is Arabic coffee they offers. Then we ordered our dinner.

•    The services they provide while offering food are really different from any other restaurant I have ever visited in Dubai. Quality of food was also great. They were having special types of Arabic salads.

•    The restaurant is having playing area for children as well, so that parents can have important discussion while having dinner. One side of restaurant is peaceful for important discussions and another side of restaurant is for youngsters who want to celebrate their occasions. Proper DJ system is there.

•    I visited the restaurant on Zomato.com as well. Mostly the customers have given five star rating to the services and quality of products offered by the restaurant.

•    According to my experience about Mezlai restaurant, this is providing quality services to its customers.

3. Pricing Strategy

•    For any company, restaurant or café, pricing is an important part of strategy, which helps in increasing sale of company’s product in the market (Schindler, 2011). Mezlai is also having its own pricing mix strategy. The restaurant has designed different combination of prices for products which are demanded in combination as soups with meals.

•    Price adjustment strategy is when a company is changing its a price rapidly as according to the customers. But as I have observed that Mezlai is not having any price adjustment strategy. No doubt price has been increased and has been varied as compared to last time when I visited, it was approximate six months ago, I visited there, prices have been increased. But that change in price is due to rises in general price. As such company is not adopting any price adjustment strategy.

4. Promotion strategy

•    Web page of the restaurant is having all the information regarding, hotel rooms, Rooms and suites, Restaurants and bar, Meetings and events, Luxury and spa and also having a corner for reviews by customers. (Tellis, 1988) If we visit the website of the restaurant, we will automatically come to know its features and we will be willing to visit it at least one time. For promotion purpose, the restaurant is having specialized features in its websites, describing all about its products and policies. (Mezlai, 2017)

•    Mezlai is also having its own Facebook page for social media presence. The restaurant time to time update all its products and pricing structure on the page. Whatever the new feature restaurant is going to provide gets published at the page.

•    The restaurant is also involved in advertisements in local magazines and newspaper for its promotions. It is also offering free services to celebrities and time to time inviting them for promotion of their acts or movies. This thing automatically attracts a large number of customers.

5. Place Strategy

•    The restaurant is located at West Corniche Road – Abu Dhabi – United Arab Emirates. It is one of the famous road for visitors and tourists of Dubai. The restaurant is also providing smooth parking facility to customers. The area the restaurant is located is full of crowd. All types of markets are the neighbor to this restaurant.

•    I have visited many other cafés and restaurants of Dubai. They are also providing best to the customers but as much as I have analyzed, Mezlai is at its best in providing best services to the customers. Other restaurants have adopted different price adjustment strategies to attract customers but Mezlai, without following any strict strategy is a center of attraction to customers.

mezlai restaurant

6. Targeting and Positioning

•    The Mezlai has created such kind of position in the market that its market is continuously expanding. Whether the customer is visiting one time or a regular customer, the restaurant maintains a long-term relationship with them through social media.

Targets of the company is to expand its services at global level. Through offering services like luxury hotels, spa and special facilities to tourists, their services are expanding by word of mouth by the persons who take their services once.

•    Throughout the time, I was there in the restaurant, I observed 200-300 customers sitting at one time having dinner. Their service of offering food is very quick. Their main target is to satisfy the customers and to maintain a long-term relationship with them.

•    The Mezlai is already having a good position in UAE, as it is the first Emirati restaurant providing Emirati foods and cuisines, which provides the customers with savor, taste combining with luxury and tradition in a unique design.

Bibliography

Mezlai. (2017). Mezlai. Retrieved from Visitabudhabi: https://visitabudhabi.ae/en/see.and.do/leisure/dining/mezlai.aspx

Schindler, R. (2011). Pricing Strategies: A Marketing Approach. sage.

Tellis, G. (1988). Advertising and Sales Promotion Strategy. Addison Wesley.


Mezlai: The first Emirates Food Restaurant.

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An Analysis of The Operations Of Starbucks

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Overview & Location

The company is well reputed American multinational coffee chain. It’s headquarters based in Seattle, Washington.  The company was founded in 1971. Greggs also located close to BPP University a few feet’s away from Starbucks. Greggs is the largest bakery chain in London. It was founded in 1939. Although both companies have their reputations and customers have their preference towards the products of both the companies. As both are located closer to BBP University the student footfall is expected more here. It can also be said that their major customers’ would-be students from the university. The reason for the students’ preference could be the 6 min walk to both.                                                     

An Analysis of The Operations Of Starbucks
An Analysis of The Operations Of Starbucks
An Analysis of The Operations Of Starbucks

Figure 2 and 3 shows the location of both Starbucks and Greggs in London. Both are surrounded by many other food joints or coffee shops but their prime location makes them more preferred. Close to airways and easy roadways makes them most preferred. 

1.2 Demographic

The American coffee chain Starbucks offers facilities like take-outs, bike parking space, provide Wi-Fi facility, provide ambience for working and outdoor seating. The mode of payment is also made easier as they accept both credit and debit cards. The timing during weekdays are 6:00 am to 9:30 pm, 6:30 am to 9:30 on Saturdays and 7:00 am to 9:30 pm on Sundays. People from almost every age groups are likely to be seen here. Due to the ambience, people prefer mostly prefer this place for meetings, group studies, discussion etc.

Greggs is a bakery chain whose main product are cakes, pastries and freshly baked bread. Not only have this had they also sold selective drinks and sandwiches. It is located near Shepherd’s Bush station. The bakery timing during weekdays is 6:30 am to 7:00 pm, 7:00 am to 7:00 pm on Saturdays and 9:00 am to 6:00 pm on Sundays. The place is visited more by those who have sweet tooth or preference for bakery products. Both the shops are visited by people from all age groups and religions. As the locations are closer to university so they are preferred more by students.

1.3 Services Offered

The opening timing for Starbucks during weekdays are 6:00 am to 9:30 pm, 6:30 am to 9:30 on Saturdays and 7:00 am to 9:30 pm on Sundays. Starbucks offer many products which come under the fields’ drinks, food and at-home coffee. (Appendix 1). The timing for Greggs during weekdays is 6:30 am to 7:00 pm, 7:00 am to 7:00 pm on Saturdays and 9:00 am to 6:00 pm on Sundays. The breakfast is served till 11 am. The products offered are sandwiches, pasta, salads and soups, drinks and snacks,baked products, doughnuts, platters etc. (Appendix 2).

1.4 Comparative Four Vs Analysis

The 4 V Analysis is conducted to the assessment of the operation ion conducted in the organisation. This analysis helps understand the needs of the customer and with the analysis, the company can work on its gaps (Bamford & Forrester, 2010).

These 4 Vs are listed below

  1. Volume
  2. Variety
  3. Variation
  4. Visibility.

Volume: This isthe number of products created or delivered within the company. In comparison to Greggs, Starbucks has a vast range of varieties in products. The surveys show that recently converted bakery into a coffee shop (Greggs) is working wonders and earning profit.As per the survey, the average number of customers during weekdays is less in Starbucks in comparison to Greggs and same is the case during weekends. A survey was conducted to conduct to observe the visitors in both Greggs and Starbucks during weekdays and weekends.(Telegraph, 2015).

The table below gives the details:

Name of the CompanyVisitors during WeekdaysVisitors during Weekend
Starbucks120 customers180 Customers
Greggs150 Customers200 Customers

Table 1 Volume of customers visiting Starbucks and Greggs (Observation Approx)

From the above table we can conclude that Greggs have more footfall in comparison to Starbucks both in weekdays and weekends.

Variety

It reflects the variety of goods or products offered by the company to the customer. In comparison to Starbucks, it is observed that Greggs don’t have much to offer to its customers. From the figure below shows the variety of products offered by both Starbucks and Greggs. Starbucks focuses on 4 main areas: Food, Brewages, Coffee beans and coffee equipment.  Starbucks offer 11 breakfast choices whereasGreggs offers 14 options. There are 16 lunch options and Greggs offer 8 pasta, salad and soup choices. Starbucks has 6 fresh fruits and there are 24 varieties of sandwiches, 4 platters, 18 Balanced Choice Menu and 9 Pasties and bakes in Gregg’s menu. Whereas Starbucks offer a vast range of 18 Espresso based drinks, 13 tea options, 11 Muffins, Pastries & Doughnuts, 20 Cakes & cookies.

An Analysis of The Operations Of Starbucks

 Figure 4 Starbucks Product Areas

Greggs Products

Figure 5 Greggs Products

Variation

The term refers to the changes in the demands of products or the services provided by the organizations. These changes can occur due to any reason like weekends, holidays, offers etc. The consumer preference shifts from time to time and so does their food preferences. During peak hours as both are located near to the university the rush is expected early morning and during lunch hours and during this time students are likely to order something instant whereas during holidays and weekends they don’t mind waiting.

Visibility

This refers to the ease of the customer to go through the products. This means that the products are displayed in such a manner that they are easily visible to the consumer so that he can make his choices. When it comes to food it’s all about the display in both stores there is clear visibility to the products so the consumer can peek a glance easily. (Steve Brown, 2013)

Food
Figure 9Tempting food display

2. Performance Objectives Analysis

The performance analysis is a very critical part for any organisation which is done through three parameters i.e. quality, flexibly, speed and dependability. These parameters give a clear picture of the performance of the company.

  1. Quality: As Starbucks is concerned about being a global brand they have been very careful towards the quality of their products. As their Tagine says “Proud to Serve” the company has lived up to it whereas Greggs with its vast verities have a focus on nutritional aspect and served its customer.

Comparing reviews from various popular apps it is observed that both Starbucks and Greggs are on the same level when it comes to performance. On google review, Starbucks has 4.1 ratings and Greggs is on 4.2 ratings out of 5. On zomatoStarbucks score 3.5 and Greggs score 2.9 out of 5. (Ismail, et al., 2010)

Reviews

Flexible: Being aglobal brand Starbucks have alwaysfocused on customer preference as per the regions. The product alterations are done as per the customer and the regions. In some regions of Asia milk coffee and tea is preferred. The brand has some alterations to its products as per its customer demands. Greggs no doubly has lived up to its reputation over the years and have provided a large variety to its customers.

Speed: This aspect focuses on the speed at which the food is prepared and delivered. No one likes to wait for long hours and customers always consider speed under store performance. The reviews are rated on the performance of the base which includes speed and it’s quite evident the services are little slower in both the stores.(Nwachukwu & Chladkova, 2019)

Dependability: It has been observed that Starbucks ranks more in comparison to Greggs. The flexibility to the menu as per customer requirement all over the globe makes it more dependable and flexible.(Danny Samson, 2008)

3. Design analysis

From the basic imagers provided above it is clear that both Starbucks and Greggs have focused on 4 V’s. In comparison to both, it is observed that Starbucks have an upper hand in case of Variety and visibility as they have a wide range of products with a very attractive display. In the case of Greggs, they strictly follow the volume and variation aspects. Though both try their best to satisfy their customers at some point they lack in customer services and sometimes results in delay in deliveries. In comparison to Greggs Starbucks have suffered a lot due to its slow serving issues. They have worked on this aspect and tried to live up to their customer’s expectations.

Starbucks Layout

Figure 13 Starbucks Layout.

The above basic layout gives the idea of proper utilisation of space. The layout is designed in such a way that provides prover visibility and movement to its customers. This reflects the proper sitting place.

The Greggs layout reflects the indeed has put up an effort for the showcasing its products which again covers volume and visibility aspect. So many food racks that too in such proximity might affect the movement in the store. During the rush hours, food racks at multiple places could be one of the drawbacks.

Part B

Planning and Control

Overview:

In management, the first fundamental step that takes place is planning. Planning can be defined as the beforehand decision making of what, when and how it is to be done. It is a mental process that involves setting down the goals for the organizations and the various objectives in the path of it. It is done before acting to minimize risk and avoid any unpleasant surprises planning on its own is incomplete without the follow-up action to cross-check whether the process has been implemented correctly towards the achievement of the organizational goals. This follows up action is known as control. Planning and controlling go hand in hand. In a massive commercial organization like Starbucks, both planning and control are of paramount significance. Starbucks has over 30000 stores worldwide, without proper planning and controlling, running such a large chain of stores is not possible. This ensures efficiency as well as customer satisfaction.

Starbucks operations global strategy and surrounding macro-environment:

To run a global business organization like Starbucks, it is essential to pay attention to the attributes surrounding the wider macros of the business environment. Planning helps the organization by laying down the fundamental organizational objectives. The next step is to develop the premises on which the organization proceeds through. It focuses on present as well as future factors affecting the business. A global organization has to deal with a multitude of possibilities and assumptions which may be of political, social-economical, and environmental. For example, some countries may not permit the usage of a particular raw material or it is not adequately available. It could also be an issue within the organization itself. So, it is necessary to assess and evaluate all the factors and variables affecting the functioning of the organization via the process of planning. Controlling helps in verifying and supervising the execution of the planning process(Ng & Tan, 2015). It ensures that all the steps involved in the accomplishment of the organizational goals are executed perfectly, leaving no weak points or loopholes coming back to cause damage shortly. The global operations strategy of Starbucks reflects the proper usage of this process. In 1995, Starbucks invested around $1.5 million to set up a new company called Starbucks Coffee International, focusing its expansion in the Asian continent. Retail stores were set up with a systematic licensing system to ensure the authenticity and originality of the product offered. Next step led to the establishment of a powerful advertisement system to reach as many people as possible. Starbucks took advantage of the growing popularity of Internet marketing. They started sponsoring various popular personalities and organizations that led to the organization’s establishment as the pioneer in the world of coffee production. Then the rapid expansion of retail stores took place. The international success of Starbucks is down to its strong strength and rapid expansion of stores at accessible locations. These well-equipped Wi-Fi-connected stores are always full of an inviting, comfortable and peaceful ambience that provides a perfect atmosphere to the customers. This is all possible thanks to a strategic planning and controlling procedure.(CheikhI & Alaouid, 2019)

Key Requirements, Capabilities, and Challenges:

Running a global business like Starbucks is not an easy task, by any means. Behind the curtains, the organization faces numerous challenges. The first challenge is to fulfil the key requirements. As a food service provider, the fundamental requirement is the ample availability of fresh and healthy raw materials. Different countries have different parameters for running eateries which must be met. Then, the recruitment of quality staff members is another challenge for the organization. As Starbucks is a customer-friendly interactive service provider, it is vital to recruiting staff that is well equipped with mental and social behaviour that feels friendly and comfortable to the customers. In a world of online reviews, it is not unheard of when consecutive negative reviews led to the permanent loss of customers for a business. Thirdly, it is critical to keep the final cost of the product in line with the financial capacity of the target audience. For example, a store near a university must keep pricing in line with the expenditure capacity of the target audience, which is the students of the university. Local business bodies pose another major challenge as they can provide a similar final product for lesser cost as they incur much lower running costs due to the lack of auxiliary services provided by them. A proper planning process is of great importance as it helps in giving a blueprint of the upcoming challenges. This helps in eradicating or at least minimizing hurdles and selection of best alternative methods. Controlling helps by running a step by step check of the activities happening inside as well outside the organization. Various requirements such as legal formalities required to run an eatery across the globe, quality of the raw materials being used, and the final customer experience are very crucial to be kept under supervision to ensure the successful running of the business. At Starbucks, these requirements and challenges are dealt with very professionally with the help of prior planning and subsequent controlling. Customer satisfaction is of decisive for the organization. This is ensured by the diligent, intelligent and industrious management of Starbucks.(Muhammad Azriuddin, 2020)

4. Analysis and Evaluation:

A thorough analysis of a Starbucks retail store was conducted to compile this report. The major observations are-

  • Space management – There was a clear lack of space for the number of customers present on a Monday morning. Around 25% of customers were waiting in the line for the next table to free up. This shows that there is a need for space management. This will lead to more customers to enjoy the services and a higher level of satisfaction.
  • Delay in service – The customers waiting for the delivery of their order was a rather discouraging sight. They were constantly checking their timepieces with visible disappointment on their faces. This delay in service could be due to the following;
  • Lack of staff – Understaffing leads to increased workload and a definite delay in services.
  • Underperforming equipment – A retail store of Starbucks heavily relies on high-quality equipment, and if it is not performing as expected, it may elongate the preparation time and lead to delay in service.
  • Incompetent management – Management must exercise proper discipline in every task carried out in the store to ensure timely services to the customer.
  • Business personnel – The seats were dominated by the presence of business personnel. Face to face meeting, video call meets and simple phone conferences were very common. This shows the favouritism of Starbucks among the business class over other service providers like Greggs’.(Khan et al, 2015).
  • Casual meetings – Casual meetings among university students, friends and other people of different age groups were happily sipping their coffee. This shows how people from different working backgrounds and different age groups were happy and comfortable in their Monday mornings, thanks to an inviting, peaceful and soothing atmosphere. This is not matched by rivals like Greggs’.
  • Variety – Despite being famous for the coffee, the customer’s plates were loaded with a variety of snacks and dishes accompanied by their coffee. Leaving behind the competition that solely serves baked foods, Starbucks offer a variety of refreshments along with their coffee to attract more and more customers. The satisfaction level of the customers was visible after every delightful bite.
  • To go services – Not everyone wants to enjoy a cup of coffee on a chair, some prefer to have it on their way to work. The retail store offered to-go services in high-quality packaging to the customers in a hurry.
  • Parking space – Most urban service providers suffer from a lack of parking space for the customers. The retail store of Starbucks had ample space of parking for the vehicles of their customer so that they can enjoy their coffee without worrying about the parking ticket. This gives Starbucks a sharp edge over Greggs, who do not provide parking space(Handfield, 2020).

Evaluation – The Starbucks retail stores are well run, save for a few shortcomings here and there. If the issue of space management and service provision is sorted out, the experience is nearly flawless. There is a reason why Starbucks today is much more than a mere coffee place, it has become a brand image, a lifestyle symbol and a ‘first thing in the morning’ place for millions of people all across the globe. It enjoys a strong position in social media. Starbucks ensure an enjoyable experience anywhere across the globe thanks to its massive chain of stores.

This delightful experience may seem like an easy task to an amateur. But it takes a lot of effort to keep this flowing. The preparations start well before the sun rises and continue till midnight. The staff works in shifts to ensure efficiency. Staying one step ahead of the competition and fulfilling the customer demands based on their feedback is given a high priority. The importance of rightful planning and controlling cannot be ignored here. From the arrangement of fresh coffee beans to cooking the perfect sandwich, till the customer leaves the parking lot with a smile, everything is possible thanks to the constant planning and supervision carried out by super-efficient management. 

Recommendations:

They say nothing is perfect. Which is true, but we can always strive towards perfection. Starbucks follows the same, they strive towards providing a perfect experience to the customers. This is the reason behind their rapid growth. But despite an enjoyable experience, there are a few areas where there is room for improvement. These are-

  • Space – As previously discussed, space management is not as good as it could be. Finding people waiting for their tables on a Monday morning is a common sight. Proper space administration must be promoted to maximize the number of tables available without overcrowding the stores. This must be considered when the existing stores are renovated or new stores are established.
  • Delivery – Delay in delivery was also previously discussed which translated into extended and more than the acceptable time between receiving and delivering the order of the customer. This can be achieved by-
  • Recruitment of the required number of staff
  • Regular checkup and maintenance of the machinery used daily.
  • Taking care of other factors behind this delay such as lethargy among the staff members or a general lack of discipline.
  • Promoting more options for health-conscious customers – Refreshments at Starbucks are often loaded with calories, which may not be healthy for a large portion of their target audience. A provision of healthier versions of their offering for people working on their health will be greatly appreciated by one and all.
  • Private Lounges – As previously mentioned, Starbucks is the go-to place for the business personnel. Provision of private lounges will take this experience to the next level.
  • Eco-friendly products – Promotion of eco-friendly products should be performed, especially considering the ongoing hazards on our planet. Starbucks can promote a thoughtfulness of using eco-friendly products by cutting down the usage of plastics.
  • Edible containers – This is like an extension to the eco-friendly pathway for Starbucks. Providing edible containers in different flavours can be a clever and great way of eliminating plastic from their daily inventory and attract more kids and adults alike.

Starbucks always looks to improve itsservices, this is reflected by their regular expenditure on research and development. These recommendations look to add to their enjoyable experience.

Conclusion:

Starbucks is an international brand in today’s world. It is popular among teenagers, businessmen, celebrities and grownups alike. Their vast network of a chain of stores across the globe shows their ability to provide the highest quality of service in over 80 countries. This thorough analytical report on this organization throws light on the fundamental reasons behind its success. Their addictive coffee, delicious snacks and offerings, and an enjoyable ambience subconsciously force the customers to come back every time they crave a worthy cup of coffee as they will struggle to find a similar experience anywhere else like Greggs’. The shortcomings are also highlighted with the motive of improvement. The top management must focus their attention on proper planning and controlling of their organization to keep on moving forward. Conclusively, it is safe to say that despite strong competition, Starbucks is well ahead of its rivals.

References

Bamford, D. & Forrester. P. (2010). Essential Guide to Operations Management: Concepts and Case Notes, West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons

Ismail, A.I., Rose, R.C., Abdullah, H. and Uli, J., 2010. The relationship between organisational competitive advantage and performance moderated by the age and size of firms. Asian Academy of Management Journal15(2), pp.157-173.

Lamming, R., Steve, B. & John, B. (2012). Strategic Operations Management. London: Routledge

Hughes, L. (2018). Workplace Ethics – Starbucks Case Study [Online]. Available at: https://customwritings.co/workplace-ethics-starbucks-case-study/ (Accessed: 05 April 2020)

Starbucks. (2019). Community: Creating Pathways to Opportunity [Online]. Available at:  https://www.starbucks.com/responsibility/community (Accessed: 06 April 2020).

Zomato (2020). Greggs Menu [Online] Available from https://www.zomato.com/london/greggs-1-shepherds-bush/menu Accessed 6 April 2020

Zomato (2020). Starbucks Menu [Online] Available from https://www.zomato.com/london/starbucks-uxbridge/menu Accessed 6 April 2020

Samson.D. & Singh, P. (2008). Operations Management: An Integrated Approach, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Nwachukwu, C. and Chladkova, H., 2019. FIRM RESOURCES, STRATEGIC ANALYSIS CAPABILITY AND STRATEGIC PERFORMANCE: ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE AS MODERATOR. International Journal for Quality Research13(1).

Khan et al. (2015). Starbucks: An analysis of supply chain risk and mitigation strategies [Online]. Available at: https://sfkcorp.com/2015/04/28/starbucks-an-analysis-of-supply-chain-risk-and-mitigation-strategies/ (Accessed: 07 April 2020).

Handfield, R. (2020). Supply Chain Resource Cooperative [Online]. Available at: https://scm.ncsu.edu/scm-articles/article/what-is-supply-chain-management-scm (Accessed:  06 April 2020).

Ng, J.C.Y. and Tan, H.T., 2015. GOING GLOBAL: DO YOU HAVE THE NECESSARY STRATEGIC AND RESOURCES FIT?. Indian Journal of Management Science5(1), p.96.

L’AUDIT MARKETING, U.M.D. and DE, C., 2019. MARKETING AUDIT A METHOD OF A CONDUCT EVALUATION OF THE MARKETING STRATEGY AND THE BUSINESS PERFORMANCE. Revue Internationale du Marketing et Management Stratégique1(4), p.156.

Azriuddin, M., Kee, D.M.H., Hafizzudin, M., Fitri, M., Zakwan, M.A., AlSanousi, D., Kelpia, A. and Kurniawan, O., 2020. Becoming an International Brand: A Case Study of Starbucks. Journal of the community development in Asia3(1), pp.33-43.


An Analysis of The Operations Of Starbucks by Subject Academy

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Retail Shopping Customer Service Survey

1. “Detail the store you went to and the product you were shopping for”.

Furniture shopping can be one of those experience. Looking at a piece of furniture and imagining how it would feel in the living room is something that cannot be experienced online. Afterall, furniture is nothing like a garment. It will be a part of your house for the years to come.(Jasmand, 2012).

For customer delight, Leon’s furniture stores are the perfect stop for shopping. The store was founded in 1909, the store has kept up well with time. The store is located in Medicine Hat, AB, Canada. I had been one of the delightful customers who happened to acquire the first-hand experience. I went to buy a television.

Leon’s Furniture Stores

2. “Prepare a report listing and describing your initial thoughts/impressions upon entering the store. This may include, though not limited to”:

Offering a wide variety of products that turn a house into a home.From furniture to electronic devices such as televisions to appliances etc. the brand brings them all together(Management, 2012). The store has it all on display. Giving you the perfect canvas to paint your imagination. The store is big but the well placed department signs help you along the way. But if you still are lacking in a sense of direction. A smiling helpful face would always be at your service to help you navigate the store.(Güneş, 2010).

The store itself offers a lot of variety and surprisingly for a place so big it was very well maintained. The overall arrangement of the departments was good but could have been better considering the number of efforts they put into the customer experience. But overall it did not look that anything was out of place and was not too hard to navigate.(Kamakura, 2012.)The well-dressed staff added the professional effect. The smiling faces and polite language made the experience more delightful. The staff looked really happy and delightful.(Hoyle, 2010). The store provided parking space as well. Staff was persuasive as well.

3. “Describe and analyse how the transaction transpired. Your comments should include but are not limited to the following:

Were you served promptly”?

The staff of the store was customer friendly and willing to answer any questions a customer might have or possibly think of. No matter how silly the questions might be. The friendly demeanour and the uniforms were the perfect embodiment of the store itself.

Retail Shopping Customer Service Survey

4. “List and describe other elements of good customer service that were present”.

As a customer, from the movement, I stepped in the store I knew I was looking for a television. I knew the popular brands and my budget but not the current scenario of the television market. So when I entered I was dazzled by the commodities on display. I was like a kid in a toy store. I liked everything and wanted to buy it all. But after all, I had to make a decision and I don’t have the budget to buy a 100-year-old retail store. So after a bit of wondering, I finally reached the department. I was amazed by the sheer variety of televisions they had. Quite honestly I felt the task would be much easier. I thought there would be only two or maybe three brands and I would choose the most popular one. Unfortunately, for me, I was ill-prepared to what befell me. Looking at the giant screens flashing lights on my face. I was bewildered and could not make up my mind about what to buy. When suddenly a friendly toned voice pulled me out of my trance.(Kursunluoglu E. , 2012)

A helper staff was there to help me. I asked him all sorts of questions ranging from important to super stupid as to how to plug in the power source. To my surprise, he was very patient with me. The talk was very informative and even if I was not there for the television I could have paid the man to speak about televisions. Yes, he was that well informed about the products he was selling. He told me all the options I had on my limited budget. Then offered me a better-equipped option, at a discounted price that would cost me slightly more than my budget. Quite a good salesman. I accepted the offer and asked the man to seal the deal. My response brought a delight on his face and he was happy to bring the television to the counter, packed and ready to take home.(Black, 2014)

He offered me to look around and see if I would need anything else. If not then the product would be at the counter ready for check out. I accepted the offer because I was considering to buy a couch as well to go with the new television.

5. “List and describe what elements of customer service were missing from your expectations.”

But I found myself wandering around looking at products I did not need. By the time I reached the couch. The entire will to buy was gone. I had a lot of time to reconsider.

At the checkout counter, things went smoothly but I noticed that the person on the counter lacked a similar flair as the fellow staff member. She did not try to make conversation and was only concerned with getting the payment.(Kondasani, 2015)

Well, could not blame her it is her job. The transaction went smoothly and I proceeded to take the product home in my car. Thankfully I did not have to carry it the trunk as they have carts that go all the way to the parking. The only hassle I faced was to fit the television in the car in such a way that it did not break by the time I reached home.God the accidental insurance they offered would be helpful now.(Izogo, 2015)

6.” Describe your overall impression of the store and salesperson. Would you recommend others to go there”?

My overall experience with the store was good. They treated me with courtesy and to be honest I had no complaints. It was plain and simple business. They handed over the business card with the smile, we shook hands and they thanked me for visiting the store. I was assured after-sales services which reflected their care and willingness to help the customer even after-sales.(Dölarslan, 2014)

They were able to provide me with the kind of shopping experience you only get in a retail store and not online. The only issue I had was if I saw the couch right next to the television department. I would have been inclined to buying it. Overall the experience was very delightful their ability to enquire more about its customer need and providing the apt suggestion was their overall intention. (Savelli, 2017)

The company still holds its name and fame in all respects which may be the reason for consumer preference. The professional and friendly staff made it clear that customer is king for them and no matter what their focus is on customer requirement and their delight. While I was walking through the store I also observed the staffs’ behaviour with other customers was no different than the treatment given to me. I would also suggest others to have this delightful experience.

Retail Shopping Customer Service Survey

7. “If you had a chance to present the results of your mystery shop to the store manager—describe THREE constructive suggestions or comments you would make.”

Suggestion

  1. The store can bring in some new and latest designs in the store.
  2. If there would have been proper labels to each section it would have been easier for the customers to buy the product.
  3. It would have been more delightful if the cash counter staff also greeted the customer with the same enthusiasm.(Ali, 2016)

8. “Considering your experience, and the knowledge gained both from this class and your previous experiences, provide an overview of your own personal philosophy on customer service. What is important to you, why is it important, and how would you demonstrate these elements of customer service”?

Customer service should be such that the customer comes backs to the store or the service provider. This is only possible when a customer leaves with delightful past experiences and with a happy face. (Skačkauskienė, 2016).The delightful experience is based on a few key skills:

Attentive: The staff should be attentive and handle their floor with total attentiveness. They should also be very careful to listen to the customers’ requirements and demands. This will help in understanding the needs of the customer.

Patience: The sales attendant need to understand that their patience is the key to successful sales. The customer comes with many quarries and doubts, sometimes these doubts are really silly but it is expected from the staff to handle these doubts patiently and try to resolve them.

Knowledge of Product:If the sales executive is well aware of the products and has full knowledge he will be able to handle more quarries of the customer. Knowledge reflects confidence which leads to easy pitching of the product to the customer. Sometimes it’s the confidence of the sales person that leads to purchase of the product.

Polite behaviour: The behaviour also helps in attracting customers. It adds a personal touch to customer handling. The customer feels wanted and being listen to. Not only it improves customer handling but also spreads good word of mouth.

Convincing power: Convening power is an art that leads to buying of the product, the sales person should the ways to convince the customer.

The above-mentioned points are important as they reflect that the brand cares for its customers. These points can be reflected through sales person’s behaviour and attitude towards its customer.(Giovanis, 2017)

References

Ali, F. A. (2016). An Integrated Model of Service Experience, Emotions, Satisfaction, and Price Acceptance: An Empirical Analysis in the Chinese Hospitality Industry. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, https://doi.org/10.1080/19368623.2015.1019172.

Black, H. G. (2014). Service characteristics’ impact on key service quality relationships: a meta-analysis. Journal of Services Marketing., doi/10.1108/JSM-12-2012-0261/.

Dölarslan, E. S. (2014). Assessing the effects of satisfaction and value on customer loyalty behaviors in service environments: High-speed railway in Turkey as a case study. Emerald Group Publishing Limited, https://doi.org/10.1108/MRR-06-2013-0152.

Giovanis, A. &. (2017). An integrated model of the effects of service evaluation, corporate image, and switching barriers on customer loyalty. Journal of Transnational Management, , https://doi.org/10.1080/15475778.2017.1274612.

Güneş, E. D. (2010). Modeling customer reactions to sales attempts: if cross-selling backfires. . Journal of Service Research, 13(2), 168-183., https://doi.org/10.1177/1094670509352677.

Hoyle, R. H. (2010). Personality and self-regulation. . Handbook of personality and self-regulation, doi/abs/10.1002/9781444318111.

Izogo, E. a. (2015). Service quality, customer satisfaction and loyalty in automobile repair services sector. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, https://doi.org/10.1108/IJQRM-05-2013-0075.

Jasmand, C. B. (2012). Generating Sales While Providing Service: A Study of Customer Service Representatives’ Ambidextrous Behavior. Journal of Marketing, , 76(1)(https://doi.org/10.1509/jm.10.0448), 20-37.

Kamakura, W. A. (2012.). Cross-selling: Offering the right product to the right customer at the right time. Journal of Relationship Marketing,, 6(3-4), 41-58. https://doi.org/10.1300/J366v06n03_03.

Kondasani, R. K. (2015). Customer perceived service quality, satisfaction and loyalty in Indian private healthcare. International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, https://doi.org/10.1108/IJHCQA-01-2015-0008.

Kursunluoglu, E. (2011). Shopping centre customer service: creating customer satisfaction and loyalty. Emerald Group Publishing Limited, https://doi.org/10.1108/MIP-11-2012-0134.

Kursunluoglu, E. (2012). Customer service effects on customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. International Journal of business and social science, doi/10.1108/08876041311330807/.

Management, L. (2012). leons. Retrieved from https://www.leons.ca/: https://www.leons.ca/

Savelli, E. C. (2017). Web atmospherics as drivers of shopping centres’ customer loyalty. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, https://doi.org/10.1108/IJRDM-07-2016-0120.

Skačkauskienė, I. V.-V. (2016). A model for measuring passenger loyalty. Transport,. JOURNAL OF ISLAMIC MANAGEMENT STUDIES, https://doi.org/10.3846/16484142.2015.1094748.


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Assignment on Human Resources Management

The concept of perceptions

Perception may be simply defined as the process by which something is regarded, understood or interpreted. It is the sensory experience of everything around us. It is the process of interacting with our surroundings. It involves both bottoming-up and top-down processes. Let us understand this in a more elaborated manner. Perception is a multi-stage process, these stages are:

Attention and Selection – We are blessed with an infinite amount of things in the world around us that we can interact with, respond to but we are simply not capable of attending to all those stimuli at once. So, our brain (usually subconsciously, but sometimes deliberately) decides to pay attention to specific stimuli(Delfina & Ana, 2019).This is the first step of this stage. The specific stimulus has caught our attention. Our mind is now focusing and advancing towards it. The second step is to make a selection of the specific point of attraction while masking others near or surrounding it. This stage of paying attention and making the selection of a specific stimulusmay vary with various factors. Depending upon the environment we are in, depending upon individual variations such as the mood we are in, what thoughts are we processing, etc. All these factors lead to a natural selection of the stimuli we attend to. This process is the first step in the process of Perception(Aldrich, Dietz, Clark, & Hamilton, 2014).

Stimulus, Organisation, and Recognition–This involves the organization of the gathered stimulus particulars and facts into a relevant, significant and consequential arrangement. Once we choose to respond to a stimulus, which could be a conscious or sub-conscious selection, this sets off a series of reactions and responses in our brain. It could be triggered by sensory receptors like touch, taste, smell, sight, and hearing. Then the gathered information by these receptors is transferred to the brain. This is where the organization of the gathered information is executed.This process leads to the recognition of the response to the stimulus attended by the brain. This process is the second step in the process of Perception(Bloom, Genakos, Sadun, & Reenen, 2012).

Interpretation and Inference –After we have attended to a stimulus, and our brain has already performed the two steps described earlier, then comes the final stage of interpretation and inference of information. In this step, our brain uses the information to understand and interpret it in a sensible and meaningful manner. It usually involves the systematic categorization of data to interact and respond to stimuli intelligently(Boon, Boselie, & Paauwe, 2011).

The concept of attitudes-

Attitude can be defined as a predefined and predetermined manner of handling a situation or responding to a certain person, object, or idea. This response may be positive, negative or neutral to the condition.  It influences the individual’s choice of action towards a stimulus. The three basic components of attitude will further help us in understanding this concept:

  • Cognitive components – These components are opinions, judgements, and values a person would associate with a stimulus. It is the personal opinion of the person regarding a specific object or situation. These include generalities and stereotypes a person has cultivated(Kehoe & Wright, 2013).
  • Affective components – These are the psychological and emotional feelings of an assertiveness.This is inrelation to impact on another person.Theseemotions generally include likes and dislikes of a person towards a person, object or situation.
  • Behavioural components– It involves a person’s bias, tendency, and propensity to act and respond in a certain manner to a person, object or situation. This indicates how a person acts consistently and characteristically.

The cognitive component is based on the information or knowledge, whereas the affective component is based on the feelings. The behavioural component reflects how attitude affects the way we act or behave. It helps understand their complexity and the potential relationship between attitudes and behaviour(Hartog, Boon, Verburg, & Croon, 2013).

With the basic components clear, let us take a look at the dimensions of attitude:

  • Valence – Also known as hedonic tone, defines the affecting quality referring to the intrinsic attractiveness or averseness of a stimulus. As defined here, valence is of two types; positive and negative. Positive valence denotes attractiveness and negative valence denotes averseness.
  • Centrality – it can be defined as the extent to which a “mentality object is contemplated, reflected in the measure of time dedicated to this thoroughly considering an all-inclusive period”.
  • Interrelatedness – It defines the degree to which a disposition is identified with an individual’s different perspectives”.
  • Firmness– It defines the struggle to change in an attitude.
  • ·         Specificity – “The degree to which the disposition is indicated to some property of the mentality object”.
  • Salience – It is the degree of conscious awareness of holding the attitude(Dewettinck & Vroonen, 2017).

Functions of attitude –

  • The adjustment function – It helps the person in adjusting and adapting to his/her surroundings. A person can be easily adaptable or unadaptable.
  • Ego-defensive function–The ability to fighting or defend his/her self-image.
  • Value-expressive function – The helps an individual to gain satisfaction by expressing the attitude which relects his/her value.
  • Knowledge function – It abalises an individual mentally for arranging andstructuring their private world so that it becomes more understandable and sensible(Gannon, Roper, & Doherty, 2015).
Human Resources Management Assignment

The concept of motivation-

Motivation can be defined as the driving force behind the achievement of a goal. It describes the needs or wants that direct behaviour toward a goal. It is the urge to act or behave in a certain manner that will satisfy certain conditions and help to achieve certain objectives.Psychologists define motivation as the process by which activities are started, directed, and sustained so that certain needs are met. Needs can be psychological (for example, needing validation) or physical (for example, needing food). The idea is that motivation is what guides us to accomplish a goal(Gilbert, 2011).

The components of motivation are:

  • Direction – The guideiens to perform in a certen manner.
  • Intensity – It is the ability or efforts that are applied inorder to perform certen function or to achieve cetainobjectuves.
  • Persistence – It indicates a person’s determination to continue the pursuit of a goal despite the obstacles and hurdles encountered(Ibănescu, 2015).

The process of motivation:

  • Identification of unsatisfied needs and wants – The first step is to identify such stimuli that create a sense of dissatisfaction.
  • Tension – Unsatisfied desires lead to tension among individuals. It may be of physical, psychological or sociological.
  • Actions to satisfy needs or wants – Next is to finalize the mode or medium of action to satisfy the needs or wants.
  • The accomplishment of goals – Actions were taken to satisfy the need lead to the fulfilment of goals.
  • Review/Feedback – The final step is to review the improvement and provide feedback on the success rate of motivation(Klaas, Semadeni, Klimchak, & Ward, 2012).

Type:

Motivation is of two types; Intrinsic and Extrinsic.

Intrinsic motivation – It entails activity that is undertaken for its own sake.

Extrinsic motivation – It involves activity that is undertaken for some purpose other than its own sake.

The concept of team-work:

Team-work can be characterized as the capacity of the considerable number of individuals from cooperation together, convey adequately, envision and fulfill each other’s needs, and move certainty, bringing about an organized aggregate activity, ultimately leading to the achievement of the common goal(Lo, Macky, & Pio, 2015). It is the foundation of any group. Each individual from a group needs to perform and contribute in his most ideal manner to accomplish a typical predefined objective. Singular exhibitions don’t include in a group and it is the aggregate execution of the group laborers which matters the most. One can’t work alone in any association and hence groups are shaped where people cooperate for a typical target.Team working together is important for the success of an organization(Sengupta, Venkatesh, & Sinha, 2013).

Team Work

Reasons why Team-work is important:

  • Creativity – Team-work generatesimagination.In a team where each member isworkingon equalgrounds, they are expected to be more expressive and creativewith new ideas. This may lead to the overall success of the team(Cohen, 2015).
  • Member happiness – Team-work leads to the happiness of the employees. And happy employees generally bring more success than sad and dejected employees. A team can create a healthy and inviting environment for the members to look forward to everyday.
  •  Teamwork leads to learning –Everyone in the team has their own abilities and skills. When all the skills and efforts are put together as a unit, the members learn and share these skills from each other. This leads to the overall improvement of the team(Ulrich, Younger, Brockbank, & Ulrich, 2013).
  • Efficiency – Teamwork leads to a fair and suitable distribution of workload which results in the efficient performance of the team.
  • Professional relationships – Team-work can be successful in building incredible work connections. A group that has an incredible connection level has shared comprehension and trust with one another that will consistently demonstrate useful for the association. Group exercises open the roads to success and relationship working for the group.
  • Accountability – Team-work induces accountability. Members of the team can supervise and review each other’s progress and make necessary changes(Long, Wan Ismail, & Amin, 2013).
  • Sense of accomplishment – While working as a team on a common goal, team members encourage and support one another. When a team works on a project as one unit, the sense of accomplishment also becomes greater on finishing the task. It brings a sense of confidence and fulfilment to the entire team(Sharma, 2020).

Case of Mr Simon:

  • Key issues – The key issues raised in the case are:

Mr Simon is treated unfairly by the organization. His loyalty of 12 years is not being respected. His rejection for promotion for the third time based on lack of formal qualifications displays a lack of trust in the work experience of an employee and a bias towards formal qualifications. This has lead to the formation of negative perception in Mr Simon towards his organization. He is also observed discussing his departure from the organization with his colleague for once and for all(Sheehan, De-Cieri, Greenwood, & Van-BurenIII, 2014). This attitude shows us the morale of the employee. He is completely void of motivation to work for this organization due to his years of hard work not being respected. The lack of job satisfaction has forced Mr Simon to end his term with the organization after serving them for over a decade. This will ultimately cost the organization an industrious, reliable, experienced and loyal employee.

  • The major reason behind Mr Simon’s job dissatisfaction is his denial of promotion. Promotion is one of the most effective methods of motivating an employee. It gives a sense of personal satisfaction and accomplishment to the employees. Mr Simon is being robbed of this feeling, which is creating a wave of demotivation(Brockbank, Ulrich, Younger, & Ulrich, 2012).
  • The organization is denying the promotion of Mr Simon based on a lack of formal qualifications. This highlights a major issue. The organization is preferring an inexperienced employee with more formal qualifications than Mr Simon which may not be the most fruitful decision. Mr Simon has been working for them for over a decade, which shows that he possesses the minimum qualifications for the job, so preferring a less experienced candidate for higher formal qualifications is a sign of poor man-management(Zhou, Wang, & Liu, 2013).
  • The final addressing is regarding the repercussions of this decision. Mr Simon has been working for 12 years for the organization, this shows his loyalty as well as the job satisfaction level. If he is not promoted and ends up terminating his term, it is a loss for the organization as well as Mr Simon. He will lose a job that he loved, and the organization will lose a hard-working and loyal employee(TOZLU & KURTİPEK, 2015).

Corrective measures:

  • The organization should follow a system of fair and reasonable promotions. A clear promotion apparatus should be announced with minimum formal qualifications and experience highlighted. If an employee meets the minimum criteria, he should be given a fair chance at promotion and other benefits.
  • Theories of motivation should be studied and deployed in the organization to extract the maximum out of their employees. For example;
  • “Maslow’s theory of the hierarchy of needs”:

Abraham Maslow created this theory which is the most popular theory of motivation in the modern world. He explains inspiration through the fulfillment of requirements organized in a various leveled request.Fulfilled requirements don’t inspire however unsatisfied necessities do.These are-

Physiological needs – These are basic biological “requirements for human survival such as water, air, food, clothing,shelter,etc”(Markoulli, Lee, Byington, & Felps, 2017).

Safety and Security – Healthcare, pension, insurances, job security, career progress, etc.

Social and belongingness – The third level of human needs is social and feelings of belongingness. Healthy relationships with family, friends, colleagues instils a sense of belongingness. Organizations should promote healthy social relationships among employees.

Self-esteem – Need for a sense of dignity, respect, achievement, mastery, independence, status, prestige, etc. come under this. The organization should cultivate a sense of self-esteem among the employees.

Self-actualization – “Realization of personal potential, self-fulfilment, seeking personal growth and experience”.The organization should provide opportunities for the self-actualization of the staffs(García-Lillo, Úbeda-García, & Marco-Lajara, 2012).

Alderfer’s ERG theory:

ERG theory by Alderfer expands on the theory of motivation by Maslow, it further elaborates on the category of needs. “He observes that when lower needs are satisfied, they occupy less of our attention, but the higher needs tend to become more important, the more we pursue them”.It shares the following categories with Maslow’s theory-

  • Existence – Includes basic biological needs for human survival such as “water, air, food, sleep, clothes, shelter, etc”.
  • Relatedness – Includes needs to connect with others and have a sense of belongingness.
  • Growth – Include needs classified under the self-esteem category of Maslow’s theory(Pindek, Kessler, & Spector, 2017).
  • “Herzberg’s Two-factor theory”:

This philosophies is divided into categories-

  1. Hygiene factors – “These factors include pay, employer stability, working conditions, nature of supervision, organization strategies and organization, relational relations”.
  2. Motivators – Feeling of accomplishment, acknowledgment, obligation, nature of work, self-improvement and advancement.
  3. “McClelland’s achievement motivation theory”:

McCellandadopted an alternate strategy to needs and expressed that necessities are created and learned. He centered his exploration away from fulfillment. In this way the conduct related with fulfilling the necessities in grown-up life is something similar to a socially prompted character attribute. He additionally says that just a single prevailing thought process can be available at one time.These needs are

  • The requirement for accomplishment
  • The requirement for power
  • The requirement for connection(Brandl & Pohler, 2010)

The organization can implement these theories to create an effective method of motivating their employees. They should also focus on the thorough implementation of these models from individuals to collective levels.

Conclusion

Mr Simon is an asset to his organization. The organization should go through the aforementioned concepts and theories to establish a fair and efficient model of employee benefits and promotions. This will help in motivating the employees and developing a healthy relationship with them over the long-term future. Happy and motivated employees are instrumental in the success of an organization. The policy of the company made the employee unhappy and unsatisfied despite giving his time he considers leaving the company. His this action and situation would also affect the perception of other employees. The policy of promotion on the bases of qualification and not on the bases of experience has been a major cause of social loafing.

References

Aldrich, P., Dietz, G., Clark, T., & Hamilton, P. ( 2014, October 16). Establishing HR Professionals’ Influence and Credibility: Lessons from the Capital Markets and Investment Banking Sector. Human Resource Management, 54(1), 105-130. doi:10.1002/hrm.21626

Bloom, N., Genakos, C., Sadun, R., & Reenen, J. (2012, February 1). Management Practices Across Firms and Countries. Academy of Management Perspectives, 12–33. doi:10.5465/amp.2011.0077

Boon, C. H., Boselie, P., & Paauwe, J. (2011, jan 27). The relationship between perceptions of HR practices and employee outcomes: examining the role of person–organisation and person–job fit. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22(1), 138-162. doi:10.1080/09585192.2011.538978

Brandl, J., & Pohler, D. (2010, Nov 22). The human resource department’s role and conditions that affect its development: Explanations from Austrian CEOs. Human Resource Management,, 49(6), 1025-1046. doi:10.1002/hrm.20392

Brockbank, W., Ulrich, D., Younger, J., & Ulrich, M. (2012, April 13). Recent study shows impact of HR competencies on business performance. Human Resource Management, 39(1), 1-7. doi:10.1002/ert.21348

Cohen, D. J. (2015, June). HR past, present and future: A call for consistent practices and a focus on competencies. Human Resource Management Review, 25(2), 205-215. doi:10.1016/j.hrmr.2015.01.006

Delfina, C., & Ana, G. (2019). The Utility of Human Resource Managers’ Action: A Self-centred Perception by Different Organizational Actors. In J. L. Ribeiro, Entrepreneurship and Organizational Innovation (pp. 67-92). doi:10.1007/978-3-030-19289-1_5

Dewettinck, K., & Vroonen, W. (2017, Feb 12). Antecedents and consequences of performance management enactment by front-line managers. Evidence from Belgium. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 2473-2502. doi:10.1080/09585192.2015.1137608

Gannon, J. M., Roper, A., & Doherty, L. (2015, May 3). Strategic human resource management: Insights from the international hotel industry. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 47, 65-75. doi:10.1016/j.ijhm.2015.03.003

García-Lillo, F., Úbeda-García, M., & Marco-Lajara, B. (2012, Jan 15). The intellectual structure of human resource management research: A bibliometric study of the International Journal of Human Resource Management. The International Journal of Human Resource Management,, 28(13), 1786-1815. doi:10.1080/09585192.2015.1128461

Gilbert, C. D. (2011, may 12). The influence of line managers and HR department on employees’ affective commitment. The International Journal of Human Resource Management,, 22(8), 1618-1637. doi:10.1080/09585192.2011.565646

Hartog, D., Boon, C., Verburg, R. M., & Croon, M. A. (2013, April 3). HRM, communication, satisfaction, and perceived performance: A cross-level test. Journal of management, 39(6), 1637-1665. doi:10.1177/0149206312440118

Ibănescu, A. (2015, May 13). How do novice specialists in human resources develop their professional identity? Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 187, 596-600. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.03.111

Kehoe, R. R., & Wright, P. M. (2013, April 8). The Impact of High-Performance Human Resource Practices on Employees’ Attitudes and Behaviors. Journal of Management, 366-391. doi:10.1177/0149206310365901

Klaas, B. S., Semadeni, M., Klimchak, M., & Ward, A. K. (2012, July 27). High‐performance work system implementation in small and medium enterprises: A knowledge‐creation perspective. Human Resource Management, 51(4). doi:10.1002/hrm.21485

Lo, K., Macky, K., & Pio, E. (2015, March 20). The HR competency requirements for strategic and functional HR practitioners. The International Journal of Human Resource Management,, 26(18), 2308-2328 . doi:10.1080/09585192.2015.1021827

Long, C. S., Wan Ismail, W. K., & Amin, S. M. (2013, Oct 23). The role of change agent as mediator in the relationship between HR competencies and organizational performance. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24(10), 2019-2033 . doi:10.1080/09585192.2012.725080

Markoulli, M. P., Lee, C. I., Byington, E., & Felps, W. A. (2017, Sep 27). Mapping Human Resource Management: Reviewing the field and charting future directions. Human Resource Management Review, 27(3), 367-396. doi:10.1016/j.hrmr.2016.10.001

Pindek, S., Kessler, S. R., & Spector, P. E. (2017, March 1). A quantitative and qualitative review of what meta-analyses have contributed to our understanding of human resource management. Human Resource Management Review, 27(1), 26-38. doi:10.1016/j.hrmr.2016.09.003

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HRM and CSR Case Study

Abstract

This case study is a primary data analysis of the HRM and CSR activities of the organizations of UAE and its effect on the working environment and satisfaction of the employees of the organization.The researcher has used simple random sampling technique to select these ten organizations from a large group of organizations in UAE. From these 10 organizations, the researcher has selected 50 employees, by selected 5 employees from each organization using random sampling method.The results of the study conclude that HRM and CSR play an important role in the satisfaction of the employees. Human resource management in the organization has its significant role in understanding CSR activities and plan for the development of these activities in the organization. CSR and HRM both are important concepts to understand the relationship between employers and employees of the organization.

Introduction

Increasing attention of the organizations towards HRM practices and CSR activities in the organizations has increased the increased the focus of the organizations towards research on this topic. Human resource management in the organization has its significant role in understanding CSR activities and plan for the development of these activities in the organization. CSR and HRM both are important concepts to understand the relationship between employers and employees of the organization. Thus it becomes essential to explore the relationship between these two concepts. This case study is a primary data analysis of the HRM and CSR activities of the organizations of UAE and its effect on the working environment and satisfaction of the employees of the organization. The first section of the study explains n detail about the previous studies which have studied the role of HRM and CSR activities in the organization and the study related to relationship between these factors. The second section of the study throws light on the methodology used to conduct the primary research for the organizations of UAE. The third section of this case study is detailed description of the data collection techniques and tools used to collect the data. The fourth section of the study is related to results and discussions related to the research study.

Literature Review

Institutional changes in the organizations reflect shift in the organizational forms and power relations among the employees of the organization. These changes in the organizational forms generate insecurity for the employment relationships in the organization. These insecure relationships among the employees of the organizations lead to downward shift in the productivity of the employees of the organization.  (Arzensek, 2010)studied that recent changes in the organizational forms and organizational structure has led demand of studying the relationship between HRM and CSR practices. HRM plays an important role in understanding the key CSR activities.

 The organizations can plan for the CSR activities but the implementation of these activities is only possible with the support of human resource management. Human resource department and corporate social responsibilities together decides about the relationship between employees and their senior authorities. Various researchers in their studies have thrown light on this aspect of the relationship between human resource management and corporate social responsibility. But the research studies have not studied the nexus between HRM and CSR. (Dadush & Niebuhr, 2016)In their study has mentioned that HRM and CSR activities in the organization both are directly related to each other.

Most of the studies have claimed that HRM plays an important role in providing competitive advantage to the organizations. Adoption of efficient human resource practices increases eh productivity of the employees and overall efficiency of the organization. The organizations have started understanding the importance of CSR activities to promote healthy relationship among the employees. They believe that these CSR initiatives are the main reasons to improve the productivity of the employees. But the researchers in their studies have found that there is strong relationship between HR and CSR activities. CSR initiatives cannot be continued in the organizations’ without the efforts of HR in the organization.

With the increasing competition of firms in the global market, the concept of CSR is becoming more important for the firms to gain competitive advantage. Without CSR initiatives, the firms will not be able to achieve their objectives in the specified period of time. Thus it has become essential for the organizations to understand which CSR activities are more important for the growth of the organization.

Based on the previous studies, this research study focus on measuring the effect of components of CSR focused HRM on the employee satisfaction in the organization.   Various research studies claimed that job satisfaction of the employees is an essential factor that can increase the overall satisfaction of the employees from their organizations. But various researchers have also related job satisfaction with the CSR activities in the organizations. (Hay & Blenkinsopp, 2019) Studied that corporate social responsibility increase the productivity of the employees and maintain a long term relationship between employees and employers.

Methodology

Objectives of the study

The research study aims to achieve the following objectives through this case analysis. The main objectives of the study are as follows.

  • To measure the effect of CSR activities on the employee satisfaction in the organizations of UAE

Design of the study

This research study is based on the primary data analyses. The research has selected 10 organizations from UAE to measure the effect of CSR activities on the employee satisfaction in the organizations of UAE. The researcher has used simple random sampling technique to select these ten organizations from a large group of organizations in UAE. From these 10 organizations, the researcher has selected 50 employees, by selected 5 employees from each organization using random sampling method.

Data collection

The researcher has collected primary data from these 50 employees with the help of Likert Scale questionnaire. This questionnaire consists of 2sections.Section A of the questionnaire consists of 6 questions and Section B of the questionnaire consist of 8 questions based on CSR activities in the organizations and its impact on the employees of the organization.

Data Analyses

The collected data is further analyzed with   the help of Micro soft Excel and the results of this data are shows in the next section with the help of pie charts. The descriptive analyses of the data helped in assessing the satisfaction and dissatisfaction of the employees of the organizations of UAE.

Results & Discussions

Gender

Gender

The above analyses show that there are 40% female employees in the total sample size and 60% male employees. The sample population consists of both male and female employees. Thus, it can be assumed that the results of the study will not present biased results.

Age

Age

The analyses of the above statistics show that there are 20% employees in the sample population of age group 18-25 years. 40% respondents of the total sample population are of the age group 25-40 years. 20% respondents of the total sample population are of the age group 40-55 years. 20% respondents of the total sample population are of the age group 555 and above.

Nationality

Nationality

The above bar graph presents that there are both national and foreign employees working in these organizations of UAE. The ratio of national employees is 40% and the ratio of foreigner employees is 60%. There are more non national employees in the sample.

Educational Status

Educational Status

The analyses of the data show that only 10% employees of the total sample of employees have high school qualification. 20% of them have diploma. 40% respondents from the sample have graduation as their highest qualification. 30% respondents have post graduation as their highest qualification. There is no other employee who has any other qualification.

Marital Status

Marital Status

According to the collected data, 60% population of the sample is married and 40% are unmarried. There are both married and married males and females in the sample population.

Section A

My company considers candidates’ general attitudes toward CSR in selection

Section A

According to the given dataset, 20% population out of total sample population of the research study is strongly agreed with the proclamation. 30% population out of total sample population of the research study is agreed with the proclamation. 10% population out of total sample population of the research study is neutral with the proclamation. 20% population out of total sample population of the research study is disagreed with the proclamation. 20% population out of total sample population of the research study is strongly disagreed with the proclamation.

My company uses training to promote CSR as an espoused organizational value.

According to the given dataset, 40% population out of total sample population of the research study is strongly agreed with the proclamation. 40% population out of total sample population of the research study is agreed with the proclamation. 0% population out of total sample population of the research study is neutral with the proclamation. 10% population out of total sample population of the research study is disagreed with the proclamation. 10% population out of total sample population of the research study is strongly disagreed with the proclamation.

My company provides CSR training to develop employees’ skills in stakeholder engagement and communication.

According to the given dataset, 20% population out of total sample population of the research study is strongly agreed with the proclamation. 40% population out of total sample population of the research study is agreed with the proclamation. 0% population out of total sample population of the research study is neutral with the proclamation. 10% population out of total sample population of the research study is disagreed with the proclamation. 10% population out of total sample population of the research study is strongly disagreed with the proclamation.

According to the given dataset, 40% population out of total sample population of the research study is strongly agreed with the proclamation. 40% population out of total sample population of the research study is agreed with the proclamation. 0% population out of total sample population of the research study is neutral with the proclamation. 0% population out of total sample population of the research study is disagreed with the proclamation. 10% population out of total sample population of the research study is strongly disagreed with the proclamation. 

According to the given dataset, 40% population out of total sample population of the research study is strongly agreed with the proclamation. 30% population out of total sample population of the research study is agreed with the proclamation. 0% population out of total sample population of the research study is neutral with the proclamation. 14% population out of total sample population of the research study is disagreed with the proclamation. 16% population out of total sample population of the research study is strongly disagreed with the proclamation. 

According to the given dataset, 40% population out of total sample population of the research study is strongly agreed with the proclamation. 40% population out of total sample population of the research study is agreed with the proclamation. 0% population out of total sample population of the research study is neutral with the proclamation. 0% population out of total sample population of the research study is disagreed with the proclamation. 20% population out of total sample population of the research study is strongly disagreed with the proclamation. 

According to the given dataset, 20% population out of total sample population of the research study is strongly agreed with the proclamation. 20% population out of total sample population of the research study is agreed with the proclamation. 20% population out of total sample population of the research study is neutral with the proclamation. 20% population out of total sample population of the research study is disagreed with the proclamation. 20% population out of total sample population of the research study is strongly disagreed with the proclamation. 

According to the given dataset, 40% population out of total sample population of the research study is strongly agreed with the proclamation. 20% population out of total sample population of the research study is agreed with the proclamation. 0% population out of total sample population of the research study is neutral with the proclamation. 0% population out of total sample population of the research study is disagreed with the proclamation. 40% population out of total sample population of the research study is strongly disagreed with the proclamation. 

According to the given dataset, 20% population out of total sample population of the research study is strongly agreed with the proclamation. 0% population out of total sample population of the research study is agreed with the proclamation. 0% population out of total sample population of the research study is neutral with the proclamation. 60% population out of total sample population of the research study is disagreed with the proclamation. 20% population out of total sample population of the research study is strongly disagreed with the proclamation. 

According to the given dataset, 10% population out of total sample population of the research study is strongly agreed with the proclamation. 10% population out of total sample population of the research study is agreed with the proclamation. 0% population out of total sample population of the research study is neutral with the proclamation. 60% population out of total sample population of the research study is disagreed with the proclamation. 20% population out of total sample population of the research study is strongly disagreed with the proclamation. 

According to the given dataset, 20% population out of total sample population of the research study is strongly agreed with the proclamation. 20% population out of total sample population of the research study is agreed with the proclamation. 20% population out of total sample population of the research study is neutral with the proclamation. 20% population out of total sample population of the research study is disagreed with the proclamation. 20% population out of total sample population of the research study is strongly disagreed with the proclamation. 

According to the given dataset, 10% population out of total sample population of the research study is strongly agreed with the proclamation. 10% population out of total sample population of the research study is agreed with the proclamation. 10% population out of total sample population of the research study is neutral with the proclamation. 30% population out of total sample population of the research study is disagreed with the proclamation. 40% population out of total sample population of the research study is strongly disagreed with the proclamation. 

According to the given dataset, 20% population out of total sample population of the research study is strongly agreed with the proclamation. 10% population out of total sample population of the research study is agreed with the proclamation. 10% population out of total sample population of the research study is neutral with the proclamation. 20% population out of total sample population of the research study is disagreed with the proclamation. 40% population out of total sample population of the research study is strongly disagreed with the proclamation. 

Conclusion, Limitations, & Implications of the Study

The study concludes that HRM and CSR play an important role in the satisfaction of the employees.Human resource management in the organization has its significant role in understanding CSR activities and plan for the development of these activities in the organization. CSR and HRM both are important concepts to understand the relationship between employers and employees of the organization. The organizations have started understanding the importance of CSR activities to promote healthy relationship among the employees. They believe that these CSR initiatives are the main reasons to improve the productivity of the employees. The main limitation of the study is that it is based on the small sample of 50 respondents. The future studies can be conducted using large sample size. The organizations can plan for the CSR activities but the implementation of these activities is only possible with the support of human resource management. Human resource department and corporate social responsibilities together decides about the relationship between employees and their senior authorities.

References

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HRM and CSR Case Study by Subject Academy

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